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# Introduction to basic physics PHYSICS 151

USC

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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by rebecca on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHYSICS 151 at University of Southern California taught by dr. Gerges in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to physics in Physics 2 at University of Southern California.

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Date Created: 08/21/15

SPH3U 012915 Unit 1 Kinematics Lesson 0 0 Types of motion 0 Uniform motion 39 Constant velocity in a straight line 0 NonUniform motion I Change in speed direction or both 0 Total distance 0 Sum of all distances Ad2d139I39dz39I39d3 0 Total Displacement 0 Vector sum of all individual displacements AdRd1d2d3 Lesson 1 0 VT graph 0 Shows direction and speed not starting point 0 Determined from slope of DT graph 0 Area under VT gives distancedisplacement I AdR A1A2A3 0 Must be broken up into triangles and rectangles amp area of each segment found 0 Basic kinematics equations PM 0 At 0 dvAt 0 Ex I A person runs 10m E in 2s then 5m E in 15s and then 30m W in SS Find average velocity Ad V A t VlOm5m 30m 2s15s5s VL 176ms E or 176ms W Lesson 2 SPH3U 012915 0 Parallel vectors 0 Vectors With the same or opposite direction EampW NampS 0 When adding vectors they must be arranged tip to tail 0 NonParallel vectors 0 Connect vectors tip to tail and then complete using trig to solve resultant displacement O Cosine Law I c2 a2 b2 2ab cosC 0 Sine Law 39 asin A bsin B csin C 0 Ex I A car travels 5 km E and then 41 km S 30 W determine displacement I A a a a a 3 EH In 1 3 grant ah j a 39i 5 5E Elnm m tun mi quotail mlf H Iraqi as Ilia In 1 El did 39a ii 39 I39 Ek it inguith s igi I 39ix39 39n lt Mg 531 53 Erabi Lilli 155 55 A High F a 5553 53 iii quot WhizE Fagin Lesson 3 0 A simpler way to solving vectors is vector components 0 EX dy I Sine Z S dX COS e dy 14m 0 Therefore to use component method we must determine X and y of each vector determine results for each direction combine to form a right triangle and solve for resultant displacement hypotenuse and angle SPH3U 012915 Lesson 4 0 NonUniform Motion 0 Accelerating o The slope of a dt would be a curved line 0 From graph to graph check handout package 0 SOPWjF Ma a543M a e f 0 agave1 fm gt f xl d39fr l i39 5 ai lrn 4mm madar 4m MIDI billa a Lesson 8 W 0 Advanced kinematics problems two objects in motion 0 Draw a diagram 0 State given 0 AdAzAdB o Cancel out zero terms and sub in appropriate kin equations 0 Solve will either be linear system or need quadratic equation Lesson 10 Projectile motion 1D 0 HR A i M xxgg j ill0 Up U will T7 i 35311 339 pa 1 Lesson 11 Projectile motion 2D 0 Horizontal Motion Vx is constant for entire ight of projectile because no acceleration to the side only down Therefore dx Vxt 0 Vertical Motion Due to gravity motion isn t constant in y direction SPH3U 012915 Unit 2 Forces Lesson 14 0 4 fundamental forces 0 Strong attracts neutrons and protons 0 Weak radioactive decay O Gravity Mutal attraction of masses 0 EampM attracts and repels charge Lesson 15 Newton s rst law 0 An object will remain at rest or moving with a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external nonzero net force Newton s second law 0 a f 0 o Fnet ma Newton s third law 0 For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force 0 IAonB 39FBonA Lesson 18 Acceleration links forces and kinematics Solving methods 0 Use Fnet ma to solve for a then use kin 0 Or use kin to solve for a then use Fnet ma Lesson 21 0 Every mass in the universe attracts every other mass 1 to the product of the two masses and a o The force is SPH3U 012915 o It doesn t seem like the earth moves to a falling object because it s mass is so great and a m Lesson 23 0 Friction o The forces between two surfaces that resists motion 0 Static friction o Prevents motion when objects aren t moving yet 0 Must be overcome for object to move 0 Kinetic friction 0 Force present when object is moving SPH3U 012915 Unit 3 Energy Lesson 26 0 Energy 0 The ability to do work 0 Work 0 Energy transferred when a force acts over a distance 0 Kinetic energy 0 Energy possessed by an object in motion 0 Potential energy 0 Energy stored in an object due to its arrangement of parts or position Lesson 27 0 Work is zero when 0 Force or distance 0 if cos 9 0 angle is 90 0 Work can also be the change in energy 0 AEk 0 Conservation of energy 0 Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but it can change form 0 Therefore E1 E 0 Positive work 0 Energy is being transferred into object 0 Negative work 0 Energy is being transferred from an object 0 Force and displacement is in opposite directions 0 Friction does ve work cos180 1 0 Conservative forces 0 Work done does not depend on path taken gravity 0 Non Conservative forces 0 Work depends on path friction SPH3U 012915 0 Eth is negative because energy is being lost to heat Lesson 28 0 Power 0 The rate at which work is done or energy is transferred 0 Calculating efficiency 0 EoutEin or PoutP in Lesson 31 0 Kinetic theory of matter 0 All matter is made up of tiny particles that constantly move 0 Thermal energy 0 Amount of kinetic and potential energy of an objects particles 0 Temperature 0 Measure of average kinetic energy in an objects particles 0 Heat 0 Transfer of thermal energy from a warmer object to a colder object 0 Thermal energy transfer 0 Conduction I Transfer of energy through contact 0 Convection I Transfer of energy through bulk motion 0 Radiation I Transfer of energy through EampM radiation or fast moving particles 0 Insulation 0 Resistreduce the transfer of thermal energy I Seal prevent convection I Foam layer prevent conduction I Re ect it back prevent radiation 0 Heat capacity 0 Ability of an object to absorb or release thermal energy 0 Specific heat capacity C 0 Amount of energy required to raise the temp of lKg object by 1K 0 Heat exchange 0 Cold substance Q1 Q2 hot substance I But Q ch therefore m1c1tf t1 m2c2tft1 Lesson 33 I Latent heat Equations are used during phase change SPH3U 012915 0 Energy required to change phase 0 Since 3 phases there must be two kinds I Specific latent heat of fusion 0 Energy required to melt 1Kg of substance at its melting point I Specific latent heat of vaporization 0 Energy required to vaporize 1Kg of substance at its boiling point 0 Graph of phase change 3 E I VVHSTQMF Time Lesson 34 Q i i I 3 numbers that describe composition of nucleus 0 Atomic Z I Of protons O Neutron N I Of neutrons 0 Atomic mass A I Of protons neutrons AX 0 Z I Isotopes 0 From of element With same protons but different of neutrons 0 Stable nuclei 0 They Will never decay I Unstable nuclei 0 Can exist for a While but Will eventually decay 0 Radiation 0 Emission of EampM waves or fast moving particles 0 Ionization radiation I Enough energy to ionize atoms 0 Nuclear radiation SPH3U 012915 I Ionizing radiation emitted from nucleus as it decays 0 Background radiation I Found everywhere 0 Types of radioactive decay O Involves a parent nucleus decaying into a daughter nucleus 0 Alpha decay 4 2X 9 ZZY 20 I Daughter nucleus has 2 less protons and 2 less neutrons I Alpha particle is also helium nucleus I Short range 0 Beta decay I Emission of an electron 2X br If Lairwedm I Receive a beta particle 33 J E xwls39de electron and an anti neutrino O Gamma decay 0 Half life a 0 Time required for mass to reduce by 12 0 5 a rm flag I ram l 4 v iquot hm cmm j 7 H12 diary 0amp1 1 Lesson 35 I Fission O Splitting of large nuclei into smaller nuclei 0 Energy is released due to binding energy I Spontaneous fission 0 Only for nuclei With A gt 230 I Induced fission 0 Add a neutron to U235 SPH3U 012915 0 Becomes unstable 0 Undergoes fission I Fusion 0 Smaller nuclei combining to form larger nuclei I Protonproton chain 0 Main fuel source for our sun 0 Protons fuse together to make helium Lesson 36 I Nuclear reactors O Harnesses nuclear fission to produce electricity 0 Controls fission chain reactions 0 control rod made of neutrun hm B am absorbing material fugi p e39m l u u llll l V I I M l c e ReggaeI m3 rm l l IlllIlI I E 39 FF I i i moderator Wm 7 1 1 lucumiug coolant 0 Fuel rods I Contain uranium pellets 0 Control Rods I Control reaction rate I Absorb neutrons 0 Moderator I Material that slows neutrons I Allows for chain reactions 0 Coolant I Takes thermal energy to create steam Which turns a turbine to make electricity SPH3U 012915 Unit 4 Waves and Sound Lesson 38 I Wave components 0 Equilibrium position Dotted line 0 Zero position of the medium 0 Crests 0 Region of the wave above the equilibrium 0 Trough 0 Region of the wave below the equilibrium 0 Amplitude 0 Max displacement of a wave from EP 0 Wavelength 0 Distance required for wave to repeat itself I Wave pulse 0 Crest or trough caused by a sudden movement in the medium I Wave front 0 Leading edge of the wave 0 Incident or re ection I A wave implies repetition at regular intervals 0 As a result certain parts of the medium will be moving a motion that is identical to motion in other points of the wave 0 These points are said to be in phase I Types of waves 0 Waves that require a medium to propagate are said to be mechanical waves 0 Transverse waves 0 Displaces the medium in a direction that is perpendicular to propagation 0 Longitudinal waves 0 Displaces the medium in a direction that is parallel to propagation compressions and rarefactions I Energy of waves 0 Waves contain kinetic and potential energy I Depends on the position of the medium 0 Total energy remains constant but is spread out over the surface area of the wavelength the greater the distance the lower the amplitude SPH3U 012915 Lesson 39 I Period 0 Time required for a wave to repeat itself I Frequency 0 How often something is repeated per unit time I Wave re ection 0 Incident pulse 0 Crest 0 Propagated right 0 Re ected pulse 0 Trough 0 Propagated left 0 Therefore the phase of the re ected pulse is inverted with respect to the incident pulse I Phase 0 The way in which various parts of a wave are positioned with respect to a given point Lesson 40 I Superposition O The displacement of the combined pulse at each point of intersection is equal to the sum of the individual displacements I Constructive interference O Occurs when wave pulses combine to create a pulse of greater amplitude 0 Destructive interference O Overlap to create a pulse of lesser amplitude 0 Standing wave 0 When waves appear to oscillate around a stationary node position Lesson 41 0 Sound 0 Longitudinal pressure waves 0 Particles in the medium collide and transfer sound energy 0 Sound intensity 0 Energy per unit area that passes a point per second 0 Every 3 dB increase is a doubling of intensity 40 to 46 is 4 times as intense SPH3U 012915 Lesson 42 0 Resonance 0 Increase of amplitude of a wave due to the transfer of energy in phase with the natural frequency of the wave 0 Open end air columns 0 Antinodes are created at the openings and a node in between 0 The length s go up in increments of half wavelengths PE 0 2 O 139 A 0 Closed columns O Antinodes at the open end and a node at the end 0 Lengths go up in increments of IA wavelengths 11A 1 0 4 O 0 Beat frequency 0 The frequency of a periodic pattern of constructive and deconstructive interference that occurs when waves of slightly different frequency s interfere Lesson 44 0 Doppler effect 0 The apparent frequency change for an observer moving relative to the source 0 Equation for approaching has minusfor receding it s plus SPH3U 012915 Unit 5 Electricity and Magnetism Lesson 47 0 Current I 0 Rate of charge ow 0 Current ow 39 Conventional 0 Apparently ow of ve charge right hand rules I Electron 0 Always opposite conventional current 0 Voltage 0 Causes current ow 0 Potential difference 0 Resistance 0 Opposition to ow of electrons Lesson 48 0 Kirchhoff s current law 0 The total current entering a junction is equal to the total leaving same junction 0 11 12 13 IT 0 Kirchhoff s voltage law 0 The total of all electrical potential decreases in any complete loop is equal to any increases in that loop 0 VT V1 V2 0 0 Kirchhoff s laws in series 0 IT 11 12 13 o VT V1 V2 V3 0 RT R1 R2 R3 0 Kirchhoff s laws in parallel 0 IT 11 12 13 0 VT V1 V2 V3 0 RT lRl 1R2 1R3391 Lesson 50 0 Magnetism 0 Due to magnetic fields 0 Magnetic field lines go from north to south 0 Domain theory 0 Magnets are made up of smaller rotatable magnets called domains 0 Domains line up creating a net north and net south pole aka a magnet SPH3U 012915 I Oersted s principal 0 Charge moving through a linear conductor produces a circular magnetic field 0 Right hand rule I Thumb in direction of current I Fingers curl in direction of magnetic field I Solenoids O Coiling up wire creates larger magnetic field 0 Right hand rule I Fingers in direction of current I Thumb in direction of North pole 0 Factors affecting magnetic field strength 0 Current 0 Turns 0 Coil size 0 Ferromagnetic material in center Lesson 51 0 Motor principal O Harnesses a force caused by interaction of magnetic fields 0 Motors convert electricalmagnetic into kinetic 0 When the two magnetic fields interact the wire feels a force 0 Right hand rule I Wrist at N fingers at S I Thumb in direction of current I Palm in direction of magnetic force 0 Magnetic force between two current carrying conductors 22 I m5 39 r39vE if ringquot A quot5 939quot 39 1 13quot 311 rad u H 539 I a In J 1 r 39i J 394 LI39 395 Iquot n 39 r Ia H h I A F wrrrrr r5 139 Fr r I wrrr z B r Ir wrrn A 139 Fr Fr I mm B a f r r w quot39m L 39l III 1 517 I rF39 I In mL Flh Ii Imagnellcrf h a if in v1 a s rr in 1 39r I quot J gt 1 quot l I V J is g r if A n r r39 laid IL EX I I 39EJ I 393 ill I P 39 I 1 539 quota aquot I l 9 1 39h quotI ai Iquot A 39x39 F391 l rd39 5 L quotquot1 In1 A39L z rruar w5 r qrglf Figure 121 a when currents aw in THE same direction the wires ai Lrar l earth other In Wham currents Haw m appoint drrermnma the WITE E repcl each other Lesson 52 0 Faradays law 0 A changing magnetic field near a conductor induces current in the conductor 0 Can be caused by relative motion between conductor and magnet 0 Electric motive force EMF SPH3U 012915 0 A force felt by changes due to establishment of a potential difference across a conductor 0 Factors affecting it I Relative motion I Strength of magnetic field I Length of Wire 0 Lenz s Law 0 The direction of the induced current Will create an induced magnetic field that opposes the motion of inducing magnetic field I Must be true of conservation of energy is violated Lesson 53 0 Electric generator 0 Converts kinetic energy into electric 0 A force spins a loop of Wire in presence of a magnetic field I This induces current 0 Transformers 0 Change voltagecurrent using induction O 39 rum gt Sgga dn y I45 39 if I VI 1 0 Step up transformer I Second voltage is higher than first 0 Step down transformer I Second voltage is less than first SPH3U 012915

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