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PSY 1010 Exam #2 Study Guide

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by: Fariba Rana

PSY 1010 Exam #2 Study Guide 1010

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This study guide contains the topics that will be covered on the exam. They consist of notes from the textbook along with lecture notes.
Introduction to Psychology
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fariba Rana on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Wayne State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
PSY 1010 Exam #2 Study Guide Chapters that will be covered on the exam:  Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception o 4.1: Sensation and Perception Are Distinct Activities o 4.2: Vision I – How the Eyes and the Brain Convert Light Waves to Neural Signals o 4.3: Vision II – Recognizing What We Perceive  Chapter 10: Development o 10.2: Infancy and Childhood – Becoming a Person o 10.3: Adolescence – Minding the Gap o 10.4: Adulthood – Change We Can’t Believe In  Chapter 5: Consciousness o 5.1: Conscious and Unconscious: The Mind’s Eye, Open and Closed Important Information in Chapter 4:  Sensation: Simple stimulation of a sense organ. It is the basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor, or taste as parts of your body interact with the physical world.  Perception: Takes place after a sensation registers in the central nervous system. It is the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation.  Transduction: The mechanism by which sensory receptors communicate with the brain. It occurs when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system.  Vision: Light reflected from surfaces provides the yes with information about the shape, color, and position of objects.  Audition: Vibrations (from a guitar string for example) cause changes in air pressure that propagate through space to a listener’s ears.  Touch: The pressure of a surface against the skin signals its shape, texture, and temperature.  Taste/Smell: Molecules dispersed in the air or dissolved in saliva reveal the identity of substances that we may or may not want to eat.  Psychophysics: Methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. (German Scientist Gustav Fechner)  Independent variable in psychophysics experiments: Manipulation of a physical stimulus (light, sound etc.)  Dependent variable in psychophysics experiments: Perception (subjective response of participant)  Experiment is begun with a single sensory signal to determine how much physical energy is required for an observer to become aware of a sensation.  Absolute threshold: The minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus in 50% of the trials.  Just Noticeable Difference (JND): The minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected.  Weber’s Law: The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity; the JND is roughly proportional to the intensity of the stimulus.  Weber’s Constant Formula: ∆???? ???? = ????  In this formula, k is Weber’s constant. I is the baseline stimulus. And ΔI is the change in stimulus intensity.  For any given baseline, the change needed to detect a different increases as a constant.  Our accurate perception of a sensory stimulus can be haphazard. There are many sources of variability in these types of experiments.  Noise: Sensory signals face a lot of competition or noise, which refers to all the other stimuli coming from the internal and external environment. o Internal Noise: Memories, mood, and motives intertwine with what you’re seeing, hearing, and smelling. It competes with the ability to detect a stimulus with perfect, focused attention. Sensory evidence is registered among the spontaneous, random firing of neurons. o External Noise: Other sights, sounds, and smells in the world also compete for attention. Noise present in the outside environment.  Signal Detection Theory: The response to a stimulus depends both on a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person’s criterion.  Response Bias: A person has to decide whether or not to report a stimulus. Since the response is subjective, it can be influence by bias of the observer.  Things that influence response bias: o Habits: People have the tendency to response the same way if they’re uncertain. o Perceived Cost/Benefits: Does the subject believe there is a cost or benefit for making a certain decision? Changing the cost or benefit of the decision can influence responding.  Sensory Adaptation: Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions.  Visual acuity: The ability to see fine detail.  There are three physical properties of light waves: o Length: Determines hue (color) o Intensity/Amplitude: Determines brightness o Purity: The number of distinct wavelengths that make up light; determines what we perceive as saturation (richness of colors)  Light first passes through the cornea, which is a clear, smooth outer tissue. Then it continues through the pupil, which is a hole in the colored part of the eye. The colored part is the iris, which is a translucent, doughnut-shaped muscle that controls the size of the pupil and the amount of light that can enter the eye. Behind the iris, muscles inside the eye control the shape of the lens to bend the light and focus it onto the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball. Muscles can change the shape of the lens – The lens becomes flatter for objects that are far away and rounder for objects that are near. Accommodation is the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina.  Nearsightedness (Myopia): Eyeball is too long and images are focused in front of the retina.  Farsightedness (Hyperopia): Eyeball is too short and images are focused behind the retina.  There are two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina that contain light-sensitive pigments that transduce light into neural impulses.  Cones: Detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail.  Rods: Become active under low-light conditions for night vision. More sensitive photoreceptors than cones. They provide no information about color and sense only shades of gray.  Fovea: An area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all. There are only cones in the fovea.  There are a lot more rods (120 million) than cones (6 million).  Cones are densely packed in the fovea and more sparsely distributed over the rest of the retina. This explains why objects in the peripheral vision aren’t so clear.  Photoreceptor cells (rods/cones) form the innermost layer of the retina.  Bipolar Cells: Collect neural signals from the rods and cones and transmit them to the retinal ganglion cells.  Retinal Ganglion Cells: Organize the signals and send them to the brain.  Optic Nerve: Bundled retinal ganglion cell axons that leaves the eye through a hole in the retina.  Blind Spot: Term used to describe this hole in the retina. It is a location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina. It contains neither rods nor cones.  There are three types of cones. Each type is especially sensitive to either red (long- wavelength), green (medium-wavelength), or blue (short-wavelength) light.  Color perception results from different combinations of the three basic primary colors (red, green and blue) in the retina.  Color deficiency: A genetic disorder in which one or more of the cone types is missing. This trait is sex-linked, affecting men more often than women. It is also referred to as color blindness.  Neural impulses travel to the brain along the optic nerve. Half of the axons in the optic nerve that leave each eye come from retinal ganglion cells that code information in the right visual field, whereas the other half code information in the left visual field. These two nerve bundles link to the left and right hemispheres of the brain, respectively.  The optic nerve travels from each eye to the thalamus. Then, the visual signal travels to the back of the brain to area V1.  Area V1: The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex.  Perceiving shape depends on the location and orientation of an object’s edges. Neurons in the visual cortex selectively respond to bars and edges in specific orientations.  Area V1 contains neurons programmed to respond to edges oriented at each position in the visual field. Ex: Some neurons fire when an object in a vertical orientation is perceived and other neurons fire when an object in a horizontal orientation is perceived.  There are two functionally distinct visual streams that project from the occipital cortex to visual areas in other parts of the brain  Ventral Stream: Associated with an object’s shape and identity  Dorsal Stream: Identifies location and motion of an object.  Visual Form Agnosia: The inability to recognize objects by sight.  Illusory Conjunction: A perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined.  Feature-Integration Theory: Focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus, such as the color, shape, size, and location of letters, but it is required to bind those individual features together.  Attention provides the glue necessary to bind features together. Illusory conjunctions happen when it’s difficult for people to pay full attention to the features that need to be glued together.  Binding Process: Utilization of structures in the ventral and especially the dorsal steam (parietal lobe).  Researches have different views about how feature detectors help the visual system accurately perceive an object in different circumstances.  Modular View: The idea that specialized brain areas, or modules, detect and represent faces, houses, body parts etc.  We have not only feature detectors to aid in visual perception but also “face detectors,” “building detectors,” and other types of neurons specialized for particular types of object perception.  Distributed Representation: In this view, the pattern of activity across multiple brain regions identifies any viewed object.  Image regions that belong together are grouped into a representation of an object. We tend to perceive a unified, whole object rather than a collection of separate parts. (Gestalt)  Gestalt perceptual grouping rules: govern how the features and regions of things fit together. It involves visually separating an object from its surroundings. o Simplicity: When confronted with two or more possible interpretations of an object’s shape, the visual system tends to select the simplest or most likely interpretation. o Closure: We tend to fill in missing elements of a visual scene, allowing us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps as belonging to complete objects. o Continuity: When edges or contours have the same orientation, we tend to group them together perceptually. o Similarity: Regions that are similar in color, lightness, shape etc. are perceived as belonging to the same object. o Proximity: Objects that are close together tend to be grouped together. o Common Fate: Elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object.  Monocular Depth Cues: Aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye. These cues rely on the relationship between distance and size. Retinal image size is a reliable cue as to how far away an object is.  In addition to relative size, there are other monocular depth cues: o Linear Perspective: Parallel lines seem to converge as they recede into the distance. o Texture Gradient: The size of the elements on a patterned surface grows smaller as the surface recedes from the observer. o Interposition: When one object partly blocks another you can infer that the blocking object is closer than the blocked object. o Relative Height in the Image: Objects that are closer to you are lower in your visual field, whereas faraway objects are higher.  Binocular Disparity: The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth. Each of our eyes registers a slightly different view of the word. The brain computes the disparity between the two retinal images to perceive how far away objects are.  Motion Perception: As an object moves across an observer’s stationary visual field, it first stimulates on location on the retina, and then a little later it stimulates another location on the retina.  MT: Region In the middle of the temporal lobe (part of the dorsal stream) that is specialized for the visual perception of motion. Brain damage in the area leads to a deficit in normal motion perception.  Apparent Motion: Perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations (ie: successively flashing lights of a casino sigh can evoke a sense of motion because people perceive a series of flashing lights as a whole, moving object)  Change Blindness: Occurs when people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene.  Focused attention is necessary for detecting changes to objects and scenes.  Inattentional Blindness: A failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of attention. Important Information in Chapter 10:  Infancy: The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months.  Newborns have a limited range of vision and cannot see fine details from far away nearly as well as adults can.  Habituation: The tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus the more frequently they are exposed to it.  Newborns have been shown to mimic facial expressions and speech sounds.  Motor Development: The emergence of the ability to execute physical actions.  Reflexes: Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation. Ex: The rooting reflex is the tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches their cheek. The sucking reflex is the tendency to suck any object that enters their mouths. These two reflexes allow newborns to find their mother’s nipple and begin feeding.  Cephalocaudal Rule: (Top-to-bottom rule) the tendency for motor behavior to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet.  Proximodistal Rule: (Inside-to-outside rule) the tendency for motor behavior to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery.  Motor behaviors emerge in an orderly sequence but not on a strict timetable.  Cognitive Development: The emergence of the ability to think and understand. Child need to understand how the world works, how their minds represent that world, and how other minds represent that world.  Schemas: Theories about how the way the world works.  Piaget: Suggested that cognitive development occurs in four stages: o Sensorimotor: (Birth-2 years) Infant experiences world through movement and sense, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of object permanence. o Preoperational: (2-6 years) Child acquires motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties. Child begins this stage of thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds. o Concrete Operational: (6-11 years) Child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties. o Formal Operational: (11 years and up) Child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals.  Assimilation: The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations. Fitting new information into existing schemas.  Accommodation: The process by which infants revise/modify their schemas to take new information into account.  Object Permanence: The belief that objects exist even when they are not visible.  Childhood: The long period following infancy. Begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until about 11-14 years.  Conservation: The motion that basic properties of an object do not change despite changes in the object’s appearance.  Preoperational children don’t fully grasp the idea of conservation since they don’t understand the fact that they have minds and that these minds contain mental representations of the world.  Preoperational children generally expect others to see the world as they do.  Egocentrism: The failure to understand that the world appears different to different people.  Theory of Mind: The understanding that other people’s mental representations guide their behavior.  The age at which children acquire a theory of mind is influenced by many factors, such as the number of sibling the child has, the frequency with which the child engages in pretend play, whether the child has an imaginary friend, and the socioeconomic status of the child’s family.  Criticisms of Piaget’s theories: Development is more fluid/continuous, it is a less step- like progression as he thought. Children acquire many of the abilities that Piaget described much earlier than he realized.  Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, believed that cognitive development was largely the result of the child’s interaction with members of his/her own culture rather than his/her interaction with concrete objects.  Three fundamental social learning skills: o Joint attention: The ability to focus on what another person’s focused on. o Imitation: The tendency to do what another person does or is trying to do. o Social referencing: The ability to use another person’s reactions as information about the world.  Harry Harlow: Discovered that when socially isolated monkeys were put in a case with two artificial mothers – one that was made of wire and dispensed food and one that was made of cloth and dispensed no food – they spent most of their time clinging to the soft cloth mother despite the fact that the wire mother was the source of their nourishment.  Psychiatrist Bowlby suggested that human infants are predisposed to form an attachment.  Attachment: Emotional bond with a primary caregiver.  There are four main attachment styles: o Secure attachment: Relationship in which infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his/her caregiver. Show distress when the parents leaves the room, seek comfort upon reunion, and gradually return to play. o Insecurely attached – avoidant: Pattern of attachment in which the infant avoids connection with the caregiver. The infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return. May actively avoid/ignore the parents upon her return. o Insecurely attached – ambivalent: Pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident. The infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact upon reunion. o Disorganized attachment: Type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return.  Temperament: A characteristic pattern of emotion reactivity. Children’s attachment styles are determined by this.  A child’s attachment style is determined by interactions with his/her primary caregiver.  Internal working model of relationships: A set of beliefs developed by infants about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relationship between them.  Piaget identified three ways in which children’s moral thinking shifts as they grow/develop: o Children’s moral thinking shifts from realism to relativism. Children begin to realize that some moral rules are inventions and that people can agree to adopt them, change them, or abandon them entirely. o It also shifts from prescriptions to principles. As they mature, children see that specific rules are expressions of more general principles, such as fairness and equity. Specific rules can be abandoned or modified when they fail to uphold the general principle. o It also shifts from outcomes to intentions. Children begin to see that the morality of an action is dependent on the actor’s state of mind and intentions.  Psychologist Kohlberg produced a more detailed theory of the development of moral reasoning. He said moral reasoning develops in three stages: o Preconventional stage: Stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primary determined by its consequences for the actor. Immoral actions are simply those for which one is punished. o Conventional Stage: Stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules. o Postconventional stage: The morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values, such as the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.  Adolescence: The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 years of age) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (18-21 years of age).  Puberty: Bodily changes associated with sexual maturity.  Primary Sex Characteristics: Bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.  Secondary Sex Characteristics: Bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.  Between the ages of 6 and 13, the connections between the temporal lobe (brain region specialized for language) and the parietal lobe (the brain region specialized for understanding spatial relations) multiply rapidly and then stop.  There is a massive increase in the number of new synapses in the prefrontal cortex before puberty  Synaptic pruning: A period after puberty during which the synaptic connections that are not frequently used are eliminated.  The age at which people become physically adult has decreased and the age at which they’re allowed to take on adult responsibilities has increased, so the period between childhood and adulthood has become protracted (extended).  Adolescence: Characterized as a time of internal turmoil and external recklessness. This is because of the protraction of adolescence. They are adults that have temporarily been denied a place in adult society, so they try to demonstrate their adulthood by smoking, drinking, using drugs etc.  Adolescents are more impulsive and susceptible to peer influence than adults but are just as capable of making wise decisions based on good information.  For girls, the timing of puberty has a great influence on emotional and behavioral problems than does the occurrence of puberty itself. The timing of puberty does not consistently affect boys.  There is no aspect of parenting that has a significant impact on a person’s sexual orientation. A person’s early sexual encounters also do not have a lasting impact on his or her sexual orientation.  Biology plays a major role in determining a person’s sexual orientation. The identical twin of a gay man (with whom he shares 100% of his genes) has a 50% chance of being gay. The fraternal twin of a gay man (with some he shares 50% of his genes) has a 15% chance of being gay.  High levels of androgens in the womb may predispose both male and female fetuses later to develop a sexual preference for women.  Brains of gay people tend to look like the brains of opposite-gendered straight people. Ex: The brains of gay women and straight men look similar (both of the hemispheres are unequally sized). The brains of straight women and gay men look similar (both of the hemispheres are equally sized).  Sexual orientation is not simply a matter of choice but sexual behavior is.  Sex education does not increase the likelihood that teenagers will have sex. It increases the likelihood that they will use birth control, lead them to delay having sex for the first time, and lowers the likelihood that they will get pregnant of catch a STD.  Abstinence-only programs are rarely effective.  Adolescence marks a shift away from family relations and toward peer relations.  There are two things that make this shift difficult. o Adolescents can choose their peers. They have the power to shape themselves by joining groups that will lead them to develop new values and perspectives. The responsibility this opportunity entails can be overwhelming. o Adolescents strive for greater autonomy and their parents naturally rebel.  Evolution of peer relationships: o First, cliques with same-sexed peers are formed. o Next, male cliques and female cliques begin to meet in public places. o Older members of same-sex cliques peel off and form smaller, mixed-sex cliques that may meet in private or public. o Couples peel off from the small, mixed-sex clique and begin romantic relationships.  Peers influence the adolescent’s beliefs and behaviors, but it mainly occurs because they respect and admire their peers, not because they are pressured.  As adolescents age, they resist peer pressure. Peers become less rigid and more tolerant.  Adulthood: The stage of development that begins around 18-21 years and ends at death.  The early 20s are the peak years for health, stamina, vigor, and prowess. These are the years during which most cognitive abilities are sharpest.  Between the ages of 26 and 30, we begin a slow and steady decline in these areas.  Muscles become replaced by fat, skin becomes less elastic, hair will think, bones will weaken, sensory abilities will become less acute, and brain cells will die at an accelerated rate.  As you age, prefrontal cortex will deteriorate more quickly than the other areas of your brain. There will be a noticeable decline on cognitive tasks that require effort, initiative, or strategy.  Memory will worsen in general. o Working memory: The ability to hold information in the mind. This will decline as you age. o Long-term memory: The ability to retrieve information. This will also decline but not as much as working memory. o Episodic memory: The ability to remember particular past events. This will decline as you age. o Semantic memory: The ability to remember general information such as the meanings of words. This will also decline but not as much as episodic memory.  Even though cognitive machinery gets rustier, you will partially compensate by using it more skillfully. Older adults use the skills they developed over a lifetime to compensate for the age-related declines they experience in memory and attention.  As brains age, they become de-differentiated. Parts of the brain that once worked independently start to pull together and work as a team. The brain changes its division of labor.  Socioemotional selectivity theory: Younger adults are largely oriented toward the acquisition of information that will be useful to them in the future. Older adults are generally oriented toward information that brings emotional satisfaction in the present.  Older adults are better at sustaining positive emotions and remembering positive things and forgetting negative emotions/information. They also experience fewer negative emotions and are more accepting of the emotions when they do feel them.  Late adulthood: One of the happiest and most satisfying periods of life despite problems of aging.  Older adults become more selective about their interaction partners and spend time with family and a few close friends rather than with a large circle of acquaintances.  Married people live longer, have more frequent sex, and earn more money than unmarried people. Married people report being happier than unmarried people.  Some researchers suggest that married people may be happiest because happy people may be more likely to get married. They say marriage is the consequence and not the cause of happiness.  Research shows that children generally don’t increase their parents’ happiness and may even decrease it. Parents report lower marital satisfaction than nonparents.  General trend: Marital satisfaction starts out high, dips down when the children are in diapers, begins to recover, dips again when the children are in adolescence, and returns to premarital levels when children leave home.  Negative impact of parenthood is stronger for women than for men since they typically do more child care than fathers. They experience role conflict and restrictions of freedom.  Raising children is a challenging job that people find most rewarding when they’re not in the middle of doing it. Important Information in Chapter 5:  Phenomenology: How things seem to the conscious person.  Problem of other minds: The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others.  The consciousness meter used by anesthesiologist falls short because it doesn’t give any special insight into what it is like to be the patient on the operation table. It only predicts whether patients will say they were conscious.  There is no way to tell if another person’s experience of anything is at all like yours.  People judge minds according to two dimensions: o Experience: The ability to feel pain, pleasure, hunger, consciousness, anger, or fear. o Agency: The ability for self-control, planning, memory, or thought.  Mind-body problem: The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body.  The mind is what the brain does.  Most psychology assume that mental events are tied to brain events. So every thought, perception, or feeling is associated with a certain pattern of activation of neurons in the brain.  However, there are studies that show that the brain’s activities precede the activities of the conscious mind.  Libet experiment: o Electrical activity in the brains of volunteers was measured using sensors placed on their scalps. o They repeatedly decided when to move a hand. They were asked to indicate exactly when they consciously chose to move. o The brain started to show electrical activity before the person reported a conscious decision to move. o Conclusion: Decisions can be made unconsciously and we become consciously aware of them only after they have been made.  There are four basic properties of consciousness: o Intentionality: The quality of being directed toward an object. It is about something. We have agency/intentions. o Unity: The resistance to division. We create a unified perception of the world. o Selectivity: The capacity to include some objects but not others. It’s hard to be conscious of many different things.  Cocktail-party phenomenon: People tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby.  Dichotic listening: People wearing headphones hear different messages in each ear. o Transience: Consciousness has the tendency to change. We have a stream of consciousness that flows and changes our perspective even when we view a constant object (ie: a cube).  There are three levels of consciousness: o Minimal consciousness: A low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior. It is basic sensory-motor processing. o Full consciousness: Occurs when you know and are able to report your mental state. You can think about your thinking. o Self-consciousness: A distinct level of consciousness in which the person’s attention is drawn to the self as an object. It’s direct at one’s self: your existence, your uniqueness.  Most animals don’t have self-consciousness. The typical dog, cat, or bird seems mystified by a mirror, ignoring it or acting as though there is another creature there. Some animals like orangutans, chimps, dolphins, and elephants recognize themselves in a mirror.  Human infants don’t recognize themselves in mirror until they’ve reached about 18 months of age.  To learn what’s on people’s minds: o Ask people to think aloud and ask them what’s on their mind. o Experience-sampling technique: People are asked to report their conscious experiences at particular times. Participants are asked to record their current thoughts when asked at random times throughout the day.  Consciousness is dominated by the immediate environment and the person’s current concerns (what the person is thinking about repeatedly).  Daydreaming: A state of consciousness in which a seemingly purposeless flow of thoughts comes to mind.  Mental control: The attempt to change conscious states of mind. Ex: trying not to think about something that gives you anxiety.  Thought suppression: The conscious avoidance of a thought.  However, sometimes when you’re trying not to think about something, you think about it more.  Rebound effect of thought suppression: The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression. The act of trying to suppress a thought may itself cause that thought to return to consciousness in a robust way.  Ironic processes of mental control: Theory that proposes that such ironic errors occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself product them. Ex: In the attempt not to think of a white bear, a small part of the mind is ironically searching for the white bear. This unconscious monitoring increases the person’s sensitivity to the unwanted thought.  Unconscious mental processes: Occur without our experience of them. Unexperienced mental processes that give rise to thoughts and behaviors.  Dynamic unconscious: An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person’s deepest instincts and desires, and the person’s inner struggle to control these forces.  Repression: A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious. With repression, unacceptable desires are held in the recesses of the dynamic unconscious.  Freudian slips: Speech errors and lapses of consciousness that are not random, but have some surplus meaning that has been created by an intelligent unconscious mind.  Cognitive unconscious: Includes all the mental processes that give rise to a person’s thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person. It is at work when subliminal and unconscious processes influence thought and behavior.  Subliminal perception: When thought or behavior is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving. Other Important Notes from Lectures:  Detection of signals involves two kinds of processes: o Sensory process: Sensory evidenced evoked by the stimuli in one’s sensory system; in the presence of noise. o Decision process: Internal decision criteria based on habits; cost/benefits  Catch trials: Trials that allow measurement of response bias. Ex: If a person habitually reports “yes,” we will see more “yes” responses in catch trials.  For the light intensity experiment, an example of catch trials would be trials where no light is present.  Signal Detection Theory Chart (in notes) entails: o Hit (correct): If the signal is present and the observer sees it. o Miss (mistake): If the signal is present and the observer doesn’t see it. o False alarm (mistake): If the signal is absent and the observer sees it. o Correct rejection (correct): If the signal is absent and the observer doesn’t see it.  “Yay-sayer”: A person is biased to increase hits and/or avoid misses, leading to more false alarms.  “Nay-sayer”: A person is biased to avoid false alarms and increase correct rejections, leading to fewer hits and more misses.  High resolution: High acuity; at point of focus  Low resolution: Blurry; outside area of focus  Retinal receptive field: area of external space in which a stimulus activates a neuron.  Retinotopy: Topographic map of visual space across a restricted region of the brain. Maintenance of orderly spatial relations. Map on retina of external world.  Rods and cones converge on retinal ganglion cells. There is a high degree of convergence in the rod system and low degree of convergence in the cone system.  The fovea has the smallest receptive field. It maintains high resolution by having a small receptive field.  There can be 1 RGC to 1 Cone but 1 RGC to 1000 Rods.  Brains have serial processing: they perform one calculation step at a time like an assembly line.  Brains also have parallel processing: Can perform multiple computations at a time.  Prosopagnosia: Difficulty processing identity of a person. They can describe individual elements of a face but cannot put them together into a whole to recognize that face.  Top-down processing: Uses prior knowledge/experience and is driven by attention.  Bottom-up processing: Occurs automatically and is driven by the stimulus.  Your brain changes continually throughout your life. Number of neurons decreases, there are more connections between neurons (more synapses), and myelin content changes.  Primary caregiver provides nourishment, security, and comfort – essential for survival.


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