FINAL EXAM REVIEW
FINAL EXAM REVIEW BIOL 1103
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Kyla Brinkley Study Guide for BIOL 1103 Final EXAM ONE Science a way of knowing Relies on observation and experiments Observation something that cant be observed and cant be investigated by science Hypothesis propose what the answer to a question might be Must be logicaltestable Observationgtquestiongthypothesisgtexperimentgtconclusion nothing in science is ever proven changes liVing things 1 complex structure based on organic carbon molecules 6 atoms carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorous sulfur Macromolecules Carbohydrates Protein Lipids Nucleic acid all living things made of cells or cell products Prokaryotic no nucleus bacteria Eukaryotic chromosomes contained within a nucleus fungi etc DNA is the genetic code passed from one generation to the next Energy the ability to do work Living organisms obtain it from food made from sunlight or consumed 0 Metabolism total of all chemical reactions taking place in organisms cells from environment 0 Photosynthesis energy of light from the sun converted to chemical bond energy 0 Cellular respiration chemical bond energy converted to energy of environment mitochondria 0 ATP universal energy molecule 0 Growth living things grow and develop 0 Unicellular organisms increase in cell size before reproduction 0 Multicellular organisms increase in organisms size and number of cells 0 Homeostasis the maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment 0 DNA life must reproduce continuity of life based on DNA 0 Living things respond to stimuli from their environment 0 Sense and response to stimuli may move toward food sourceaway from a predator 0 Living things are the products of evolution Changed from earlier forms Gradualhistorical process 0 Life on earth 35 billion 1 Atom 2 Molecule Organelle Tissue Brain Organ system Organism Population 9 Community 10 Ecosystem ll Biosphere 9 99 Earth is approx 45 billion years old Leuuwenhoek 16321700 Early microscopes Discovered bacteria Spontaneous generation Schwann 18101882 experimented to show bio genesis of microorganisms But the aw was that the heat he used destroyed the soul Pasteur experiments in spontaneous generation 0 Biogenesis living material that grew in a ask came from living material outside ask 0 1864 rejected spontaneous generation The cell theory all life made of cells and all cells come from previously existing cells Atom the smallest particle of an element 0 subatomic particles proteins neutrons electrons atomic number of protons equal to number of electrons atomic mass mass of protons neutrons and electrons mainly protons and neutrons hydrogen l helium 2 carbon 6 nitrogen 7 oxygen 8 neon 10 molecule a combination of atoms Ex water methane glucose Bonds 0 Covalent 0 Ionic 0 Hydrogen Covalent bond sharing electron pairs Valences 0 Hydrogen l 0 Oxygen 2 0 Nitrogen 3 0 Carbon 4 0 HONC Ionic bonds results from the gain or loss of electrons 0 when an atom loses an electron it becomes positive Nonpolar molecules electrons shared equally between atoms Ex CH4 Ion an atom that gained or lost electrons resulting in a negative or positive charge Isotopes same atomic diff atomic mass diff of neutrons Radioactive isotope any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation Free radical any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell Living things 7595 71 of Earth s surface is ocean water Human body around 66 water by weight Oil nonpolar and water polar don t mix Water polar beads up Hydrogen bond attraction between hydrogen atom w partial pos charge and an atom oxygen w partial neg charge Attraction of polar molecules Liquid water moving bonds constantly break and reform ice is more stable expands bonds solidified mlcls spread apart Water as a solvent if something has a charge it will dissolve in water 0 Attraction 0 Separation O Dispersion Dissociation of water H20 becomes H and OH A PROTON IS A HYDROGEN ION H H acid OH base pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration 0 7neutral water 0 Below 7 acid 0 Above 7basic C6H1206 is glucose Carbon can link with other carbons Isomer ex isobutene Carbon can form rings Carbon can form double bonds Glucose a monosaccharide Monomers single 0 Amino acids 0 Simple sugars 0 Fatty acids glycerol 0 Nucleotides Polymers many 0 Proteins 0 Carbs 0 Lipids 0 Nucleic acids Carbohydrates functions 0 Energy empty calories 0 Structure cell wallsexoskeletons 0 Hydrates of carbon CH20 0 Excess stored as fat Polysacharrides many sugars Lipids 0 Starch 0 Cellulose 0 Glycogen 0 Chitin Monosaccarides monomer 0 Glucose blood sugar 0 Fructose fruit sugar 0 Galactose Disaccharides 0 Sucrose table sugar 0 Maltose malt sugar 0 Lactose milk sugar Dehydration synthesis water is removed dehydration between 2 monomers and a new bond is formed synthesis to make maltose High fructose corn syrup aka glucosefructose in Canada Any group of corn syrups undergone chemical processing HFCS 55 55 fructose 42 glucose Found in soft drinks Calorie amount of energy heat it takes to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C Calories on food packages are actually kilocalories 1000 calories l kilocalorie llb body fat 3500 calories Glucoseglucosemaltose Glucosefructosesucrose Glucosegalactoselactose Hydrophobic Saturated fatty acid solid at room temp no double bonds Unsaturated liquid at room temp oils 0 Polyunsaturated more than 1 double bond 0 Monounsaturated one double bond Glycerol3 fatty acidstriglyceride fat storage 0 Can also have monoglyceride etc Cholesterol lipid and protein 0 HDL high density lipoproteingoodcarry to liver 0 LDL low density lipoproienbadcarry to body Omega3 fatty acids are helpful because they raise HDL levels Found in oily fish canola oils etc Saturated fats are bad Unsaturated fats are good Hydrogenation adding hydrogen to double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids so it becomes semi solid EX Crisco 0 Takes away double bonds 0 Forms trans fatty acids VERY BAD Raises LDL and lowers HDL levels Study Ouestions Lecture 1 10 ll 12 science is a body of knowledge about the natural world and a collection of unified insights about nature the evidence for which is an array of facts the scienti c method is a process of observing the natural world and testing hypotheses a observation b question c hypothesis d experiment e conclusion the starting state for scientific inquiry is always observation difference a hypothesis tentative testable explanation for an observed phenomenon if then b theory a general set of principles supported by evidence that explains some aspect of nature A controlled experiment is an experiment with set variables A control condition is an experimental condition that exists prior to the introduction of any variables tested All conditions are held constant over several trials except for a single variable We learn something only by comparing effects to results observed when variables are introduced This creates more accurate results Characteristics of living things Can take in and use energy from food Can respond to their environment Can maintain relatively constant internal environment homeostasis Have inherited information base encoded in DNA that allows them to function Can reproduce through use of info encoded in DNA Are composed of one or more cells Evolved from other living things Are highly organized compared to inantimate objects living things obtain chemical energy from taking in foods and other nutrients 6 elements found in all living things FQQWFDFLPP a Carbon b Oxygen c Phosphorous d Hydrogen e Nitrogen f Sulfur Major macromolecules found in all living things a Carbs b Protein c Lipids d Nucleic acid Evolution is the chief unifying principle in biology because every living thing has been shaped by it no exceptions Also helps to explain diversity Hierarchy of structural levels a Atom b Molecule c Organelle d Cell e Tissue U 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Organ Organ system Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere rw9rFQQ rt 13 Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus 14 Eukaryotic cells have chromosomes in nucleus Lecture 2 1 Abiogenesis life from nonlife Aristotle 2 Biogenesis life from life Redi 3 Aristotle living things result of passive matter and active form 4 Paracelsus formula for creation of human beings incantations to buried bottle Swiss medical philosopher Van Helmont how to produce mice Physicianalchemist Fermentation to make mice Redi disproved spontaneous generationmeat noticed maggots appeared only after ies were present not from meat itself Leeuenhoek early microscopes Discovered bacteria Spontaneous generation Schwann aw tried to prove biogenesis but the heat he used destroyed the soul microbes Spontaneous generation Pateur s experiment was conducted by first observing that a sterile ask of meat broth eventually grows living material To test whether or not the material came from outside the ask or from nonliving material a trap was used to trap dust that would have fallen into the ask No growth was observed However when the trap was removed or when the ask was tipped to mix the dust growth occurred Atomic number elements are defined by protons in their nuclei Smallest of protons to largest Mass number atomic mass of protons neutrons electrons mostly protons and neutrons A covalent bond is when an atom shares a pair of electrons Atoms donate electrons to share creating a bond Valences a Hydrogen 1 b Oxygen 2 c Nitrogen 3 d Carbon 4 Reactants are combined to yield a product An ion is a charged atom or an atom whose number of electrons differs from its number of protons Ionic bonding is chemical bonding where 2 or more ions are linked by their opposite charge Ionic attraction is when 2 atoms of opposite charges are too close together and are attracted to each other Lecture 3 1 2 When atoms share electrons it is called a covalent bond NaCl Na and Cl 39 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 A molecule is the result of two or more atoms combining an entity consisting of a defined number of atoms covalently bonded together A double bond is a chemical bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared between 2 atoms An ionic bond is a chemical bond where two or more ions are linked by virtue of their opposite charge An ion is a charged atom whose number of electrons differ from its number of protons Gained or lost electrons resulting in a negative or positive charge As a solvent water is able to have many molecules especially ions dissolve into it anything that has a charge like ions like NaCl will dissolve in water When NaCl dissolves in water bonds are broken because of water s slight charge An isotope has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass diff number of neutrons than the original element A radioactive isotope is any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation More protons H ionsmore acidic Carbon14 eventually becomes nitrogen A halflife is the time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half of its original value a The half life of 014 is 5730 year b The iceman oetzi is 51115381 years old A polar covalent bond is when electrons in an atom are shared unequally one end has a slightly negative charge while the other has a slightly positive charge A nonpolar covalent bond is when electrons are shared equally Hydrogen bond links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom Attraction of hydrogen atoms with a partial positive charge and atoms like oxygen with a partially negative charge a Can also bond to other hydrogen atoms as in water b Ice is less dense than water because the bonds move less and are more solidified so it is more stable In ice they can be more spread apart To turn liquid water into gas chemical bonds must be broken which is difficult Substances are watersoluble because they become attracted to the oppositely charged atoms This separates molecules Also hydrogen bonds help too The solute dissolves in the solvent forming a solution Hydrophilic water loving Interacts with water Hydrophobic water fearing Doesn t interact with water Water s bonds cause it to form circles around hydrophobic molecules Hydration shell Speci c heat the amount of energy it takes to raise the temp of a substance by 1 degree C Cohesion the tendency of water molecules to stay together stick together Surface tension the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid reducing surface area a ex water molecules are equally attracted to each other in all directions but not to the air So it beads up pulled down and to the sides a hydrogen ion is a proton a Hydroxide ions are negatively charged b In pure water they are perfectly balanced making water neutral on the pH scale pH a measure of hydrogen ion H concentration Measures the relative acidity of substances 0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most basic acid below 7 basic above 7 neutral 7 water 7 neutral blood almost 7 slightly basic gastric juice 2 acidic baking soda 9 basic 23 to make water more basic add HCl because it adds H ions 24 to make water more acidic add NaOH because it adds OH ions QQWQPPP Lecture 4 1 carbon is central to life because it has 4 outershell electrons instead of 8 which makes it more stable for bonding which helps it form large complex mlcls Organisms are 18 carbon when H20 is considered 2 carbon cycle and photosynthesis plants and other photosynthesizers take in carbon from atmosphere in form of CO2 Then plants and the organisms that eat them use the carbon to make up their tissues and to power their activities When all of them die carbon is released into atmosphere when remains are broken down Then cycle repeats 3 Monomer a small mlcl that can be combined with other similar or identical mlcls to make a polymer 4 Polymer large mlcl made of many similar or identical subunits 5 Polymer monomer a Carbohydrates simple sugars monosaccharides b Lipids fatty acidsglycerol c Protein amino acids d Nucleic acids nucleotides 6 Carbohydrates organic molecules that always contain carbon oxygen and hydrogen and often contain only these elements 7 Monosaccharides the monomers of carbs a Glucose monomer Sugar b Fructose monomer Fruit sugar c Galactose monomer d These are all monosaccharides 8 Dehydration synthesis water is removed dehydration between 2 monomers and a new bond is formed synthesis 9 Disaccharide when 2 molecules bond glucose a Ex sucrose table sugar Sucrose is glucose and fructose together b Maltosezmalt sugar c Lactose milk sugar 10 Polysaccharide many sugars Polymer of carbs a Ex starch stores carbsplants b Glycogen stores carbsstarch in liver of animals c Cellulose cell wallsplants d Chitin exoskeletons of animals e These are all complex carbs ll Calorie amount of energy heat it takes to raise the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree C a lg carb4 calories b lg fat9 calories c lg protein4 calories d llb body fat 3500 calories 12 High fructose corn syrup a simple sugar derived from corn that was processed into cornstarch which was broken down to yield mixture of the 2 simple sugars fructose and glucose Fructose is used a lot in regular soft drinks because it is cheap and sweet 13 Whole wheat bread underwent relatively little processing wheat grains retained bran outer coat and wheat germ embryonic tissue White bread loses both a a spike of glucose in the bloodstream causes a spike of insulin released from pancreas b glycemic load a measure of how blood glucose levels are affected by defined portions of given carbs c fiber is important in the diet cause they aren t digested and bind in the digestive tract with cholesterol lowering it also increases bulk of stool by absorbing water softening it good d Elements of a healthy diet fruits veggies grains plant oils nuts eggs poulry fish dairy Not good red meat butter white bread potatoes soda sweets Lecture 5 l Fats glycerol and 3 fatty acidstriglyceride fat a head has glycerol and tail has 3 fatty acids b storage phospholipids glycerol head with 2 fatty acid tails a Also have phosphate group phosphorous with 4 oxygen atoms b Create partitions EX cell membranes 3 Steroids like lipids but have 4 carbon rings a Natural steroids in body important activate DNA b Side chains make them unique Triglyceride fat Most important dietary form of lipid Storage Hydrophobic water fearing Doesn t interact Hydrophilic water loving Interacts Saturated fatty acid no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acid one or more double bonds a Monounsaturated one double bond between carbons b Polyunsaturated 2 or more double bonds between carbons c Trans fats fatty acids formed by hydrogenation takes away double bonds to form a semi solid raises LDL and lowers HDL very bad d Omega3 fatty acids helpful Raise HDL Found in fishoils 9 Solid fatssaturated liquid fatsunsaturated oils 10 Partially hydrogenated oils had hydrogen added to break double bonds and make more solid and forms transfatty acidsbad a Crisco is hydrogenated oil and so is margarine E9 9 ng Lecture 6 1 Omega 3 fatty acids reduce fat in blood 2 Steroids classed with lipids because they are insoluble in water a side chains make them unique b natural steroids i estrogen 10 ll 12 13 14 ii testosterone iii cholesterol anabolic steroids build up Synthetic form of testosterone used to help build muscle In water phospholipids form layer over water because hydrophilic heads attracted to water and hydrophobic tails are not Proteins polymers of amino acids 20 different amino acids Each contains nitrogen Diff kinds of proteins possible is almost infinite Cant make a protein without nitrogen a all amino acids have an amino group and a carboxyl group attached to a central carbon b the R group of ride chain is what can change c amino group and carboxyl groupamino group and acid group amino acid to link several amino acids you can remove water H and OH which creates bonds that make polypeptide chains example of dehydration synthesis 4 levels of structure of proteins a Amino acid sequence primary structure b Alpha helix beta plated sheet random coil too Secondary structure c Folded polypeptide chain tertiary structure 1 2 or more polypeptide chains quaternary structure Proteins a Enzymes quicken chemical reactions Hormones chemical messengers Transport move other mlcls Contractile movement Protective healingdefense against invaders Structural mechanical support Storage stores nutrients Toxins defense predation 1 Communication cell signaling Dissociation of water creates OH and H because a proton H is lost leaving OH with a negative charge dietary fats most to least healthy a Polyunsaturated fat with omega3 fatty acids b Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats without omega 3 c Saturated fats 1 Trans fats Steroids have 4 carbon rings w side chains a Wax a lipid with a single fatty acid linked to a long chain alcohol b Steroids and wax are classified with lipids because they are insoluble in water nonpolar Anabolism the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler molecules together with the storage of energy constructive metabolism Catabolism the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones together with the release of energy destructive metabolism a Anabolic steroids build up synthetic form of testosterone used to help build muscle b Dangerous side effects cancer high blood pressure jaundice increase ldl less hdl acne headache beards in women breasts in men stunt growth for adolescents Amino acid monomer of protein a Amino group 39qutbrbgog b Carboxyl group c Central carbon d Side chain R group e 20 diff amino acids found in protein 15 Polypeptide series of amino acids linked in a linear fashion Stringed together by removing water OH and H 16 shape is critical to the functioning of all proteins because they have to be able to specifically bind to perform their various roles 17 4 levels of protein structure a Amino acid sequence primary b Alpha helix secondary c Folded polypeptide chain tertiary d 2 or more polypeptide chains quaternary 18 Whole wheat has not been stripped of nutrients Soft drinks are empty calories because the calories come from sugar which has no nutrients a Glycemic load a measure of how blood glucose levels are affected by defined portions of given carbs Glucose increases insulin increases 19 Whole grain carbs like cellulose that cant be digested by humans bind with cholesterol in the digestive tract lowering it fiber healthy stool 20 Best lipid choices in diet unsaturated omega 3s and oils like olive oil Lecture 6 1 Anton van leeuwenhoek simple microscope Revealed existence of microorganisms Animalcules Bacteriaprotists 2 Robert hooke coined term cell Revealed structure of familiar small objects like the ea 3 Prokaryotic a Dna spread thru cellcircular b Size is tiny c Always single celled d Only one type of organelle 4 Eukaryotic a DNA in membrane bound nucleus b Size is bigger c Often multicellular d Many organelle types 5 Smallest to largest a Atom b Lipid c Protein d Large virus e Small bacteria f Mitochondria g Most bacteria h Cell nucleus i Plantanimal cells j Frog egg k Chicken egg 1 Human m Blue Whale 6 As surface area increases volume increases even more 7 Eukaryotic cell components a Nucleus b Other organelles c Cytosolcytoplasm d Cytoskeleton e Plasma membrane EXAM TWO 0 Animal cell 0 Nucleus DNA RNA proteins surrounded by nuclear envelope 0 Nucleolus ribosomes 0 Endoplasmic reticulum I Rough ER has ribosomes I Smooth ER no ribosomes I Can form vesicles that go to the golgi complex Can send vesicles out of cell 0 Mitochondria energy transformation I have own circular DNA like bacteria 0 More ribosomes 0 Cytoplasm region inside cell 0 Cytoskeleton network of protein filament 0 Plant cell 0 Cell wall 0 Central vacuole 0 chloroplasts green photosynthesis lecture 8 0 cell plasma membrane 0 made of phospholipids 0 fatty acids 0 phosphate head has charge so its hydrophilic 0 components I phospholipid bilayer tails face each other 0 hydrophillic heads hydrophobic tails I molecules of cholesterol I hydrophobic molecules can pass thru easily but hydrophilic molecules cant 0 has proteins depending on type of cell 0 functions I communication serve as external receptors for signaling molecules I transport moving things into and out of the cell I structural support I recognition 0 diffusion gradients and osmosis I diffusion the movement of molecules or ions water from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration spreading out I through diffusions compounds naturally move from higher to lower concentrations means they move down their concentration gradients I hypertonic more solute Water goes out Cell shrinks I hypotonic less solute Water in I moves from hypertonic to hypotonic solution thru selectively permeable membrane to reach equilibrium I turgidstiff I aquaporins selectively conduct water mlcls in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes 0 aka water channels integral membrane pore proteins I ATP is energy push to get things thru protein in membrane Used in active transportmoved against concentration gradient I Endocytosis brought into cell 0 Pinocytosis receptors capture mlcls put in membrane brought in 0 Phagocytosis larger thing put in membrane brought in Study questions exam 2 l V PP N gt19 10 ll 12 l3 l4 Anton van leeuwenhoek simple microscope Revealed existence of microorganism quotanimalculesquotbacteriaprotists Robert Hooke coined term cell Revealed structure of familiar small objects like the ea Prokaryotic DNA spread through cell tiny single celled one type of organelle Eukaryotic DNA in nucleus big multicellular many organelles Smallest to largest atom lipid protein large virus bacteria small mitochondria most bacteria cell nucleus plantanimal cells frog egg chicken egg human whale As surface area increases volume increases even more Eukaryotic cell a Nucleus b Plasma membrane c Cytosolcytoplasm d Other organelles e Cytoskeleton Nucleus contains DNA Nucleolus synthesis of ribosomal DNA mRNA messenger RNA Transports DNA from nucleus to cytoplasm ribosomes sites of protein synthesis rough ER protein processing transport vesicles transport of proteins and other cellular materials production of a protein a instruction from DNA are copied onto mRNA b mRNA moves to ribosomes c ribosome moves to ER and reads mRNA instructions 1 amino acid chain growing from ribosome is dropped inside ER membrane Chain folds into protein protein moves to golgi complex for more processing and for sorting Protein moves to plasma membrane for export 1quot 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 The golgi complex is a network of membranes that process and distributes proteins that come to it from the rough ER Smooth ER a network of membrane that is the site of the synthesis of various lipids and a site at which potentially harmful substances are detoxified within the cell Lysosomes organelles found in animal cells that digest worn out cellular materials and foreign materials that enter the cell Mitochondria organelles that are the primary sites for energy conversion in eukaryotic cells Generate heat and process food Structure a continuous outer membrane enclosing an inner membrane that has a series of folds in it gives it a larger internal surface area Plant cell has a Cell wall b Chloroplasts c Central vacuole Animal cell has a Lysosomes Mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants of bacteria that once invaded our ancestors cells Mitochondria and descendants of bacteria so are chloroplasts endosymbiotic theory They have characteristics of free standing cells own ribosomes and own DNA and reproduce through division like bacteria Chloroplasts organelles that are the sites of photosynthesis in algae and plant cells Structure similar to the bacteria they are descended from Phospholipid bilayer of animal cell membranes has hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails Principle membrane protein roles a Structural support when attached to parts of cytoskeleton b Recognition identify cell as normal or infected to immune system cell c Communication receptor proteins contact for signals from traveling cells like hormones d Transport channels thru which materials can pass in and out of cell Diffusion the movement of molecules or ions from areas of high concentration to low concentration Concentration gradient the difference between the highest and lowest concentration of a solute within a given medium Osmosis the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower concentration of solute to higher concentration a Basically water can fit through the membrane while the solute molecules can t and it spreads to the other solute molecules Hypertonic solution a uid that has a higher concentration of solutes than another water ows out of cell Hypotonic solution a uid that has a lower concentration of solutes than another water ows in Isotonic solution two solutions that have equal concentrations of solutes water ow balances Aquaporins integral membrane proteins from a larger family of major intrinsic proteins MIP that form pores in the membrane of biological cells small molecules move intoout of cells by simple diffusion a passive transport any movement of molecules or ions across a cell membrane that doesn t use energy b active transport any movement of molecules or ions across a cell membrane that uses energy 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 large substances move in and out of the cell by using vesicles a Exocytosis the movement of materials out of the cell through a fusion of a transport vesicle with the plasma membrane b Endocytosis the movement of relatively large materials into the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane The sun the ultimate source of energy a Energy the capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force work The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is never created or destroyed but is only transformed The second law of thermodynamics energy transfer always results in a greater amount of disorder in the universe Entrophy a measure of the amount of disorder in a system The greater the entrophy the greater the disorder Calorie amount energy heat it takes to raise the temp of one gram of water one degree C there are 686000 calories in lmol of glucose Exergonic reaction reaction where the starting set of molecules reactants has more energy than the final set of molecules products Endergonic reaction reactions where the products contain more energy than the reactants ATP is adenosine triphosphate 3 phosphate groups and adenineriboseadenosine ADP is adenosine diphosphate Same but has 2 phosphate groups Energy is required to hold the 3 phosphate groups together because they repel each other so the molecule is unstable By giving up the 3r molecule ATP provides energy and becomes ADP and the cycle continues The conversion of ATP to ADPP is an exergonic reaction Enzymes proteins that accelerate a chemical reaction Some split molecules some combine molecules and some rearrange them They bind to substrates to make them more vulnerable to chemical alteration They are catalysts The activation barrier is the amount of energy needed to start a reaction activation energy Active site the portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate helps transform it ATP the most important energy transfer molecule in living things Allosteric regulation the regulation of an enzymes activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site Catalyst substances that retain their original chemical compostion while bringing about a change in a substrate Ehymotryspin enzyme Delivered from human pancreas to small intestine where it works with water to break down proteins we have ingested Snips protein chains between their building block amino acids Breaks single bond between amino acids then binds to part of a protein chain and interacts with it to create a transitionstate molecule Distorts the shape of the protein to make it vulnerable to bonding with ionized water molecules Energy the capacity to do work or the capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force 0 Potential energy stored energy 0 Kinetic energy energy in motion entrophy a measure of disorder or randomness 0 Photosynthesis increases entrophy 0 Burning decreases entrophy 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Most energy not available for work is lost as heat Endergonic reactions require energy products contain more energy than reactants Exergonic reactions release energy products release less energy than reactants All enzymes are proteins Boiling things denatures proteins aka enzymes Allosteric regulation molecule bonds with enzyme at site other than active site 0 Enzyme transforms substrate to product Mitochondria evolved from free living prokaryotes 0 Circular DNA 0 Prokaryotic type ribosomes 0 Prokaryotic size and shape Oxidation loss of electrons Reduction gain of electrons NAD is oxidized NADH is reduced 3 stages of cellular respiration O Glycolysis gain 2 ATP 0 Krebs cycle citric acid cycle gain 2 ATP 0 Electron transport chemiosmosis gain 32 ATP Two sources of ATP formation 0 Substratelevel phosphorylation 0 Chemiosmosis oxidative phosphorylation Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm Starts with glucose and ends with 2 molecules of pyruvic acid Gain of 2 ATP and 2NADH Energy always runs downhill from more concentrated to less Fermentation 0 Yeast cell with no oxygen respiration produces ethyl alcohol and C02 0 Humans etc animals some bacteria no oxygen anaaerobic respiration creates lactic acid Coenzyme molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them EX vitamins Competitive inhibition a reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzyme s usual substrate binding with it in its active site Coupled reaction a chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction Kinetic energy energy in motion Potential energy energy stored Metabolic pathway a set of enzymatically conrolle steps that results in the completion of a product of process in an organism Substrate the substance that is worked on by an enzyme Product what an enzyme turns out No substrate to work on no product Enzymes are regulated by other reactions Allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzymes activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site Competitive inhibition a reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzyme s usual substrate binding with it in its active site 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Oxidation when a substance loses one or more electrons to another Reduction when a substance gains electrons a NAD is reduced to NAD by accepting an electron from a hydrogen atom It also picks up another hydrogen atom to become NADH b NADH is oxidized to its original form by carrying the electrons to a later stage of respiration when dropping them off c NAD does its job by transferring energy by picking up energetic electrons from food and transferring them to later stages of respiration The 3 stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis the krebs cycle and the electron transport chain a Glycolysis 2 ATP b Krebs cycle 2 AT c Electron transport 32 ATP Glycolysis the first stage of energy harvesting sugar splitting A molecule of glucose is prepared for energy release ATP used to change glucose to a less stable sugar When this molecule is split they have 3 carbons glucose had 6 Then the process happens again 3 products of glycolysis i 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 pyruvic acid Anaerobic respiration energy conversion without oxygen Alcoholic fermentation process by which yeasts produce alcohol as a byproduct of glycolysis anaerobically fungiplants Lactic acid formation also product of glycolysis but pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH so it becomes lactic acid During quick burst of energy oxygen cant be delivered fast enough so when muscles capacity for aerobic energy transfer has reached limit uses glycolysis and lactate fermatiation to supply more ATP animals Mitochondria have folded membranes and an inner and outer membrane Krebs cycle takes place to the interior of the inner membrane inner compartment reactions of electron transport chain ETC take place within the inner membrane itself a the movement of electrons through the ETC power ATP formation by releasing enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion The fall of H ions back to the inner compartment drives the synthesis of ATP molecules by the enzyme ATP synthase 3 products of krebs cycle a 6NADH 2 FADH2 2ATP Electron transport chain ETC 3ml stage of aerobic energy harvesting in mitochondrial inner membrane electron carriers donate electronsH ions to ETC NADH is now at a higher energy level because donations traveled down energy hill So NADH is now oxidized when it runs into the right enzyme in the ETC When its oxidized it donates its electrons and a proton to ETC Process repeated Movement of electrons through the ETC releases enough energy to power movement of H ions through complex from inner compartment to outer compartment against their concentrationelectrical gradients ions H being pumped up energy hill with energy supplied by downhill fall of electrons through ETC h The H ions ow through enzyme ATP synthase and cause it to spin adding extra phosphate group P to ADP making ATP 99062 QQWQPPP 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 i This makes 32 ATP 36 net ATP for all of aerobic respiration Role of oxygen in cellular respiration a Oxygen is final acceptor of the electrons that move through the ETC joins with 2 electrons and 2 H to make byproduct water Assembly line yields product ATP but also materials used for making it de energized electrons If these electrons weren t taken away by oxygen they would stay in the ETC in the last enzyme complex keeping it from accepting electrons from the previous complex up the chain until the whole system would be backed up all the way to glycolysis which provides 2ATP enough for only small organisms Animals need oxygen because the energy assembly line will only keep moving if the electrons that are part of it are removed by oxygen Catabolism breakdown of fats carbs and proteins relates to cellular respiration because it is similar However glycerol doesn t get converted to glucose first it gets changed to pyruvic acid and goes through krebs cycle and ETC making ATP Fatty acids are converted to acetyl CoA the substrate that enters the krebs cycle yielding energy by becoming oxidized there Anaerobic respiration going thru glycolysis without oxygen a in yeast fermentationproducts of ethyl alcohol and CO2 b in animals some bacteria fermentation product of lactic acid mitochondria have folded membranes outer and inner CO2 is released between glycolysis and the krebs cycle out of the cell CO2 also released after krebs cycle Krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place within the mitochondrion The movement of electrons through the ETC power the process by releasing enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the inner compartment of the mitochondrion Products of krebs cycle 6NADH 2FADH2 2ATP The ETC provides most of the ATP in cellular respiration The electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are released into the ETC and transported along its chain of molecules The movement of electrons along the chain release enough energy to power the pumping of H ions across the membrane into the outer compartment of the mitochondrion The fall of the H ions back into the inner compartment drives the synthesis of ATP molecules by enzyme ATP synthase an enzyme that functions in cellular respiration by bringing together ADP and inorganic phosphate molecules to make ATP ETC makes 34 ATP Aerobic respiration 0 In mitochondria I Krebs cycle I Substrate phosphorylation I Electron transportchemiosmosis Photosynthesis 0 Energy comes from the sun and then is stored in plants after photosynthesis in carbohydrates 0 Cellular respiration converts energy in carbohydrates to ATP 0 Carbon cycle 0 Leaf structure aids in photosynthesis I Flat more surface area to catch sunlight I Wax on top I Thousands of chloroplasts I Stacked membranes The stroma is the area outside the thylakoids which make up the chloroplast ATP is made in the thylakoids 339 ll 12 I Co2 fixation I Chlorophyll part of thylakoid membrane Light wavelength Shorter more energy Longer less energy Gamma raysgtx raysgtuvgtvisible lightgtmicrowavesgtradio waves shorter to longer wavelength Plants only use energy from visible light 750 nm long wavelength 450 nm short wavelength Light is either absorbed re ected or transmitted Photosynthesis 0 Light reactions I ATP produced chemiosmosis I NADPH2 produced I water is split releasing oxygen calvin cycle light independent reactions I CO2 is fixed using ATP and NADPH2 Fluorescence of a chlorophyll solution is excited with UV light because excited electrons can only go to ground state 0 Calvin cycle C3 cycle Set of steps in photosynthesis in which entergetic electrons are brought together with CO2 and sugar to make an energetic carbohydrate Carbon cycle the cycle of carbon use through all living thingsthe environment CO2 accumulation contributes to global warming esp in the form of fossil fuel burning and deforestation Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast organelles in plants Has inner membrane outer membrane stroma and stacks of thylakoids A stack of thylakoids is called a granum Leaves are at to absorb more sunlight The epidermis is the top protective layer and is often covered with wax Mesophyll cells are underneath the epidermis and they are where most photosynthesis happens Also the epidermis has lots of microscopic openings called stomata that let CO2 pass in and let water vapor pass out Epidermis lies below the mesophyll cells as well and that is where the stomata are The stroma is the liquid material inside chloroplasts and a network of membranes called the thylakoids are inside A section of thylakoids are called a granum electrons used in photosynthesis will come from water contained in the thylakoid compartment and all the steps of photosynthesis take place either within the thylakoid membrane or in the stroma that surrounds the thylakoids Light in the red and blue range drive photosynthesis mostly Shrter wavelength is more energy Long wavelength is low energy Absorption spectrum is the light that is taken in by leaves Leaves capture only a portion of the light that falls on them Action spectrum the rate of photosynthesis measured by oxygen released Transmission of light light that passes through Absorption of light light that is absorved or retained Re ection of light light that is re ected or bounces off Light dependent reactions occur within the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts The products of these reactions are NADPH and oxygen atoms which become 02 molecules and are what we breathe Another product is electrons The light independent reactions calvin cycle CO2 fixation occur in the stroma the oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from the splitting of water 13 14 ATP formation by chemiosmosis in the chloroplast is a light reaction solar energy causes electrons to become boosted up and then move down two energy hills They move to primary electron acceptors and then down ETC until taken up by NADP to form NADPH which transfer the electrons to the calvin cycle where they are used to make sugars Oxygen is a byproduct a Meanwhile in mitochondria ATP is formed by the ow of H ions thru ATP synthase enzyme and NADH is turned to NAD after giving electrons to power the ATP synthase Water is a byproduct Calvin cycle C3 cycle set of steps in photosynthesis in which energetic electrons are brought together with carbon dioxide and a sugar to produce an anergetic carbohydrate C02 xation is the gas being incorporated into an organic molecule An enzyme called rubisco brings together 3 molecules of carbon dioxide with 3 molecules of the sugar RuBP In this reaction one carbon from each C02 molecule is added to the 5 carbon RuBP and this is done 3 times The 3 resulting 6 carbon molecules are immediately split into 6 4 carbon molecules called 3PGA 3phosphoglyceric acid 3GP is the product 0 the calvin cycle Product of photosynthesis Used for energy or transformed into materials that make up the plant 15 Types of photosynthesizers a Plants b Algae c Bacteria 16 Photorespiration a Regular photosynthesis C3 b rubisco causes problems because it doesn t know the difference between C02 and 02 Sometimes picks up 02 Wastes energy 17 CAM phososynthesis desert plants 18 Photorespiration a glitch in the process of photosynthesis Mechanism that evolved in one group of plants Takes place within calvin cycle Rubisco sometimes binds to oxygen instead of carbon undercutting plant growth Photorespiration is a process in which the enzyme rubisco reduces carbon fixation in photosynthesis by binding with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide 19 C3 photosynthesis used by most plants Efficient use of ATP Problem photorespiration 20 C4 used by corn sugar cane warm environments Less photorespiration Uses more ATP 21 CAM cactus pineapple orchid dry environments Less water loss Uses more ATP Hard to bank enough C02 Done at night Close stomata during day and open them at night I The ETC provides energy for chemiosmosis I NAD plus electrons NADH during ETC m DNA a code for making protein 0 DNAgtRNAgtprotein 0 Adenine to thymine 0 Cytosine to guanine mRNA codons and amino acid sequences 0 ACC thr Ni 0 CCG pro 0 AAA lys O GGG gly 0 CGC arg 0 CCC pro DNA codes for the primary structure of proteins DNA replication split etc Condense into chromatin then chromosome Mitosis when a cell divides it must make a complete copy of the genetic information in its nucleus and then as it divides give one complete set to each daughter cell 0 Mitosis produces new nuclei with exactly the same chromosomal endowment as the parent cell 0 Females XX chromosomes 0 Males XY chromosomes Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes 1 from each parent Humans have 44 chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes Mitosis 0 Interphase 0 Prophase 0 Metaphase 0 Anaphase 0 Telophase Cytokinesis separate Division of cytoplasm Not part of mitosis Meiosis 0 All cancers represent a failure of cells to limit their multiplication of the cell cycle meiosis preparing for sexual reproduction 0 always 4 products 0 Reduces the number of chromosomes by half in the formation of haploid gametes animals or spores plants 0 Ovaries femalesegg 0 Testes malessperm Each chromosome is made of 2 chromatids Homologous chromosomes that are alike Pair 0 Diploid species have matching pairs of homologous chromosomes Meiosis I separates the homologous pairs Meiosis II separates the chromatids At metaphase I of meiosis there are 2 equally probable arrangements of chromosomes DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell DNA structure double helix 2 outside handrails made of sugar deoxyribose and phosphate 4 chemical bases adenine thymine cytosine and guanine A T G C A particular sequence of the bases has info that can be acted on like a code for protein structure The different sequences of A T C G s specify production of certain proteins and the separate sequences of bases are separate genes Protein synthesis a The info contained in a length of DNA is transcribed onto a length of messenger RNA mRNA b The mRNA then exits the cells nucleus and goes to a structure in the cells cytoplasm called a ribosome c Here the mRNA sequence is read and a string of amino acids is put together in the order specified by the sequence The result is a protein 5 Mitosis the apportioning of DNA into 2 identical quantities 6 Cytokinesis the splitting of the cellular material 7 DNA replication a Original DNA molecule unwinds b Each of the single strands of the original molecule serves as a template or pattern for the creation of a second DNA strand 8 How is DNA packaged in the cell The DNA strands wrap around proteins to make chromatin The chromatin folds up to make chromosomes a when DNA replicates the result is 2 copies of the original DNA molecule At the chromosomal level the result is a single chromosome in duplicated state The chromosome is composed of 2 sister chromatids the 2 copies of the original DNA molecule 9 Karyotype a pictoral arrangement of a complex set of human chromosomes 10 Homologous pair any 2 chromosomes that have paternal and maternal copies that are the same in function 11 Autosomes nonsex chromosomes a Human females have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes and males have 22 since females sex chromosomes are homologous XX rather than XY 12 Cell cycle the repeating pattern of growth genetic duplication and division seen in most cells a G1 gap one Part of interphase Normal cell operations and cell growth b S synthesis phase Synthesis of DNA resulting in the duplication of the chromosomes c G2 gap 2 More cytoplasmic growth and a preparation for cell division 13 Mitosis a Interphase DNA has already duplicated in S phase Centrosome has doubled b Prophase chromosomes take shape the 2 centrosomes begin to move toward the cellular poles sprouting microtubules as they go c Metaphase attachment and alignment microtubules attach to sister chromatids and align them at the metaphase plate d Anaphase separation Sister chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell each chromatid now becoming a full edged chromosome e Telophase and cytokinesis exit from mitosis Chromosomes decondense nuclear envelopes form around the 2 separate complements of chromosomes Cleavage furrow begins to form i Chromatid synthesis occurs during S phase in interphase ii There are 2chromatid chromosomes during prophase and metaphase iii The centromeres of sister chromatids are grabbed by spindle fibers during anaphase to become chromosomes iv Pictures of phases 14 Cell division a Animal cells cleavage furrow Splits apart b Plant cells golgi complex releases vesicles with cell wall material and the vesicles fuse together to form a cell plate that grows toward the parent cell wall Newly formed plasma membrane and cell wall fuse with the old to make 2 new cells 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 c Bacterial cells daughter chromosomes attach to different sites on the plasma membrane The cell membrane and wall grow an extension between the attachment points of the 2 chromosomes The cell wall and membrane join in the middle to form 2 new cells Cancer is a failure of the cell cycle failure of cells to limit their multiplication in the cell cycle The drug Gleevec blocks chronic myeloid leukemia by blocking a molecular signaling pathway It binds to a site on a protein preventing ATP from binding with it so it doesn t have energy to keep the cell moving through cell division 3 traits of cancer cells a Turn on stay on Repressor genes don t repress b Failure of cell cycle cant limit multiplication c Destroy working tissues d Caused by mutant genes 2 things required for cancer a Control mechanisms that induce cell division must become hypractive Onogenes accelerate the cell cycle b Mechanisms that suppress cell division must fail Tumor suppressor genes fail in chronic myeloid leukemia Gleevec blocks caner by using a drug that blocks ATP s binding site so the mutant gene has no source of energy and can no longer fuel rapid cell division Diploid species have matching pairs of homologous chromosomes Meiosis is confined to sexual reproduction because meiosis is defined as a process in which a single diploid cell divides to produce four haploid reproductive cells and eggs and sperm come from diploid cells Half of each pair of homologous chromosomes come from the father and half from the mother and the product is four haploids the two pairs of chromosomes that make up males and females Meiosis I a Prophase I homologous chromosomes link as they condense forming tetrads crossing over b Metaphase I microtubules move homologous chromosomes to metaphase plate Independent assortment homologous chromosomes can line up differently random event i crossing over in prophase I 2 homologous chromosomes join forming a tetrad after which non sister chromatids from each chromosome exchange reciprocal portions of themselves In this way genetic material from maternal and paternal sources is shuf ed during the formation of gametes c Anaphase I microtubules separate homologous chromosomes sister chromatids remain together d Telophase 1 two haploid daughter cells result from cytokinesis Meiosis II a Prophase II brief b Metaphase II sister chromatids line up at new metaphase plate c Anaphase II sister chromatids separate d Telophase II 4 haploid cells result During meiosis homologous chromosomes synapse in prophase I a tetrad is 2 homologous chromosomes that have paired up See crossing over which occurs during metaphase I the homologous chromosomes line up randomly producing genetic diversity sister chromatids separate during anaphase 11 They are pulled apart by the centrosomes to create 4 haploid cells in telophase II 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Crossing over shuf es genetic material from maternal and paternal sources during the formation of gametes Independent assortment a random event involving the alignment of homologous chromosomes These processes both contribute to genetic diversity by ensuring that genetic material is shuf ed and appears in cells randomly in humans there are 46 two to the 23rd possible maternal and paternal combinations due to independent assortment Gamete formation starting gemale cells are oogonia and starting male cells are spermatogonia These are diploid cells that create 2 other sets of diploid cells the primary oocytes and primary spermatocytes These are the cells that undergo meiosis yielding haploid egg and sperm cells Spermatogenesis a The diploid spermatogonium cell produces a primary spermatocyte b The primary spermatocyte goes through meiosis I yielding 2 haploid secondary spermatocyles c The secondary spermatocytes go through meiosis II yielding 4 haploid spermatids which will develop into mature sperm cells Oogenesis a Before the birth of a female an oogonium cell developes into a primary oocyte this cell enters meiosis I but remains there until it matures in the female ovary beginning at puberty b On average one primary oocyte per month will complete meiosis I in this process an unequal meiotic division of cellular material leads to the production of one polar body and one secondary oocyte which enters into meiosis II c Only secondary oocytes that are fertilized by sperm will complete meiosis II and develop into an egg The 3 polar bodies that are produced by meiosis I and II will be degraded Sex determination in humans a Early in meiosis I the mothers 2 X chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate XX Meanwhile in the father s meiosis his X and Y chromosomes line up XY b The XX and XY pairs then separate into different cells c The chromatids that made up the duplicated chromosomes separate yielding individual eggs and sperm 1 Should an X bearing sperm from the male fertilize the egg the child will be a girl Should a Y bearing sperm from the male fertilize the egg the child will be a boy Seven pea plant characteristics studied by mendel Seed shape smooth vs wrinkled Seed color yellow vs green Pod shape in ated vs wrinkled Pod color green vs yellow Flower color purple vs white Flower postion on stem vs at tip Stem length tall vs dwarf dominant to recessive ratios averaged 3 to l phenotype physiological feature bodily characteristic or behavior of an organism genotype genetic makeup allele an alternative form of a gene homozygous an organism that has 2 identical alleles of a gene for a given character heterozygous an organism that has differing alleles for a character QQWQPPP 39 40 41 42 10 an F1 cross represents the offspring of the parent generation or the first filial generation being fertilized with another variety F2 generation grown from seeds of F1 and allowed to self pollinate cross plant with iself F2 cross After analyzing the data from his 7 Fl crosses Mendel learned that inheritance for the peas wasn t a matter of blending characteristicsphenotypes But they could retain the potential for recessive phenotypes Discovered pairs of genes matched alternative forms alleles Mendel s rst law of segregation differing characters in organisms result from 2 genetic elements alleles that separate in gamete formation such that each gamete gets only one of the 2 alleles Mendel and the pea plants genetics 0 Hereditary factors occur in pairs 0 One factor may mask or prevent expression of the other dominance 0 A pair of factors is segregated during the formation of gametes and randomly recombined during fertilization Testcross punnett squares Rule of multiplication probalility of any 2 events happening is the products of each of their respective probabilities Given AaBch X aaBBBc probability of producing AaBch is 18 12 X 12 X 12 Reception of mendel s ideas significance of his published work wasn t recognized until after his death Barr body inactivated X chromosome Females have one barr body in nucleus Males don t have them Turner syndrome 15000 female births One X no Y 45 chromosomes barr body negative Klinefelter syndrome 12000 male births XXY or XXXY 4748 chromosomes barr body positive XYY male 1 1000 general male pop l50 insitutionalized males A male calico cat is XYY Punnet squares provide intuitive visual sense of why certain traits occur Testcross if dominant phenotype unkown Allele an alternative form of a gene Humans are likely to have no more than 2 alleles for a given gene Rule of multiplication states that the probability of any 2 events happening is the product of their respective probabilities Rule of addition when an outcome can occur in 2 or more different ways The probability of this happening is the sum of the respective probabilities in a dihybrid cross the phenotypic ratios are 933 l Mendels second law law of independent assortment states that during gamete formation gene pairs assort independently of one another in meiosis pairs of homologous chromosomes assort independently from one another at the metaphase plate In dihybrid crosses characters are transmited independently of one another How many unique gametes produced from genotype AaBchDdEeFf a 2664 6 letter combinations with 2 possibilities for each 2 to the 6th Incomplete dominance a genetic condition in which the heterozygote phenotype is intermediate between either of the homozygous phenotypes 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Codominance a condition in which 2 alleles of a given gene have different phenotypic effects with both effects manifesting in organisms that are heterozygous for the gene The offspring of 2 roan cattle parents could have 1 brown 2 roan 1 white a Incomplete dominance makes heterozygous phenotype a mix of both traits Polygenic inheritance the inheritance of a genetic character that is determined by the interaction of multiple genes with each gene having a small additive effect on the character Bell curve distribution of values that is symmetrical around the average a Humans have a range of phenotypes because polygenic inheritance creates diversity however most biological traits tend to cluster around the average or the middle of a range of values rather than at the extreme ends This is why a bell curve is used Examples are height in humans and beak depth in birds The antigens found in human blood types are glycolipid molecules that extend from the surface of red blood cells AA AO BB B0 AB 00 Type O is the universal donor Type AB is the universal receiver The environemtn can affect the expression of genes by producing factors that lead to the expression of different traits For example smoking contributing to lung cancer and more acidic soil producing blue rather than pink hydrangeas Ses linkage deals with a gene being located on a sex chromosome Xlinked genetic conditions stem from dysfunctional alleles located on the X chromosome Men are more likely to suffer from these conditions because men have only a single X chromosome A woman with a dysfunctional allele on one of her X chromosomes usually will be protected by a second functional allele that s on the second X a Recessive genetic conditions are those that will not eist in the presence of a single functional allele Persons who do not suffer from recessive genetic conditions may still possess an allele for them which they can pass on to their offspring Such carriers are heterozygous for the condition the alleles they have for the trait differ one being functional the other being dysfunctional b Morgan s whiteeyed F2 were all male because F2 female ies that inherited one white eyed X chromosome allele also inherited a second red eyed X allele making them red eyed The males had no second x chromosome and the Y chromosome had no genes for eye color so they were whit eyed Sex linked traits in humans are traits that are found on sex chromosomes The effects of x linked recessive disorders a Hemophilia faulty blood clotting b Duchenne muscular dystrophy wasting of muscles c Red green color blindness inability to distinguish between red and green Because queen Victoria was a hemophilia carrier the Russian czars son eventually had it and his mother turned to a monk and anger with the monk among the russion people may have played a role in the Russian revolution of 1917 Prince William and harry wer not born with hemophilia because king Edward VII didn t inherit the allele from queen Victoria his mom Recessive disorder genetic disorder that will not exist in the presence of a functional allele So you only need one good allele to avoid it Autosomal recessive disorder a recessive dysfuniton related to an autosome a chromosome other than x and y a Sickle cell anemia is a recessive disorder where the protein hemoglobin S replaces the protein hemoglobin A and causes red blood cells to take on a sickled shape that clogs arteries decreasing oxygen ow It is an advantage to be heterozygous for hemoglobin S 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 in malaria country because it makes red blood cells resistance to invasion by the most severe form of malaria that destroys red blood cells Autosomal dominant disorder a dominnt genetic disorder caused by a faulty allele that lies on an autosomal chromosome Huntington disease results in mental impairment and uncontrollable spastic movements called chorea brain tissue degeneration Polydacylism is extra fingers or toes Color blindnesss is sex linked Dwarfism is dominant autosomal allele Aneuploidy a condition where an organism has either more or fewer chromosomes than normally exist in its species full set Nondisjunction a failure of homologous chrosomosomes or sister chromatids to separate during cell division Meiosis Trisomy 21 is down syndrome or having an extra 3rd copy of chromosome 21 Chances of giving birth to a child with down syndrome increase with mothers age at conception X inactivation barr body an inactivated x chromosome Females have one barr body in their nucleus Male nuclei do not have barr bodies sex chromatin Aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes a Turner syndrome produces people who are phenotypically female but have only one X chromosome Ovaries don t develop Sterile Short Brown spots called nevi on body b Klinefelter syndrome XXY men feminine features some breast development more feminine figure no facial hair tall dysfunctional testicles Male calico cat is rare because it is XXY Basically klinefelter syndrome Because genetic determination of some coat colors in cats is linked to the X chromosome calicoes nearly always female Genes are made of DNA and they bring about the production of proteins DNA is composed of a Phosphate groups Deoxyribose sugar Bases adenine thymine cytosine guanine A T C G These 3 molecules link to form the nucleotide basic building blocks of DNA Each one has one of each component above Across the strands of the helix pairs are AT and GC always The sugars and phosphates link to make the ladder rails and the bases link to form the stairsteps The Watson crick DNA model showed the double helix atom by atom bond by bond showed sugar phosphate base A T G C nucleotide Hydrogen bonds between AT and CG These always form together The Watsoncrick double helix model provides an obvious mechanism for copying because the AT CG pairing rule meant that each single strand of DNA could serve as a template for the synthesis of a new single strand ex each A on the old means a T on the new all that needs to happen is the separation of the 2 old strands splitting stairs right down middle and for new strans to be put together that were complemantary to the old DNA replicates by this splitting and each side is a template for the synthesis of a new DNA molecule as free nucleotides on the DNA This makes 2 identical strands Mutations are caused because the cells various DNA error correcting mechanisms don t always correct all mistakes A mutation is a permanent alteration of a DNA base sequence a Germline cell mutations are heritable frm cells that become eggs or sperm b Somatic cell mutations cells that don t become eggs or sperm are nonheritable Point mutation a mutation of a single base pair in the genome a Melanoma is caused by a somatic cell mutation and is nonheritable b c d I Transgenic biotechnology 0 Transgenic biotechnology the splicing of DNA from one species to another Restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to make recombinant DNA Scientists can cut genomes at particular places with the discovery of restriction enzymes enzymes occurring naturally in bacteria that are used in biotechnology to cut DNA into desired fragments 0 Restriction enzymes cut at certain points in the repeating sequence so that either end is cut and a fragment from the middle is left Plasmids are extra chromosomal rings of bacterial DNA that are very short If the same restriction enzyme is now used on the DNA of isolated plasmids the result is complementary sticky ends of plasmid and human DNA so if they fit together like puzzle pieces When DNA fragments are mixed with the cut plasmids the human and plasmid DNA form base pairs and the human DNA is incorporated into the plasmid circle This is recombinant DNA because the human genome has now been recombined with a different stretch of DNA the plasmid sequence to make 2 or more segments of DNA that have been combined by humans into a sequence that does not exist in nature recombinant DNA Cell transformation a cell s incorporation of genetic material from outside its boundary cDNA is complemantary DNA Copy of messenger RNA It is DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA mRNA template in a reaction Used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes Introns any nucleotide sequences within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing while the final mature RNA product of a gene is being generated 0 we need cDNA from eukaryotic genes because eukaryotic genes can contain introns noncoding sequences exons are sequences that code for mRNA 0 prokaryotic genes have nointrons so their RNA is not subject to cutting splicing Reproductive cloning 0 To clone to make an exact genetic copy of A clone is an exact genetic copy of an organism 0 Dolly the sheep clone 0 A cell was taken from the udder of a 6 yr old white sheep and then allowed to divide many times in the lab and an egg was taken from a black faced sheep 0 One of the resulting udder cells was selected to be the donor cell for the cloning The DNA was sucked out of the black face sheep egg 0 The donor cell and egg were put next to each other and an electric current was applied to the eg cell 0 This caused the 2 cells to fuse and prompted an activation that reprogrammed the donor cell DNA 0 This caused the fused cell to start developing as an embryo 0 After some incubation the embryo was implanted in a 3rd sheep which was the surrogate mother 0 The mother gave birth to dolly the sheep who grew into an adult Clone I Stem cell any cell that can give rise to more cells of its kind along with at least one variety of specialized cell I Embryonic stem cells cells from the blastocyst stage of a human embryo that are capable of giving rise to all the types of cells in the adult body ESC I Induced pluripotent stem cells iPS cells Cells that have been induced into a state of pluripotency through the introduction of genes from outside their genome adult stem cells 0 Virus particles making iPS cells 0 Reprogramming genes are spliced into virus 0 Virus particles are added to a culture of human skin cells 0 Viral infection of skin cells causes the insertion of reprogramming genes into skin cell DNA 0 Added genes reprogram cells turning them into iPS cells 0 Factors added to iPS cells allow them to produce cells of desired type I Forensic biotechlogy 0 Polymerase chain reaction PCR a technique for quickly producing many copies of a specific segment of DNA 0 Electrophoresis in forensic DNA typing works through comparisons of short tandem repeat STR patterns that are found in all human genomes 0 The STR pattern in a suspects DNA is compared from the pattern extracted from a crime scene 0 STR patterns differ from one person to another and are represented by peaks in a figure The samples are compared to determine whether they have peaks in the same places The sequence of bases in DNA specify the sequence of amino acids in a protein DNAgtRNAgtprotein DNA oprates through RNA mRNA messenger RNA tRNA transfer RNA rRNAribosomal RNA RNAribo nucleic acid 0 Sugar is ribose rather than deoxyribose 0 Uricil U replaces thymine T 0 RNA is usually single stranded Protein is polymer of amino acis There are 20 unique amino acids Making protein 0 Transcription making RNA 0 Translation making protein occurs t ribosomes needs mRNA ribosomes tRNA 0 Transcription I Forming 3 kinds of RNA from DNA I Sequence of codons 0 Intron any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing gt19quot 10 ll 0 RNA processing remove introns and splice exons together 0 Translation I Initiation start codon attracts anticodon I Elongation adding amino acis I Termination stop codon I Alternative RNA splicing can produce different proteins from the same primary transcript 0 Polysomes more than one ribosome translating a single mRNA or RNA transcript 0 Mutations I Heritable germ cell mutations germ cells become sex cells I Nonheritable somatic cell mutation I Caused by chemicals mutagens like cigarette smoke UV light overexposure X rays free radicals I Insertion deletion I Frame shift I Nonsense premature stop codon due to a point or frame shift mutation Restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are used to make recombinant DNA Reproductive cloning 0 The production of mammals through cloning 0 Clone to make an exact genetic copy of something 0 Identical twins are clones Proteins are made up of amino acids which form a polypeptide chain when strung together Polypeptide chains function as proteins only when folded into their proper 3D shape Protein structure a Amino acid b Polypeptide chain c Protein Amino acid is the monomer of protein They are the building blocks of biological molecules There are 20 different amino acids that can make up a polypeptide Transcription the process by which the genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto messenger RNA Takes place in the nucleus of a cell Its products are mRNA chains A mRNA transcript primary transcript is an RNA chain that must undergo some modification or editing before it qualifies as messenger RNA DNA goes from 3 prime to 5 prime RNA goes from 5 prime to 3 prime 3 ways that RNA differs from DNA a Sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose b Base uracil instead of base thymine c Usually single stranded instead of double Translation the process by which information encoded in mRNA is used to assemble a protein at a ribosome Occurs at ribosome Codon coding triplets of mRNA bases Start codon AUG there are 3 stop codons UGA UAA UAG Alterntive splicing a process in which a single primary transcript can be edited in different ways to yield multiple messenger RNAs a RNA processing removes introns and splices exons together b An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing 12 Making a protein a RNA is first transcribed from DNA during transcription base pairs are used to copy the code from DNA to mRNA in the nucleus and then the mRNA leaves the nucleus for a ribosome in the cytoplasm b during translation amino acids join the mRNA chain at the ribosome brought by tRNA The mRNA is read by the ribosome and a chain of amino acids is linked together in the order specified by the mRNA sequence i Translation 1 A messenger RNA transcript binds to the ribosome as the first tRNA is arrivingand the mRNA codon AUG is the start sequence for most polypeptide chains The tRNA with an amino acid attached then binds the AUG codon 2 The large ribosomal subunit joins the ribosome as a second tRNA arrives bearing a leucine amino acid The second tRNA binds to the mRNA chain within the ribosomes A site A bond is formed between the newly leu amino acid and the met amino acid forming a polypeptide chain The ribosome now effectively shifts one codon to the right relocating the original P site tRNA to the E site and moving a new mRNA codon to the A site 3 The E site tRNA leaves the ribosome even as a new tRNA binds with the A site mRNA codon and the process of elongation continues 4 3 codons do not code for any amino acid so they are stop signals for polypeptide synthesis When the chain gets here it is released to fold up and be processed as a protein and the process is comlete 13 Polysome more than one ribosome translating a single RNA creates many copies of the same protein 14 Point mutation change in one of the DNA nucleotides X ray UV radiation chemicals etc 15 Frame shift mutation shift in reading due to insertion or deletion 16 Nonsense mutation premature stop codon due to a point or frame shift mutation 17 Malignant melanoma the worst kind of skin cancer Deadliest Caused by uv overexposure Caused by mutations because of the uv light 18 Humans have 20000 to 25000 genes 19 Genome human is 32 billion base pairs long 20 All these bases have to be copied twice because we have 2 copies of each chromosome 21 This complexity is necessary because it enables life I Females who are Rh have risk for factor because could get into fetus and destroy the cells I Without a dihybrid cross you don t get the 9331 ratio and this affects independent assortment I Gel electrophorysis separates DNA based on size 0 Use southern blot which forms dots a pattern similar to a barcode I Short tandem repeats sections of DNA where DNA polymerase gets stuck and can repeat multiple times These can be matched to identify people by their DNA Everyone has their own pattern of repeats EXAM FOUR I Henslow darwin s mentor at Cambridge I In uence on Darwinnatural selection theories read malthus essay on populations in 1838 I Individual variation individuals in a population of any species vary in many heritable traits I Struggle for existence I Differential reproductive success I Darwin called differential reproductive success natural selection and envisioned it as the cause of evolution I 1844 origin of species essay I Time I Who gave idea of natural selection over population to Darwin MALTHUS I Natural selection and adaptation 0 Individuals of any population vary from one another in many characteristics Even siblings differ 0 These variations can be inherited I Individuals don t evolve populations do I Medium of evolution is the gene pool I Raw material of evolution is inheritable variations I Mechanism of evolution is natural selection I Evolution consists of 0 Appearance of inheritable variation by sexual recombination and mutation 0 Spreading of these variations through a population by differential reproduction I Genetic basis of evolution is different alleles I Hardy Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium the allele frequency in a population will remain constant no evolution if 0 Population is large 0 No mutations 0 Mating is random 0 No gene ow no immigration or emigration I For a change in allele frequency one or more of the hw conditions are not operating in nature 0 Pop usually small 0 Mutations frequent 0 Mate selection 0 Immigration and emigration occur I P is frequency of A I Q is frequency of a I P22pqq2l I Genetic drift has to occur in a small population highlights of Darwins journey of discovery a one of his Cambridge professors arranged for him to be the naturalist on the hms beagle going to survey coasts around the world b stopped at Galapagos islands c 5 years 18311836 d Brazil tierra del fuego chile Galapagos Evolutionary theory a Common descent with modi cation particular groups or species of living things can undergo modification in successive generations with such change sometimes resulting in the formation of new separate species b Natural selection the process through which traits that confer a reproductive advantage to individual organisms grow more common in populations of organisms over successive generations 10 ll 12 13 Darwins contribution to the theory of evolution a Evolution developed existing ideas about descent with modification while providing a large body of evidence in support for them Also was first person to perceive natural selection as the primary driving force behind descent with modification Evolutionary thinking before Darwin a Lyell auther of principles of geology Geological forces still operating could account for the changes geologists could see in the earths surface b Lamarck French naturalist Published book 1809 Believed organisms changed from over generations through the inheritance of acquired characteristics Over time a species could acquire enough changes to diverge into 2 Evolve c Cuvier French scientist Found evidence of the extinction of species d Before Darwin mix of scientific findings and personal beliefs and specuation During the beagles voyage Darwin was affected by the Galapagos He perceived variations between species and the 2 principles previously mentioned Alfred russel Wallace English naturalist Collectd birdsbutter y specimens from south American and southeast asia Realized natural selection shapes evolution Wrote out ideas and sent to Darwin Read both their papers to scientific society Let to Darwin working on famous book Natural selection driving force behind evolution Organisms with favorable variations were preserved lived and left offspring And those with unfavorable variations destroyed left fewer offspring or none at all Over generations organisms evolved in the direction of the favorable variations Darwin was doubted because no one could imagine how such differencs could be reliably passed down over generations He was officially vindicated eventually by advances in genetics and modern synthesis convergence of several lines of biology research into a unified evolutionary theory Theory a general set of principles supported by evidence that explains some aspect of the natural world There is a false notion of a scientific controversy by those who oppose the theory of evolution because there are lots of principels that make up the theory and some of them are fact However opponents point out that the evidence of evolution cant be observed Natural selection some organisms have more favorable traits so they are more likely to survive and reproduce and thus produce offspring that also have the favorable traits Malthus was important because darwin read his book on human popultaiton and food supply an essay on the principle of population Showed that under these circumstances favorable variations woud tend to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed Darwin showed that natural selection is the driving force behind evolution Wallace English naturalist Also discovered after darwin that natural selection is the process that shapes evolution He wrote his ideas down and sent them to darwin Darwin shared wallaces paper and some of his own letters to a scientific society in London in 1858 so Wallace wouldn t all of a sudden get credit for his ideas Had little immediate effect but led to darwin working on origin of species Evidence for evolution a Radiometric dating evolution occurs at its own pace Radiometric dating is a technique for determining the age of objects by measuring the decay of the radioactive elements they contain This transformation occurs at a fixed rate b Fossils similarity of fossil types by sedimentary layers Similar types of fossils are found in the same geologic layers c Morphology the sudy of the physical forms that organisms take Some classic evidence for is seen in the similar forelimb structures found in a very diverse group of mammals cat bat 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 whale gorilla This means that they all evolved from a common ancestor These features are homologous same in structure owing to inheritance from a common ancestor d Vestigial character a structure in an organism whose original function has been lost during the course of evolution EX ostrich has wings but cant y e Gene modification every living thing on earth uses DNA and has an almost identical genetic code This means there is a unity running through all earthly life it is also consistent with the idea that all life on earth ultimately had a single starting point single common ancestor Molecular biology also shows how long its been since organisms shared a common ancestor f Experimental evidence endler guppies that were larger and more colorful were chosen more often by females for mating However these traits made them more likely to be eaten by predators Shows environement can shape evolution or organisms Lactose intolerance and evolution all human infants can digest milk but after early childhood ends a majority of the worlds people stop producing the lactase enzyme because the gene for it shuts down These people become lactose intolerant Any lactose that enters their small intestine stays in the digestive tract drawing in water and feeding bacteria leading to bloating gas and mild pain This is because for most of human history the LCT gene would have been useless in adults because we had no source for milk besides from our mothers during infancy Then people started drinking it but most Asians and Africans are still lactose intolerate because the main mutaitons to keep producing lactase are European and middle eastern Homolgous features that are the same in structure owing to inheritance from a common ancestor Shows evolution because it means the animals evolved from a common ancestor Vestigial characters a structure in an organism whose original function has been lost during the course of evolution Lamarck a French naturalist Believed that organisms changed form over generations through what has been termed the inheritance of acquired characteristics This meant that the original ancestors changed physical characteristics immediately and then passed these characterstics on to osspring This is incorrect because evolution is more gradual Organisms with slightly more favorable characteristics slowly evolve generation by generation the earth is 45 billion years old Life on earth began 38 billion years ago if the worlds history were compressed into one hour what kind of life appeared during a first 50 min microbes Single celled organisms b last 10 min animal life c last 00 sec humans how long ago did mammals rst appear on earth a 200 million years ago What physical traits adaptations do all mammals have in common tha relate to living on land a Evolved on land Warm blooded Give birth to live young Breathe air What type of animal did the creodont skull that dr gingrich discovered resemble a A wolf Whale valley is an archeological site located in the sahara desert How could there be whale skulls there a It was once an ocean Whales swim moving spines up and down like otters rather than side to side like fish since they are mammals Tetrapods have 4 legs Early tetrapod fish had fingers or hands The Cambrian explosion is an explosion of animals appering on earth in a short burst 570 million years ago Transformation breakthroughlots of diversity 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Trilobites are extinct arthropods External skeletons Descendants are crabs spiders etc All embryos start out as clusters of nearly identical cells Cambrian explosion was very divrse showed different layers of sediment keep showing new organisms during this time period Segmentations patterns can be altered by mutations that directly affect phenotype Flaws like body parts in wrong place These segmentation patterns are directly affected by DNA pattemsinstructions Population all the members of a species that live in a defined geographic region at a given time Populations evolve not individuals Changes in idnvidivuals are not passed on to multiple descendants to evolve many members of a pop must demonstrate a change Populations evolve through genes shuf ing addition and deletion of genetic material Because of gene pool all the alleles that exist in a population Forces that bring about changes in allele frequencies a Mutation alteration in an organisms DNA generally has no effect or a harmful effect but beneficial or adaptive mutations are indispensable to evolution b Gene ow the movement of alleles from one population to another Occurs when individuals move between populations or when one population of a species joins another assuming the second population has different allele frequencies than the first c Genetic drift chance alteration of gene frequencies in a population Most strongly affects small populations Can occur when populations are reduced to small numbers the bottleneck effect or when a few individuals from a population migrate to a new isolated location and start a new population the founder effect Sexual selection occurs when some members of a population mate more often than others e Natural selection some individuals will be more successful than others in suriving and hence reproducing owing to traits that give them a better fit with their environemtn The alleles of those who reproduce more will increase in frequency in a population Hardy wienberg law of genetic equilibrium a test devised early in the 20th century by british mathematition godfrey hardy and german physician Wilhelm winberg Starts with assertion that allele frequencies will not change unless one of the 5 agent is at work A population whose alleles are not being altered by one of the agents is at hw equilibrium a state in which the populations allele frequencies remain contant from one generation to the next We say that evolution occurs because one or more of the conditions for genetic equilibrium are not operating because this causes a change in allele frequency Inbreeding is deleterious to a small population because it brings together the recessive alleles that are required for many gentic deseases Amish lethal microcephanly is a genetic condition that result with infants with very small brains and alife expectancy of between 5 and 6 months Bottleneck effect a change in allele frequencies in a population due to chance following a sharp reduction in the populations size Evoulutionary tness the success of an organism in passing on its genes to offspring relative to other members of its population at a particular time Natural selection a Stabilizing intermediate forms of a given character are favored ovr extreme forms b Directional when natural selection moves a character toward one of its extremes Occurs most c Disruptive hwhen natural selection moves a character toward both of its extremes Occurs least 40 Microevolution a change of allele freuquencies in a population over a relatively short period of 41 time Micro because evolution within pop is smallest Macroevolution evolution that results in the formation of new species or other large groupings of living things I Species a population of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such populations I Adaptive radiation several species formed form one species I Allopatric speciation results from geographic isolation 0 Reproductive isolation of populations 0 Development of intrinsic I Geographic isolation leads to intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanisms I Sympatric speciation is speciation within a single geographic area through polypoloidy I Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated fromother such groups I Allopatric speciation when geographical barriers divide a population and the resulting populations then go on to become separate species 0 some geographic barriers river valley etc I 6 intrinsic reproductive isolating barriers 0 Ecological isolation even if they live in the same place they cant mate if they don t come in contact 0 Temporal isolation even if they come in conact they cant mate if they bred at different times 0 Behavioral isolation even if they breed at the same time they wont mate if they aren t attracted to each oher 0 Mechanical isolation even if they attract each other they cant mate if they aren t physically compatible 0 Gametic isolation even if they are physically compatible an ambryo won form if the eg and sperm ont fuse peroperly 0 Hybrid invariablility or infertility even if fertilization occurs uccesfully the offpsinr may not survive or if it survives may not reproduce EX mule I Sympatric speciation any speciation that does not involve georgrapical separation Close together I Polyloidy plants way of speciating in a single generation A multiplication of the normal 2 sets of chromosomes to some other set number New species can arise through poyploidy because it speeds up evolution Adds genes to a genome which provides the exibility to have on ekid og gene transofomed Into another Alleles can mutat without causing harm to the orgnaims because the other pair of allelaes can function Created reproductive isolation and thus a separate species I Adaptive raediation the rapid evolution of many species from a single species that has been introduces to a ne environemtn I Models of evolution 0 Gradualism arwin gradual 0 Punctuated eqilibirum gould eldridge more sudden I Living things are categorized by a naming system by carl von linne in 18th century latin carolus Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature genus then species I Organisms in categories make up groupings of living things called taxons I Domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species I Phylogeny each hypothesis of evolutionary relationships that make up a history I To put together a phylogeny systematists rely on radiometric dating the fossil record and DNA sequence comparisons I The modern pasis for classificaiotn is cladistics It is a system for extablishing relatedness Cladistics concerns itself firs twith lines of descent the order of branching events Once this order has been established efforts can be made to fix events in time Cladogram an evolutionary tree contructed within the cladistic system Simple branched line with no time scale Shows which animals are more closely ralted I Derived charater a character unique to taxa descended forom a common ancestor I The chromosomal evidence that humans and chimps had a common ancestor is that they hae over 98 similarity in dna but humans have 46 chromosomes while chimps and apes have 48 If the missing apirs couldn t have ben explained evolution would have been wrong However human chromosome 2 dmonstrates that the chromosome have been fused in huans Has 2 telomeres because they are fused while separate in apes I Ad evidenced in the fossil record hominins arose over the last 6 or 7 million years I Early himonin evolution took place on the African contident The oldest known remains of fully moern human beings homo sapeirns have been found in an area known as the omo kibish site in southern Ethiopia dated to 195000 years ago I The 2 most defning characteristics of a hominid are tooth structure smaller and less sharp canine teeth than apes and thicker enamel than apes and bipedalism up right wlaking I Lucy lived a little over 3 mya Transition from apelike to humanlike features 318 mya Remains found in ehtiopia Bipedal long arms shor legs grapsing feet brain size of a chimp I The first hominin to leave African was homo erectus Ong loegs and foot strugcute that allowed each step to end with propulsive psh ofof toes basically like us traveled to china I Neanderthals modern species of hominin 350000 years ago Evolved to mothst moern form 130000 years ago Evolve in eurooe but migrated Short stout bodies 5 6 inches heavy brow receding chin big bond more primitive than homo sapiens less advanced tools l4 percent of todays Europeans descenteded and have their DNA I Modern huan beings 50000 years ago I First fossils from extinct hominins found in germany in 19th century I Tasxonomic group hominine is defined as group of human like primates I Homini includes one living species originated between 6 and 7 mya nand shares common ancestor with chimps I Lucy was bipedal and 32 mya I Homo erectus was firs to leave Africa about 18 mya I Neandaerthals Europe extinct after living with homo sapiens died 28000 years ago I Homo sapiens modern humans evolved to present form in Africa First appears 200000 years ago I Hobbit species lived in Indonesia was arguably modern human suffering from a physical condition and may represent previously unkown species of himinin I Darwin never deated anyone and never publiscly discussed his findings I Darwin born same day as Abraham Lincoln FINAL LECTURE Ecosystems and biomass Population growth Doubling time keeps shortening Our populations doubling time went from 1000 years from 6000 BC to 1650 AD to 25 years from 1975 to 2000 The population will continue to grow as long as the birth rate exceeds the death rate Annual increase doubling time l0 70 years 20 35 years 30 24 years 40 17 years Age structure relative number of individuals at each age The carrying capacity of the biosphere could be limited by food space nonrenewable resources etc Survivorship curves are created from life tables The world s population is now growing at a slower rate than in the past due to a decrease in the total fertility rate people wait until they are older to have children Some say there is no greater single threat to the environment than continued growth of the human population Others say that a more important concern is the consumption of natural resources per person Study Questions 1 Exponential growth growth in which the rate of increase keeps accelerating 2 Doubling time the amount of time it takes for a population to double 3 The human population will continue to grow as long as the birth rate exceeds the death rate Population growth keeps increasing exponentially it seems However the population is increasing at a slightly slower rate because of a decrease in fertility in some countries where people have children at a later age So it is starting to stabilize 4 Carrying capacity the maximum population density of a given species that a defined geographical area can sustain over time 5 How is doubling time calculated if the birth rate exceeds the death rate the population will increase over time The difference between the birth rate and the death rate is the growth rate Knowing this rate helps to estimate the populations doubling time 6 age structure affects growth rate because the number of individuals at a reproductive age is important A population with many individuals at reproductive age will experience growth and vise versa 7 A population pyramid demonstrates the number of individuals at different age groups in a population 8 Survivorship curves are graphs that show late constant and early types I II and III loss of individuals in a population a Humans are type 1 late loss because we survive into old age b Type one is late loss c Type two is constant loss d Type three is early loss 9 How has human activity increased the consumption of natural resources What is its effect on our environment a Some scientists argue that there is no greater single environmental threat than the continued growth of the human population More humans have caused limited natural resources and more waste reduction of species habitat and extinction of other species b Some argue that the use of resources per person is the issue The atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding Earth Trophosphere lowest layer Starts at sea level and extends to about 74 miles and contains the bulk of the gases in the atmosphere 99 nitrogen and oxygen and some carbon dioxide Stratosphere after transitional zone after trophosphere Ozone gas Reaches greatest density at 1321 miles above sea level When UV light hits 02 it becomes 03 ozone Protects life by blocking 99 of UV radiation from the sun Ozone depletion some human made chemical compounds can destroy the stratospheric ozone layer Chloro uorocarbons CFCs are an important group of chemicals that destroy the ozone Methyl bromide and bromine also destroy it This is a worry because the ozone layer allow large life by protecting it from UV light Global warming the increase in earth s surface temperature will cause problems by raising sea levels increasing intensity of tropical storms and changing rainfall patterns among other things It is caused by the transfer of heattrapping gases into the atmosphere by methods such as burning fossil fuels Heat radiated back from the sun can be trapped by compounds like C02 and methane greenhouse effect Global warming can cause changes in sea levels because ice is melting Precipitation will also increase in winter but decrease in summer because of warmer temperatures Nutrient carbon and nitrogen cycling a Carbon cycle i Plants and other photosynthesizing organisms take in atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2 and convert fix carbon fixation it into molecules that become part of the plant ii The physical functioning or respiration of organisms converts the carbon in their tissues back into C02 iii Plants and animals die and are decomposed by fungi and bacteria Some C02 results which moves back into the atmosphere iv Some of the carbon in the remains of dead organisms becomes locked up in carbon based compounds like coal or oil v The burning of these fossil fuels puts this carbon into the atmosphere in the form of C02 b The nitrogen cycle i Nitrogenfixing bacteria convert N2 into ammonia NH3 which converts in water into the ammonium ion NH4 The NH4 is a compound that plants can assimilate into tissues Bacteria living symbiotically in plant root nodules have produced NH4 which plant partners take up and use Meanwhile freestanding bacteria living in soil also produce NH4 ii 0ther plants take up NH4 that has been produced by soildwelling bacteria and assimilate it Animals eat plants and assimilate the nitrogen from the plants iii Animal waste and the tissues of dead animals are decomposed by fungi and by other bacteria which turn organic nitrogen back into NH4 iv 0ther nitrifying bacteria convert NH4 into nitrate N03 which can also be assimilated by plants V Some nitrate however is converted by denitrifying bacteria back into atmospheric nitrogen completing the cycle c Water cycle i 10 percent of water falls on land during precipitation Transpiration process by which water is taken up by the roots of land plants then moved up through their stems and out through their leaves as water vapor After evaporating into the atmosphere water returns to Earth as precipitation Heat from the sun powers transpiration and evaporation 7 in ecosystems energy is never gained or lost and spontaneously ows in one direction from more ordered to less ordered Heat is the last stop in the energy line because it is the least ordered form of energy Ecosystems constantly store and release the energy that ultimately came from the sun 8 producer produce own food Plants algae some bacteria that photosynthesize 9 Consumer eats other organisms rather than producing its own food 10 Tropic levels a position in an ecosystems food chain or food web with each level defined by a transfer of energy between one kind of organism and another Trophic Level Stages 1 Producers photosynthesizers 2 Primary consumers plant predators herbivores 3 Secondary consumers herbivore predators carnivores 4 Tertiary consumers feed on secondary consumrs carnivores 5 detritivores decomposers 11 An ecosystem is a community of organisms and the physical environment with which they interact The approx 30 chemical elements that are vital to life are known as nutrients 12 Along with water nutrients move back and forth between abiotic and biotic domains on earth in a process called biogeochemical cycling 13 Nitrogen a Early in the 20th century an industrial process was invented for producing a biologically useful form of nitrogen used as fertilizer This adds to the nitrogen cycle nitrogen runoff can be a form of nutrient pollution that can harm small and large aquatic ecosystems b 70 of earths surface covered with water 25 is fresh 1 is available 14 The energy ow model of ecosystems measures energy as it is used by and transformed among different members of an ecosystem 15 For each jump up in trophic level amount of available energy drops by 90 This explains why large predatory animals are rare 16 Detritivore class of consumer that feeds on the remains of dead organisms or other castoff material from living organisms a Decomposer kind of detritivore that breaks down dead or castof organic material into its inorganic components which can then be recycled through an ecosystem Biology Final Exam Study Guide Kyla Brinkley People 0 O O Leuuwenhoek 16321700 Early microscopes Discovered bacteria Spontaneous generation simple microscope Revealed existence of microorganisms Animalcules Bacteriaprotists Schwann 18101882 experimented to show bio genesis of microorganisms But the aw was that the heat he used destroyed the soul microbes Spontaneous generation Pasteur experiments in spontaneous generation I Biogenesis living material that grew in a ask came from living material outside ask I 1864 rejected spontaneous generation I experiment was conducted by first observing that a sterile ask of meat broth eventually grows living material To test whether or not the material came from outside the ask or from nonliving material a trap was used to trap dust that would have fallen into the ask No growth was observed However when the trap was removed or when the ask was tipped to mix the dust growth occurred Aristotle Abiogenesis life from nonlife living things result of passive matter and active form Redi Biogenesis life from life disproved spontaneous generationmeat noticed maggots appeared only after ies were present not from meat itself Paracelsus formula for creation of human beings incantations to buried bottle Swiss medical philosopher Abiogenesis spontaneous generation Van Helmont how to produce mice Physicianalchemist Fermentation to make mice Abiogenesis spontaneous generation Robert hooke coined term cell Revealed structure of familiar small objects like the ea Watson and Crick showed DNA structure double helix shows how it is replicated I The Watson crick DNA model showed the double helix atom by atom bond by bond showed sugar phosphate base A T G C nucleotide Hydrogen bonds between AT and CG These always form together I The Watsoncrick double helix model provides an obvious mechanism for copying because the AT CG pairing rule meant that each single strand of DNA could serve as a template for the synthesis of a new single strand ex each A on the old means a T on the new all that needs to happen is the separation of the 2 old strands splitting stairs right down middle and for new strans to be put together that were complemantary to the old Rosalind Franklin x ray diffraction to show DNA double helix structure Mendel punnett squares Genetic inheritance Pea plants Hereditary factors occur in pairs One factor may mask or prevent expression of the other dominance A pair of factors is segregated during the formation of gametes and randomly recombined during fertilization Organisms genes retain the possibility for recessive phenotypes Mendel s rst law of segregation differing characters in organisms result from 2 genetic elements alleles that separate in gamete formation such that each gamete gets only one of the 2 alleles Mendels second law law of independent assortment states that during gamete formation gene pairs assort independently of one another 0 Henslow darwin s mentor at Cambridge 0 Charles Darwin In uence on Darwinnatural selection theories read malthus essay on populations called differential reproductive success natural selection and envisioned it as the cause of evolution 1844 origin of species essay Galapagos finches 0 Common descent with modification particular groups or species of living things can undergo modification in successive generations with such change sometimes resulting in the formation of new separate species 0 Natural selection the process through which traits that confer a reproductive advantage to individual organisms grow more common in populations of organisms over successive generations 0 Darwins contribution to the theory of evolution 0 Evolution developed existing ideas about descent with modification while providing a large body of evidence in support for them Also was first person to perceive natural selection as the primary driving force behind descent with modification 0 Lyell auther of principles of geology Geological forces still operating could account for the changes geologists could see in the earths surface 0 Lamarck French naturalist Published book 1809 Believed organisms changed from over generations through the inheritance of acquired characteristics Over time a species could acquire enough changes to diverge into 2 Evolve a French naturalist Believed that organisms changed form over generations through what has been termed the inheritance of acquired characteristics This meant that the original ancestors changed physical characteristics immediately and then passed these characterstics on to osspring This is incorrect because evolution is more gradual Organisms with slightly more favorable characteristics slowly evolve generation by generation 0 Cuvier French scientist Found evidence of the extinction of species 0 Alfred russel Wallace English naturalist Collectd birdsbutter y specimens from south American and southeast asia Realized natural selection shapes evolution Wrote out ideas and sent to Darwin Read both their papers to scientific society Let to Darwin working on famous book I English naturalist Also discovered after darwin that natural selection is the process that shapes evolution He wrote his ideas down and sent them to darwin Darwin shared wallaces paper and some of his own letters to a scientific society in London in 1858 so Wallace wouldn t all of a sudden get credit for his ideas Had little immediate effect but led to darwin working on origin of species Malthus was important because darwin read his book on human popultaiton and food supply an essay on the principle of population Showed that under these circumstances favorable variations woud tend to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed Darwin showed that natural selection is the driving force behind evolution Hardy wienberg law of genetic equilibrium a test devised early in the 20th century by british mathematition godfrey hardy and german physician Wilhelm winberg Starts with assertion that allele frequencies will not change unless one of the 5 agent is at work A population whose alleles are not being altered by one of the agents is at hw equilibrium a state in which the populations allele frequencies remain contant from one generation to the next We say that evolution occurs because one or more of the conditions for genetic equilibrium are not operating because this causes a change in allele frequency DNA replication 1 Mitosis a b Interphase DNA has already duplicated in S phase Centrosome has doubled Prophase chromosomes take shape the 2 centrosomes begin to move toward the cellular poles sprouting microtubules as they go Metaphase attachment and alignment microtubules attach to sister chromatids and align them at the metaphase plate Anaphase separation Sister chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell each chromatid now becoming a full edged chromosome Telophase and cytokinesis exit from mitosis Chromosomes decondense nuclear envelopes form around the 2 separate complements of chromosomes Cleavage furrow begins to form i Chromatid synthesis occurs during S phase in interphase ii There are 2chromatid chromosomes during prophase and metaphase iii The centromeres of sister chromatids are grabbed by spindle fibers during anaphase to become chromosomes iv Pictures of phases 2 Cell division a Animal cells cleavage furrow Splits apart b Plant cells golgi complex releases vesicles with cell wall material and the vesicles fuse together to form a cell plate that grows toward the parent cell wall Newly formed plasma membrane and cell wall fuse with the old to make 2 new cells c Bacterial cells daughter chromosomes attach to different sites on the plasma membrane The cell membrane and wall grow an extension between the attachment points of the 2 chromosomes The cell wall and membrane join in the middle to form 2 new cells 3 Meiosis I a Prophase I homologous chromosomes link as they condense forming tetrads crossing over b Metaphase I microtubules move homologous chromosomes to metaphase plate Independent assortment homologous chromosomes can line up differently random event i crossing over in prophase I 2 homologous chromosomes join forming a tetrad after which non sister chromatids from each chromosome exchange reciprocal portions of themselves In this way genetic material from maternal and paternal sources is shuf ed during the formation of gametes c Anaphase I microtubules separate homologous chromosomes sister chromatids remain together d Telophase 1 two haploid daughter cells result from cytokinesis 4 Meiosis II a Prophase II brief b Metaphase II sister chromatids line up at new metaphase plate c Anaphase II sister chromatids separate d Telophase II 4 haploid cells result 5 During meiosis homologous chromosomes synapse in prophase I a tetrad is 2 homologous chromosomes that have paired up See crossing over which occurs during metaphase I the homologous chromosomes line up randomly producing genetic diversity sister chromatids separate during anaphase II They are pulled apart by the centrosomes to create 4 haploid cells in telophase II 6 Crossing over shuf es genetic material from maternal and paternal sources during the formation of gametes 7 Independent assortment a random event involving the alignment of homologous chromosomes These processes both contribute to genetic diversity by ensuring that genetic material is shuf ed and appears in cells randomly
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