Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 102
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 397 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Exam 2 Study Guide What percent of microbes can we culture in lab? o 1% The oldest microbe living is 250 million years old What is a prokaryote? o Non membrane bound organelle Eukaryotic Cell: membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus Prokaryotic Cell: lack internal membrane-bound organelles o Instead carrying out all cellular functions in one central space. The DNA molecule floats freely in the cytoplasm What domains of life are prokaryotic? o All living organisms have evolved from a common ancestor. On the basis of genetic evidence, we can group living things into one of three domains of life, each with a distinct evolutionary history. While the Bacteria and Archaea both have prokaryotic cells, they have distinct evolutionary histories, with Archaea being genetically more closely related to Eukarya than to Bacteria. The domain Eukarya encompasses protists, plants, fungi, and animals, including humans. Morphology: Shape of the cell o Coccus (round) Streptococcus o Bacillus (rod) Eschericia coli o Spirilla (spiral) Rhodospirillum o Diplococcus Neisseria o Chains Streptococcus sp. o Grape-like clusters Staphylococcus o Tetrads Micrococcus Arrangement: grouping pattern of the cell Why does shape matter? o Microbes “care” what they look like. Why? Bacteria Structure o Spherical (cocci) o Rod-shaped (bacilli) o Spiral (spirochetes) o Flagella: tiny whip-like structures that project from the cell and help it move o Pili: shorter, hair-like appendages that enable bacteria to adhere to a surface o Capsule: sticky coating surrounding cells help adhere to surfaces and protect cells Biofilms o Specialized attached surface communities of microbes are called biofilms o Biofilms are important in almost every aspect of bacterial interaction with humans from dental biofilms to engineering considerations in water supplies Rotary Flagella o Prokaryotes that are motile generally swim by means of rotary flagella o Peritrichous cells have flagella randomly distributed around the cells o Lophotrichous cells have flagella at the ends o Monotrichous cells have a single flagellum Chemotaxis o The alternating runs and tumbles cause a “random walk” o Receptors detect attractant concentrations Sugars, amino acids, and other nutrient sources o Attractant concentration increases and prolongs run This is termed a “biased random walk” Causes a net movement of bacteria toward attractants (or away from repellents) Light Microscope o Light Microscopes can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells o When scientists examine a specimen on a microscope slide, Light passes through the specimen and Lenses enlarge, or magnify, the image Electron Microscopy o The most powerful electron microscopes can Magnify up to 100,00 0 times and Distinguish between objects 0.2 nanometers o Light microscopes are still very useful for studying living cells o Two major types Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) Electrons pass through the specimen Reveals internal structures Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) Electrons scan the specimen surface Reveals external features in 3-D What color is a microbe? o Some microbes do have pigments (ex. Chlorophyll) o Most do not and only appear colored when colonies of millions of organisms accumulate on a surface o To see microbes, we typically have to stain them How to do microbes acquire the building blocks of biomass? o All of Earth’s life-forms are based on carbon, which they acquire in different ways Autotrophs fix carbon and assemble into organic molecules (mainly sugars). (Make their food from non living material in their environment) Heterotrophs use preformed organic molecules. (Rely on other organisms as their food sources) Genomic Streamlining o Organisms often try to get rid of genes in an effort to make them more competitive Today’s Objectives o Explain how big most prokaryotes are. Explain what units we typically use to measure them. Explain what limits their size. 0.1 to 5.0 um Micrometer Surface area to volume ratio, nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, fragility of cell membrane, and mechanical structures o Explain the main parts of functions of bacterial structures we discussed Flagella: tiny whip-like structures that project from the cell and help it move Pili: shorter, hair-like appendages that enable bacteria to adhere to a surface Capsule: sticky coating surrounding cells help adhere to surfaces and protect cells o Explain how bacteria use flagella to move towards food or away from predators Prokaryotes that are motile generally swim by the rotary flagella Bacteria either swims in a straight or clockwise/counter- clock wise pattern to either engulf food or swim away from predators o Explain what kind of microscopes we can use to identify bacteria and these smaller structures Light microscopes can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells Light passes through the specimen and the lenses magnifies the image Electron microscopes can magnify up to 100,000 times and distinguish between objects 0.2 nanometers Transmission electron microscopes- electrons pass through the specimen and reveals internal structures Scanning electron microscopes- electrons scan the specimen surface and reveals external features in 3- D How do microbes acquire the building blocks of biomass? All of Earth’s lifeforms are based on carbon, which they acquire in different ways o Autotrophs fix carbon and assemble into organic molecules (mainly sugars). (Make their food from non living material in the environment) o Heterotrophs use preformed organic molecules. (Rely on other organisms as their food sources) Descriptive prefixes Chemo obtains energy from chemicals in the environment Photo uses light energy to harvest chemical compounds Modes of Nutrition Plant: Photoautotrophs Bacteria: Chemoautotrophs Rhodopseudomonas: Photoheterotrophs Kingfisher: Chemoheterotrophs Bacterial Autotrophs Cyanbacteria o Largest group o In oceans, freshwater, exposed rocks and soil o Photosynthesize o Oldest photosynthetic organisms o Some perform nitrogen fixation Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use for growth Do not all rely on sunlight Some obtain energy from geological sources o Inorganic gases of hydrothermal vents Myxococcus xanthus Fruiting bodies for survival SurvivalEndospores Thought to remain in vegetative states indefinitely until conditions are favorable for growth Positive purple Negative pink The cyanobacterium Spirulina It has high carotene concentrations, giving it a distinct pink color A major food for the pink flamingo Limits of Growth The “normal” growth condition are: o Sea level o Temperature 20C40C o Neutral pH o 0.9% salt, and ample nutrients o Any ecological niche outside this window is called “extreme”, and organisms inhabiting them are called extremophiles Some Bacteria Are Highly Resistant to Extreme Environmental Threats Deinococcus Radiodurans o Nickname “Conan the bacterium” o Has the greatest ability to survive radiation of any known organism o Has exceptional capabilities for repairing DNA damaged by radiation o Was genetically engineered for use in bioremediation Philes in Classificiations A lover of or enthusiast of.. word preceeding it In microbial life often coincides with a peak in growth rate Archaea Similar to bacteria Lack a nucleus Genetically distinct “Extremophiles” o Hyperthermophiles Live in extremely hot places o Methanogens Live in oceans hypothermal vents o Halophiles Live in places with high salt content Microbes Classified by Temperature Microorganisms can be classified by their growth temperature o Psychrophiles 020 degrees C o Mesophiles 1545 degrees C o Thermophiles 4080 degrees C o Hyperthermophiles 65121 degrees C All of these organisms have evolved membranes and proteins best suited for their temperatures Microbes in your stomach are classified as Mesophiles Majority of Earth’s atmosphere is cold Cold microbes have adaptation that allows them to survive. We can adapt these abilities for ourselves Microbes that protect themselves from ice Microbes that use ice to get into plants Acidophiles Neurtrophiles Alkaliphiles Aerobes and Anaerobes Strict aerobes can only grow in oxygen Strict anaerobes die in the least bit of oxygen Facultative anaerobes can live with or without oxygen They possess both the ability for fermentative metabolism and respiration (anaerobic and aerobic) If a microorganism does not have a catalase positive, what might this tell you about their environment? It lives in an anaerobic environment Anaerobic reactions between sulfur and iron cause hidden hazards for human technology, such as the corrosion of steel in underwater bridge supports In anaerobic conditions, sulfurreducing bacteria can corrode iron Other specialized structures Cyanobacterial Heterocysts Anabaena differentiates into specialized cells called heterocysts o Allow it to fix nitrogen anaerobically while maintaining oxygenic photosynthesis o Nitrogen fixation from N2 is solely performed by bacteria Microbial Ecology Sergei Winogradsky was among the first to study bacterial in natural habitats Discovered lithotrophs Developed enrichment cultures Built the Winogradsky column Winogradsky and other showed the importance of bacterial in geochemical cycling Important Dates 4.5 billion years ago origin of Earth 3.5 billion years ago prokaryotes dominate 2.5 billion years ago oxygen accumulates (photosynthesis) 2.1 billion years ago eukaryotes first nucleated cells (singlecelled) 1.2 billion years ago first multicelled eukaryotes .5 billion years ago Cambrian explosion of multicellular life Eukaryotic Diversity Eukaryote o Organism with cells characterized by membraneenclosed nucleus and organelles Protists o Eukaryote that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus o Usually unicellular o Some are heterotrophic o Ancestral to all other eukaryotes o Algae Protozoans Protozoans with flagella are called flagellates and Are typically freeliving, but o Some are nasty parasites Amoebas are characterized by o Great flexibility in their body shape and o The absence of permanent organelles for locomotion o Most species move and feed by the means of pseudopodia (singular, pseudopodium), temporary extensions of the cell Cell Shape and Movement Cilia may extend from nonmoving cells On cells lining the human trachea, cilia help sweep mucus with trapped debris out of the lungs Cilia are not found in prokaryotes Today’s Objectives Practice classifying organisms based on their carbon and energy sources on your own Explain other descriptive terms around “philes, tolerant, and sensitive” organisms Explain how we classify the various extremophiles we mentioned in class based on environments they inhabit Explain the role of catalase in oxygenic systems Explain endosymbiosis and what evidence we have to support it Explain some classifications of protists by locomotion we discussed in class Eukaryote o Organism with cells characterized by membraneenclosed nucleus and organelles Amoebas use ___ for movement o Pseudopodia Algae o Algae are Photosynthetic protists whose chloroplasts support food chains in Freshwater rand Marine ecosystems Many unicellular algae are component s of plankton, the communities of mostly microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly in aquatic environments o Unicellular algae include Dinoflagellates, with Two beating flagella, also External plates made of cellulose Diatoms, with glassy cells walls containing silica and Green algae Can you see algae from space? o Yes, example: algal blooms Emiliania huxleyi diatom o Photosynthetic plankton species covered in calcite disks o Infected by giant viruses causes mass release of discs Seaweeds o Large, multicellular marine algae, o Grow on or near rocky shores o Are only similar to plants because of convergent evolution o Are most closely related to unicellular algae and o Are edible o Classified into three different groups, based partly on the types of pigments, Green algae Red algae Brown algae Slime Molds o Resemble fungi in appearance and lifestyle due to convergence, but o Are more closely related to amoebas o The two main groups are Plasmodial slime molds And unicellular slime molds o Plasmodial slime molds Are named for the feeding stage in their cycle, and amoeboid mass called a plasmodium, Are decomposers on forest floors and Can be large Can solve complex problems with nutrients o Cellular slime molds have an interesting and complex life cycle of successive stages: A feeding stage of solitary amoeboid cells, A swarming stage as a sluglike colony that can move and function as a single cell units and A stage during which they generate a stalklike multicellular reproductive structure Dictyostelium Discoideum o Use cAMP a chemical messenger to coordinate activities Cells that don’t cooperate with the slime mold group will be killed off by the cooperating cells The Origin of Multicellular Life o Colonial protists likely formed the evolutionary links between Unicellular and Multicellular organisms Eukaryotic Diversity: Fungi o Unicellular or multicellular o Eukaryotic o Obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and absorbing o Decomposers Digest and use organic molecules in dead organisms as sources of nutrients and energy o Body composed of threadlike structures, hyphae o A hypha is a chain of many cells, capable of absorbing nutrients o Hyphae interweave to form mycelium o Mushrooms, mold, yeast List some features of plants.. o Where do they get Energy: from the sun Carbon: photoautotrophs Water and nutrients: from it’s roots o Physical features/ attributes? Eukaryotic Diversity: Plants o Plant Multicellular eukaryote Has cell walls Photosynthetic Autotroph Adapted o Bryophytes Earliest plants Nonvascular plant Lack roots and tissue for transporting water and nutrients Grow only in damp environments Does not produce seeds o Ferns First vascular plant No seeds Vascular tissue keeps stems rigid o Gymnosperms Seedbearing plants “Naked” seeds typically held in cones o Angiosperms Seed plants Seeds in fruit Flowering Today’s Objectives o Explain some unique characteristics of slime molds, algae and fungal organisms Slime molds Resemble fungi in appearance and lifestyle due to convergence but are more closely related to amoebas Plasmodial slime molds o are named after the feeding stage in their life o Are decomposers on forest floors, and can be large Cellular slime molds: o A feeding stage of solitary amoeboid cells, o A swarming stage as a sluglike colony that can move and function as a single unit, and o A stage during which they generate a stalklike multicellular reproductive structure Algae Photosynthetic protists whose chloroplasts support food chains in o Freshwater and o Marine ecosystems Many unicellular algae are components of plankton, the communities of mostly microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly in aquatic environments Unicellular algae include o Dinoflagellates, with Two beating flagella and External plates made of cellulose o Diatoms, with glassy cell walls containing silica, and o Green algae Fungi Fungus o Unicellular or multicellular o Eukaryotic o Obtains nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes onto organic matter and absorbing o Decomposers Digest and use organic molecules in dead organisms as sources of nutrients and energy o Body composed of threadlike structures, hyphae o A hypha is a chain of many cells, capable of absorbing nutrients o Hyphae interweave to form mycelium o Mushrooms, mold, yeast o Read over the scientific paper discussing farming in slime molds on blackboard o Explain the eukaryotic progression from early protists to more complex multicellular eukaryotes o Explain some main differences between the types of plants we have discussed thus far Bryophytes Lacks roots and tissue for transporting water and nutrients Grow only in damp environments Does not produce seeds Nonvascular plants Ferns No seeds Vascular tissue keeps stems rigid Gymnosperms Seedbearing plants “naked seeds” typically held in cones Angiosperms Seed plants Seeds in fruit Flowering o For next time: rewatch the sun dew video and come up with reasons the plants knew not to eat rocks and paper. We’ll resume group work on some questions next time. Sun Dew Plants o Darwin studied them and their reactions to milk, urine, stone, paper and meat when he placed them on their leaves o The leaves reacted to milk, urine and meat but did NOT react to the stone and paper o It did NOT react to the stone and paper because they have no nutrients for the plant o He found that the plant would absorb anything with Nitrogen through its leaves o They live in bogs and turned carnivorous because they can’t get Nitrogen from the soil, so they have to find another place to get it Venus Fly Trap o Darwin studied this plant and found that there are three hairs on the plant o He touched the first hair and nothing happened, but when he touched the second hair it always closed the trap o The second hair is triggered because the plant knows that there is definitely food nearby o The gate is not tightly closed because it keeps big bug in and lets little bugs out so it doesn’t waste its energy breaking down a small bug Classify carnivorous plants based on their source of carbon o Autotrophs Vertebrates make up about 5% of the animal population and the rest are invertebrates What is an animal? o Multicellular; collection of cells that have a common goal o Heterotrophs o Get nutrients from ingestion o Animal cells lack the cell walls that provide strong support in the bodies of plants and fungi o Most animals have Muscle cells Nerve cells that control the muscles o Most animals are Are diploid Reproduce sexually and Proceed through a series of typically similar developmental stages Early Animals and The Cambrian Explosion o Animal diversification appears to have accelerated rapidly from 525535 million years ago, during the Cambrian period o Because so many animal body plans o The Cambrian explosion may have been ignited by Increasingly complex predatorprey relationships and//or An increase in atmospheric oxygen The genetic framework for complex organisms, was already in place Animal Phylogeny o Biologists categorize animals by “body plan” general features of body structure and genetic data o One major branch point distinguishes sponges from all other animals because, unlike more complex animals, sponges lack true tissue Eukaryotic diversity: animals o Three main lineages o See three distinct body plans No definite shape, asymmetrical Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry Animal Phylogeny o A second major evolutionary split is based on body symmetry Radial symmetry refers to animals that are identical Bilateral symmetry exists where there is only one way to split the animal into equal halves Major Invertebrates phyla o Invertebrates Are animals without backbones and Represent 95% of the animal kingdom Eukaryotic Diversity: animals o Asymmetrical Simplest living animals Lack defined tissues or organs (such as sponges) Sponges o Sponges represent multiple phyla o Sponges Are stationary animals Lack true tissue, and Probably evolved very early from colonial protists o The body of a sponge resembles a sac perforated with holes o Choanocyte cells draw water through the walls of the sponge where food is collected Today’s Objectives o Explain why carnivore plants evolved o Explain two features the Venus fly trap uses to save energy Has teeth around the plant, if the second “tooth” is triggered by a bug then the plants closes Its teeth aren’t tightly closed because it allows the small bug to escape so the plant doesn’t waste energy o Understand and be able to explain the variation amongst the 4 main phylotypes of plants we discussed o Explain classification schemes we use for animals and how we would classify them based on source of carbon o Explain some common features and shared developmental stages in animals o Explain some defining characteristics of sponges Eukaryotic diversity: animals o Radial symmetry Body plan that is circular No clear left or right sides Cnidarians o Characterized by The presence of body tissues Radial symmetry, and Tentacles with stinging cells The basic body plan is a sac with a gastrovascular cavity, a central digestive compartment with one opening Two main body compartments The stationary polyp The floating medusa Bilateral Symmetry o Clear right and left halves o Mirror images of each other o Adaptations for seeking food, stalking prey, and avoiding predators Mollusks o Soft bodied invertebrate o Generally, with a hard shell o Slugs, snails, and clams Flatworms o Simplest bilateral animals o Flatworms include forms that are Parasites or Free living in marine, freshwater, or damp habitats o The gastrovascular cavity of flatworms Is highly branched Increases the surface area of oxygen flow in their body Provides an extensive surface area for absorption of nutrients Annelids o Three main groups Earthworms, which eat their way through soil Polychaetes, marine worms with segmental appendages for movement and gas exchange Leeches, typically freeliving carnivores but with some bloodsucking forms Leeches o Promote blood flow and relieve clots in wounded tissue with poor blood flow. Anticlotting compounds in saliva keep blood flowing. o Some use to remove toxins from the blood Roundworms o Cylindrical in shape, tapered at both ends o The most numerous and widespread of all animals o Important decomposers and o Dangerous parasites in plants, humans, and other animals Arthropods o Most abundant invertebrates o Segmented body, jointed appendages, hard exoskeleton Protects organism from predators, keeps it from drying out, structure and support for movement Made of chitin Insects o There are over 1 million arthropods species identified, mostly insects o Very diverse and successful group, occurring in nearly all habitats in the biosphere o Four main groups Arachnids Crustaceans Millipedes and centipedes Insects Arachnids o Catch prey in webs made of silk (strongest natural fibers) o Inject prey with proteolytic enzymes that digest tissues o Drink digested parts from inside out o Includes Dust mites Scorpions Ticks Crustaceans o Nearly all aquatic o Have multiple pairs of specialized appendages o Examples include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, barnacles, pill bug Millipedes and Centipedes o Similar segments over most the body o Millipedes Eat decaying plant matter Have two pairs of short legs per body segments o Centipedes Are terrestrial carnivores with poison claws and Have one pair of short legs per body segments Math and Muscle and Nature o Evolution of muscle performance determines animal behavior and ecology Amplification of force production The Mantis Shrimp o Eyes can detect 5,000 wavelengths of light o Punch generates 350lbs force from cavitation bubble o Force actually generates heat and light Insect Anatomy o Threepart body plan Head Thorax Abdomen o The insect head usually bears A pair of sensory antennae and A pair of eyes o He mouthparts are adapted for particular kinds of eating o Flight is one key to the great success of insects Insect Diversity o Outnumber all other forms of life combined o Insects live in Almost every terrestrial habitat Fresh water and The air o Many insects undergo metamorphosis in their development o Young insects may Appear to be smaller forms of the adult or Change from a larval form to something much different as an adult Echinoderms o Lack body segments o Typically show radial symmetry as adults but bilateral symmetry as larvae, o Have an endoskeleton, usually carbonate based o Have a water vascular system that facilitates movement and gas exchange o Ex. Sea star, sand dollars, sea cucumber and sea urchin Echinoderms (star fish) o In some, every limb contains vital organs needed to reproduce itself o No brain o Eyespots on arms help sense environment around them o Eats by inverting stomach outside the body cavity and digesting prey Eukaryotic diversity: animals o Invertebrates lack of backbone 95% of animals mollusks annelids nematodes arthropods echinoderms o Vertebrate bony or cartilaginous back bone (chordates) Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity o Have a unique endoskeleton composed of A cranium A backbone made of a series of bones called vertebrae. (or just a possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord) The current consensus is that chordates are monophyletic 1 common ancestor Fishes o The first vertebrates were aquatic and probably evolved during the early Cambrian period, about 542 million years ago. They Lacked jaws and Are represented today by lampreys o The two major groups of living fishes are the Cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays), with a flexible skeleton made of cartilage, and Bony fishes, with a skeleton reinforced by hard calcium salts. Bony fishes include Rayfinned fishes and Lobefinned fishes o Cartilaginous and bony fishes have a lateral line system that detects minor vibrations in the water o To provide lift off the bottom Cartilaginous fish must swim but Bony fish have swim bladders, gasfilled sacs that help them be buoyant Amphibians o Exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations, o Usually need water to reproduce, and o Typically undergo metamorphosis from an aquatic larva to a terrestrial adult o Were the first vertebrates to colonize land and o Descended from fishes that had Lungs, Fins with muscles, and Skeletal supports strong enough to enable some movement on land o Terrestrial vertebrates are collectively called tetrapods, which means “four feet” o Tetrapods include Amphibians, Reptiles, and Mammals Reptiles o Reptiles (including birds) and mammals are amniotes, which produce amniotic eggs, which Are fluidfilled, Have waterproof shells, and Enclose the developing embryo Nonbird Reptiles o Nonbird reptiles are ectotherms, sometimes referred to as “coldblooded,” which means that they obtain body heat from the environment o A nonbird reptile can survive on less than 10% of the calories required by a bird or mammal (endothermswarm blooded) of equivalent size Eukaryotic Diversity: Animals o Vertebrates o Chordates Mammals Mammary glands Body covered with fur For example, the fisher Mammals o The first mammals Arose about 200 million years ago and Were probably small, nocturnal insecteaters o Most mammals are terrestrial, although dolphins, porpoises, and whales are totally aquatic o Mammals have two unique characteristics: Hair and Mammary glands that produce milk, which nourishes the young o There are threemajor groups of mammals: Monotremes, egglaying mammals Marsupials, pouched mammals with a placenta Eutherians, also called placental mammals Today’s Objectives o Explain existence of ancestral organisms that are still alive today in the context of evolution o Explain an energetic advantage ectotherms have over organisms that are “warmblooded” or endotherms of equivalent size o Explain how the progression from water to land amniotes still retains a “little piece” of ancestral aquatic environments o Explain defining characteristics of each of the 9 groups we have discussed over the past few days and be able to name an example species from each group Sponges Are stationary animals Lack true tissue, and Probably evolved very early from colonial protists Cnidarians Presence of body tissues, radial symmetry and tentacles with stinging cells Ex. Jelly fish Molluscs Softbodied invertebrate and generally with a hard shell Ex. slugs, snails, clams Flatworms Bilateral animals, gastrovascular cavity is highly branched Ex. Parasites or free living in marine, freshwater or damp habitats Annelids Long, segmented body Ex. Earthworms, polychaetes, leeches Roundworms Cylindrical in shaped, tapered at both ends, the most numerous and widespread of all animals, and are decomposers Ex. Hookworm Arthropods Most abundant invertebrates, segmented body, jointed appendages, hard exoskeleton Ex. Millipedes and centipedes Echinoderms Lack body segments, typically show radial symmetry as adults but bilateral symmetry as larvae, have an endoskeleton, and have a water vascular system that facilitates movement and gas exchange Ex. Star fish Chordates Mammary glands and have fur Ex. Horse, humans, and birds
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