SOci 1160 Exam 2 Study Guide pdf file
SOci 1160 Exam 2 Study Guide pdf file SOCI 1160 030
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SOCI 1160 030
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amber Levister on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 1160 030 at Georgia State University taught by Mindy Stombler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Problems in Sociology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Social Problems Concept List for Exam 2 There will be approximately 10 questions from the readings/articles assigned listed for this exam in the syllabus. The other approximately thirty or more questions will come from the material identified below: POWER, INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY—Continued… -Second discrepancy between “ideal” capitalism and the current state of capitalism -Undue balance of welath among corporations and a few individuals -Corporate Wealth: (of 6,000 companies top 5% hold 70% of market value and 90% of total profit) -individual income: (more than ½ Americans make less than $30k/yr) -Definition of income compared to definition of wealth -income= amount of money earned on a regular basis (FLOW), wealth= length of time a person/family could maintain their lifestyle w/o getting paid for additional work (STOCK) -Income quintiles (highest, lowest percentages) top 20%= 84% of wealth; Bottom 20%= .1% of wealth -Highest 20% income compared to remaining 80% (combined remaining quintiles) Top 20% generate half the income (48.9%); have 84% of wealth in America -Highest-paid 0.1% earn in one year what a typical family earns in their lifetime -top .1% generally earn $1.8 million/yr (family’s salary earned in a lifetime) compared to the $15,00 that 3.8% of population makes in 1 yr -Pattern of income inequality since the 1970s -increasesd income inequality -How U.S. compares to other Western European nations in terms of income inequality (reading #2) - mobility in the U.S. is no greater or lower than other countries; income distribution in U.S. is more unequal than European nations -In 1960, the average CEO of a Fortune 500 company -was paid 40x more than the average worker; by 2011 that had risen to 380x -Why income inequality has grown -decline in real wages ($ amount higher, but cost of living is higher), service/office jobs over industry jobs, tax relief for the wealthy, export of jobs overseas -Wealth quintiles (wealthiest quintile’s percentage, bottom 3 quintiles combined’s percentage) - bottom 3 quintiles= 4.3% wealth combined; top 20%= 84% wealth top 1%= 35% wealth -Percentage of Forbes 400 who inherited enough to make the list -20% inherited the amount to be in Forbes 400 group -Percentage of Americans have a net worth of zero or less than zero= 20% *VIDEO: Wealth Inequality in America (content within) -Americans think there is significant welath inequality, but many don’t know the extreme extent and wealth gap between the poorest and the richest in the nation. -Black/white wealth gap -Black Household= $4,995, White Household- $110,729= 22x wealth gap -White: 18.6% have 0 or negative net worth; Black: 33.9% w/ 0 or negative net worth -Structural reasons for the race-based wealth gap -Housing Crisis: -black wages lower & education quality lower- unemployment higher; lending discrimination (red-lining); larger % of black wealth in housing; white families more likely to receive help w/ down payments POVERTY -Absolute poverty -living standard at/ below minimum “adequate” diet, health, and shelter -U.S. Poverty rate -Poverty line: 14.8% of people (1 in 7 Americans) are poor -Reasons why U.S. poverty rate is an underestimation -poverty line calculation is problematic bc it’s based on food x3 -We undercount certain populations: rural poor, prisoners, migrant farmers, multiple families in 1 apartment, undocumented immigrants, ppl living in institutions -Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) and reason why not adopted (an absolute measure of poverty) -takes location and standard of living in that location; doesn’t use food as the main measure; poverty rate is higher when measured by this bc more inclusive (politicians don’t want to portray this) -Relative poverty Earning ½ of society’s median income; ex- Median income= $54,000/2= $27,000 if you earn less than $27,000 you are poor -Defining the “near” poor earning 150% of the poverty line -How the near poor compare to the officially poor -the near poor “hover” above the poverty line (usually white, elderly, working FTYR); officially poor are below the poverty line -Defining the “severely” poor (or “deep” poor) -make less than ½ the poverty line; of the poor pop. over 44% are severely poor -Percentage of Americans that are severely poor -6.6% of Americans are severely poor -Reasons for the feminization of poverty -lower wage jobs; wage gap for women & men (79 cent gap for FTYR workers); caregivers= have to cut back on real jobs; economic disadvantage of divorce -How poverty is distributed geographically -especially in the South (24 % Mississippians are poor) -Implications of spatial concentration of poverty -poorly funded education, businesses move out, decline in neighborhoodslower property value, poor health outcomes (physical/mental), increased burden on social services (police, hospitals, social workers) -Know all poverty rates by race: White= 11%, Black= 27%, Latino= 24%, Asian= 13%, Native Americans= 28%, Multi Racial= 20% -Infantalization of poverty= Child poverty -Child poverty rate= 21% -Black child poverty rate= 38% -Poverty rate of children in female-headed households= 47% -Percentage of children in poverty that are severely poor -out of 21% in poverty, ½ are severly poor -Effectiveness of encouraging poor women to marry to lift themselves out of poverty -not too effective because benefits usually increase when another income is added, so poor women choose not to marry as not to decrease their gov. assistance -Myths about Poverty: ~Myth 1=Poor people are lazy& don’t want to work -only 3% (.16% of U.S. population) have no excuse ~Myth 2=welfare benefits are granted to ppl who aren’t poor Myth 3=government benefits are great means of support -T.A.N.F. has 5 yr cap U.S. avg= $258/household (roughly $1.40/meal/persom) Myth 4= compared to othe countries the U.S. has a generous welfare system -we’re one of the most liited and provide smallest % of GDP on poverty programs ~Myth 5= people gain a dependency on welfare -many ppl on welfare feel humiliated; most are on and off within 2 to 3 years ~Myth 6= government assistance encourages women to have huge families -Avg U.S. family= 2 kids, Welfare family= 1.8 kids; extra child= + $60/month ~Myth 7= poor people receive disproportionate amounts of government $ -welfare (for the poor) vs. wealthfare (for the rich) ~Myth 8= Most poor people are black -majority of poor people are white; foodstamp beneficiaries= mostly white -65% of poor ppl shown on news are black -Percentage of poor adults who work= 9.1% work FT, 34.4% work PT -What non-working poor are doing instead of working: -27%=ill/ disabled, 20%=retired, 20%=watching kids/ keeping house, 19%= in school/ training full-time, 11% actively seeking work -Percentage of poor non-working adults who have no identifiable reason for not working= 3% -How non-working poor who are part of the 3% with no identifiable reason for not working -may likely be “discouraged” workers who have given up seeking work -Most people who are officially poor don’t receive benefits -Average monthly SNAP (food stamp) benefit per person per month= $127.04 -Average monthly TANF (welfare) benefit in GA for a 3-person family= $280/month -States, not the federal government, set TANF benefits -Whether or not our government benefits are designed to pull people out of poverty, above the line -Our government benefits are only designed to pull people above the poverty line because the benefits are never enough to live comfortably on -Alligator analogy -giving people cash assistance= dependency & aggression for more money -Pattern of on/off welfare (number of years)= 2-3 years -Reasons why people need welfare -laid off/ loss of job, birth of child, work hours cut, medical crisis, divorce, death, lack of child support -Comparing # of kids in average American family to average welfare- receiving family the avg american family has 2 kids, whil avg welfare family has 1.8 kids -Reasons why poor people might have kids, regardless of ability to “afford” them -shared values of family like most other Americans -Portion of national budget that goes to TANF -Welfare vs wealthfare Welfare is for the needy; wealthfare is for those with money -Which racial group is featured in highest numbers in the poor population White Which racial group has the highest number of food stamp beneficiaries White -Racial group most frequently used when news shows and news magazines want to show depictions of poor people Black people -When Black poor people are depicted in the media: they are rarely depicted as working (12% of the time), regardless of the fact that they (poor Black people) work at a rate of 42% -Theories of poverty (Social Pathology theories: Innate Inferiority; Culture of Poverty AND Structural theories/theory): -Innate Inferiority= use IQ testing to explain poverty; ex- The Bell Curve -Critiques: unequal education unequal results; IQ testing known to be biased by race and class (“academic blooming” and “self-fulfilling prophecy”); ignores role of structure; solution is problematic -person blams -Culture of Poverty= poor people are qualitatively different in values/ culture- pass on deviant culture to their kids -Critiques: poor/ non-poor share the same values; hit barriers due to conditions of poverty alternative set of values adapting to poverty -person blame -Structural Theories= how society is organized creates poverty and makes more groups vulnerable to it -Critique: Agency (people are in charge of their own actions) is ignored -system blame -Structural factors that contribute to poverty 1) Social institutions have a cumulative effect: i.e. bad job=poor health=loss of job because of poor health=poverty=poor education for kids etc. (chain reaction) 2) Complex web of support: over-reliant on family/ friends 3) Manufacturing jobs Service jobs: increase in temp work; real wages decline 4)Lack of child support endorsement: expensive child care; not paying CS 5)Large Scale Patterns of race/ gender discrimination 6)Capitalism requires a surplus of laborers: “army of the unemployed” -System blame v Person blame regarding poverty (and which poverty theories they are associated with -Social Pathology Theories: -Innate inferiority= person blame -culture of poverty= person blame -Structural theories= system blame -Homelessness audio presentation: The Economics of Homelessness (http://www.gpb.org/on-second-thought/episodes/190) (You should have taken notes—it isn’t too late; know veteran homeless rates in Atlanta (1/5 or 21%) v U.S., cost savings of housing homeless people (1/3 less or $20k); Utah’s success rate in decreasing homelessness (72%); benefits of housing the homeless (mental problems get better, better chance to find work; less $ spent), and more) RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY -White Americans views about their victimization at the hands of racism compared to the victimization of Black Americans - a lot more white Americans are saying they feel targeted and oppressed by black Americans -Percentage of White Americans that believe African-Americans make less money than White Americans= 37% -African American/White life expectancy comparison= Whites live 4 years longer -African American/White infant mortality comparison= 2x higher for Blacks -Race= a group of individuals who share a common genetic heritage or obvious physical characteristics -Social construction of race -racial categories stem from social interaction (opinions, perceptions, etc.) -Evidence that race is socially constructed -There is no biological makeup difference between any of us, but racial categories are reified based on how they are portrayed) -Changes in race Census categories over time (increase in number of categories, etc.) -there was an increase in the # of categories, coming to include Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, etc. in addition to Afr. American and White -Changes in 1970, 2010 1970=move from race to more ethnic focus -2010= Multi-racial category introduced on census -Movement away from race toward ethnic classifications in an effort to move away from biological essentialism Biological essentialism= your race determines your potential -How “naming” is linked to the movement away from biological essentialism - groups started self-naming to escape the racial categories the government set them into based on phenotype. Ex: Black person (racially) is Jamaican (ethnically) -Reification of race= race seen as obective rather than subjective -Percentage of Black Americans that have some white ancestry= 70% -Weaknesses in our social construction of race -The way we construct race and categorize people may not be how they identify -95-99% of DNA common across humans -Ethnicity= refers to groups that share a cultural geritage and comon ancestors -How Census takers used to determine race and how they do it now -One-drop rule= if you had even the smallest amount of black blood -Blood quantum= how much of a certain heritage your blood contains -Why sociologists still use race categorizations= to measure gaps -Minority vs. Majority -Minority groups= people identifies by physical traits that a society subjects to disadvantaes ( deficit of power) -Majority groups= category of people identifies by certain traits that have societal advantages -Prejudice= attitude/ way of thinking negatively against a group: The thoughts -How we are socialized to be prejudiced -indirectly or directly learned through prejudgment from family, peers, or your own perceptions of another person based on appearance -children establish ability to judge by color by the age of 6 -Percentage of White Americans with entirely white social networks= 75% -The percentage white of the average black person’s friend network= 8% -The percentage black of the average white person’s network= 1% -Video: Doll Experiment (results) - Dr. Kenneth Clark conducted an experiment on black children with black and white dolls to show the negative consequences of segregation on the mental of black children.The black children saw the white doll as nicer, prettier, smarter whereas the black doll was voted mean, ugly, and dumb; Internalized prejudice -Video: PSA: One of Many (on Native Americans) -Native Americans don’t want to be seen as a symbol for sports teams and not paid homage for the strength and rich culture they represent -Twitter example: #iftheygunnedmedown (using new/social media to resist old media characterizations) -black men posting side by side photos of themselves in a positive and “negative” light claiming that the media would portray them as the negative picture -Difference between prejudice and discrimination Prejudice= negative feelings/ thoughts; discrimination= negative actions -Why some groups that originally experienced prejudice and discrimination found it diminish whereas for others it persists (6 reasons) -Color -Migration to American being voluntary/ Not voluntary -Sheer Numbers (the larger the group= more intimidating) -Cultural differences/ origin -Legacy of Slavery (African Americans) -Legacy of Colonialism (Native Americans isolated and concentrated) -Ways Black Americans were prevented from voting (4 ways) -Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll tax, white primaries -U.S. government treaty violation record -of 370 treaties with Native Americans, 100% have been violated Good luck!
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