EXSC 244 Exam 2 Study Guide
EXSC 244 Exam 2 Study Guide Exsc 224
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jane Warther on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Exsc 224 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 224 in Education and Teacher Studies at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
EXSC 224 Exam 2 Study Guide Questions: 1. What does the autonomic nervous system do? 2. What are some the differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems? 3. What are the two divisions of the ANS? 4. What is the role of the parasympathetic division? 5. What is the role of the sympathetic division? 6. How many paravertebral ganglia are there in the sympathetic trunk? 7. What are the pathways of sympathetic innervation? 8. Are most organs innervated by the autonomic or somatic division? 9. What is sympathetic tone? 10. To cause blood pressure to rise what do sympathetic fibers do? 11. To cause blood pressure to decrease what do sympathetic fibers do? 12. What is parasympathetic tone? 13. What is it called when the sympathetic fibers and parasympathetic fibers work together? What is a good example of it? 14. What does sympathetic division control? 15. Are there local or diffuse effects for the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions? 16. Define the endocrine system. 17. What are the differences between nervous system control and the endocrine system? 18. List some of the major endocrine organs. 19. The is a major site of regulation. 20. Define hormone. 21. List some characteristics of hormones. 22. What are the two classifications of hormones? 23. Autocrines are chemicals that exert effects on the cells that secrete them and paracrines are locally acting chemicals that affect cells them. Why aren’t these considered hormones? 24. What are the two types of receptors for hormones? 25. List the two types of membrane bound receptors. 26. Intracellular receptors bind to and the hormone. 27. Why do some hormones affect some tissues differently than others? 28. Explain steroid-based intracellular hormone signaling. 29. How are hormones regulated? 30. What are the three types of hormone interaction and describe each. 31. Name the three ways endocrine glands are regulated and explain each. 32. What is neurohypophysis? 33. What is the relationship between the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus? 34. What is the adenohypophysis? 35. Describe the relationship between the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. 36. What is GH, where is it produced, what does it do, what kind of hormone is it, how is its secretion regulated? 37. What is ACTH and what does it do? What is it triggered by? 38. What are FSH and LH? Where are they produced and secreted? What do they do? What are they triggered by? 39. What is PRL? What does it do? What triggers it and inhibits it? 40. What is ADH? What does it do? What is it stimulated by? What inhibits ADH? 41. An ADH deficiency is an indicator of what disease? Describe that disease. 42. What is nocturia? 43. What is enuresis? 44. What is it called when there is an overproduction of ADH? What are some of its symptoms? 45. What are aquaporins? 46. What is the master regulator of the endocrine system? 47. What two hormones do the thyroid gland secrete? 48. What are the two related iodine-containing compounds in that make of the thyroid hormone? 49. What is TH? What is it concerned with? What does it play a role in? Is it under positive or negative feed back control? 50. What is a goiter? What does it result from? 51. What is Grave’s disease? 52. What is myxedema? 53. What is the hypo-thyroid disorder in children? 54. What does calcitonin do? Describe its negative feedback mechanism. 55. What is PTH? What does it do? Describe its negative feedback mechanism. 56. What are the two parts of the adrenal glands? And what do those two parts do? 57. List the different types of corticosteroids produced in the adrenal cortex and tell what layers they are in. 58. What does aldosterone and how is it regulated? 59. What is hypo-aldosteronsim called and list some symptoms. 60. Describes the pathway for the glucocorticoid cortisol. 61. Cortisol is an important hormone that promotes what kind of things? What does it decrease? 62. What is crushing’s syndrome? 63. What is crushing’s disease? What are some of its symptoms? 64. What are the main secretions of gonadocorticoids and where are they produced? 65. What is the hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids called? 66. What is glucagon and what does it do? 67. What is insulin and what does it do? 68. Describe both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. 69. While pregnant, if a lady develops gestational diabetes does she have a chance a getting diabetes later in life? 70. Where is the pineal gland, where is it located, and what does it secrete? 71. What does melatonin do? 72. Excess water retention with normal plasma Na+ concentrations is associated with what hormone? 73. What tissue secretes CRH? Answers: 1. It innervates smooth, cardiac muscle, and glands. It operates via subconscious control. 2. They differ in effectors, efferent pathways, and target organ responses to neurotransmitters. 3. Sympathetic and parasympathetic division. 4. Promotes maintenance activities and conserves body energy. It is seen in a person who is relaxing, reading or after a meal. It is called rest and digest. It decreases heart and respiratory rates, and allows for digestion and discarding of wastes. 5. Mobilizes the body during activity and promotes adjustments during exercise or when threatened. It is called fight or flight. It increases heart and respiratory rates, and inhibits digestion and elimination. It controls the blood pressure even at rest. 6. 23. 3 cervical, 11 thoracic, 4 lumbar, 4 sacral, 1 coccygeal 7. Synapse at the same level, synapse at a higher or lower level, and synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column. 8. Most visceral organs have dual innervation that allow for dynamic antagonism for exact control of visceral activity. 9. Also called vasomotor tone, it keeps blood vessels in a continual state of partial constriction. 10. Fire more rapidly to constrict blood vessels. 11. Fire less rapidly to dilate blood vessels. 12. It dominates the heart and smooth muscle of digestive and urinary tract organs. 13. Cooperative effects. The best example is in control of external genitalia. Parasympathetic fibers cause vasodilation that is responsible for the erection of the penis or clitoris. The sympathetic fibers cause ejaculation of semen in males and reflex contraction of female’s vagina. 14. It controls thermoregulatory responses to heat, release of renin from the kidneys, and metabolic effects such as increases metabolic rates of cells, raises blood glucose levels, and mobilizes fats for use as fuels. 15. The sympathetic division has long-lasting body-wide effects. The parasympathetic division has short-lived, highly localized control over effectors. 16. It is an integrated system of small organs that involve the releases of extracellular signaling molecules known as molecules. 17. In the nervous system, neurons directly innervate a tissue and stimulation is direct and immediate. The endocrine system regulates cell activities by means of chemical messengers called hormones, hormones act at sites independent of secretion, there are short and long term regulatory functions, there is no synapse and no immediate effect. 18. Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads and other tissues. 19. Hypothalamus 20. Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that affect other parts of the body. 21. Hormones tend to have lag times ranging from seconds to hours and tend to have prolonged effects since hormones circulate via the bloody supply and it takes longer to remove them from the body. 22. Amino acid-based and steroids. 23. Same; surrounding. These are not considered hormones because hormones are long-distance chemical signals and these chemical messengers act locally, don’t travel via the circulatory system, and act in the area they are secreted. 24. Membrane bound and Intracellular. 25. Ligand channels and integral proteins(second messenger systems). 26. Steroids and thyroid. 27. Target cell specificity; hormones only exert an effect on cells that express the receptor for that specific hormone. 28. The receptor is inside the cell usually in the cytosol. The receptor is usually associated with a chaperone whose responsibility is to prevent the receptor from doing anything. It forces the receptor to remain in cytosol and cytoplasm. When a hormone comes along, crosses membrane, enters cytosol, can bind to receptor, receptor shape changes, chaperone falls off, now the hormone and receptor can move from cytosol to nucleus, in nucleus hormone-receptor binds to regions in the DNA(hormone response elements). Rather than activate series of events to activate 2nd messenger system, it just goes into the nucleus via a protein. All hormones that bind to intracellular receptors are steroids or thyroid hormone. 29. Hormone concentration and receptor concentration. Hormone concentration includes rate of release of hormone into blood and rate of inactivation/ removal while circulating in the blood. Cells can increase or decrease the number of receptors expressed and effect the receptor concentration. 30. Permissiveness is where one hormone can’t exert its effects without another hormone being present. Synergism is when one or more than one hormone produces the same effects on a target cell and if two hormones cause the same thing to happen independently, a larger effect will occur. Antagonism is when one or more hormone opposes the action of another hormone and they cancel each other out. 31. Humoral stimulus pertains to elements in the blood or other body fluids. Neural stimulus is regulated by direct nervous system input. Hormonal stimulus is when some hormones regulate the secretion of other hormones. 32. It is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that receives, stores, and secrets hormones from the hypothalamus. 33. 1. Hypothalamic neurons synthesize oxytocin and ADH. 2. Oxytocin and ADH are transported along the hypothalamic- hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary. 3. Oxytocin and ADH are stored in axon terminals in the posterior pituitary .4. Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire. 34. It is the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It has a relationship between the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 35. Axons from hypothalamus don’t project into anterior pituitary. It is a proper gland because it also secretes its own hormones, but under control of hypothalamus. Hormones produced in nuclei of hypothalamus, projected into axons in hypothalamus, project hormones into another circulatory system called the hypophyseal portal system and travel down to anterior pituitary. Stimulates production and secretion of hormones of anterior pituitary. 36. GH is growth hormone that targets bone and skeletal muscles. It is produced in the anterior pituitary and is an amino-based hormone. GH secretion is regulated by antagonistic hypothalamic hormones. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates GH release. Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) inhibits GH release. GH is under negative feedback control. 37. Adrenocorticotropic; it stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. It is triggered by the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) by the hypothalamus. ATCH travels to the adrenal gland to stimulate the secretion of cortisol. CRH and ATCH are both amino acid based hormones. 38. FSH is follicle-stimulating hormone that stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production. LH is luteinizing hormone regulates the function of the ovaries and testes. Both are produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary which is under hormonal control. It is triggered by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which is secreted by the hypothalamus. It is under negative feedback control where if testosterone or estrogen increases it inhibits the hypothalamus. 39. PRL is prolactin. In females it stimulates milk production by the breasts. The hypothalamus secretes prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH), travels to anterior pituitary, stimulate secretion of prolactin which travels to the mammary glands which produces milk. Suckling is the stimulus to release PRH and stops the secretion of PIH. It is inhibited by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine. 40. ADH is an anti-diuretic hormone that regulates the production of urine by causing a person to conserve or save water. It helps to avoid dehydration. Hypothalamus (synthesizes ADH(anti- diuretic hormone)) → ADH transported to posterior pituitary via the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract → ADH is stored in axon terminals and are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire→ kidneys→ reabsorption of water → high osmality stimulates the hypothalamus. That is the normal pathway for ADH secretion and it is under negative feedback control. Alcohol inhibits ADH release. 41. Diabetes insipidus; it is when there is an abnormal increase in urine output, fluid intake and often thirst. The symptoms are dilute urine (low osmolarity) with low sodium concentration and increased urinary frequency. The urine has no taste at all. 42. frequent awakening at night to urinate 43. involuntary urination during sleep of bedwetting 44. It is called syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). The causes could be hypovolemia or a non-pituitary ADH- secreting tumor. Some of the symptoms are hyponatremia which is low blood concentration of sodium, inappropriately elevated urine osmolarity, excessive urine sodium excretion, and decreased serum osmolarity. 45. They are water pores that appear within cells of collecting ducts only when ADH is secreted. It allows us to recover more water. 46. Hypothalamus 47. Thyroid hormone and calcitonin. 48. T4 and T3 49. Thyroid hormone. It is concerned with glucose oxidation, increasing metabolic rate and heat production. It plays a role in maintaining blood pressure, regulating tissue growth, developing skeletal and nervous system, maturation and reproductive capabilities, and permissive hormones. It is under negative feedback control, the more T3 and T4 secreted it inhibits the hypothalamus from producing TRH. 50. Goiter is a swollen thyroid gland and can happen because of hyper or hypo thyroid disorder. 51. An autoimmune disorder that causes hyper-thyroidism by stimulating TH independent of TSH. 52. It is a hypo-thyroid disorder in adults. It can be the result of iodine deficiency or disruption in any part of pathway. 53. Cretinism 54. It regulates the parathyroid hormone and lowers blood calcium levels. Negative feed-back mechanism: Blood levels of calcium rise (can drink a glass of milk), stimulates thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin, calcitonin stimulates calcium salt deposit in bone by using osteoblasts to talk calcium out of blood and deposit it in bone. Calcium blood levels decrease and homeostasis is restored. 55. It is parathyroid hormone and is an amino-acid based hormone. It raises blood calcium levels. Negative feedback mechanism: blood calcium levels are lowered, stimulates parathyroid gland to secrete parathyroid hormone which raises blood calcium levels by using osteoclasts to break down the bone restoring blood calcium levels to homeostasis. It is under humoral regulation. 56. Adrenal medulla is neural tissue that acts as part of the SNS. The adrenal cortex secretes steroids hormones called corticosteroids. 57. zona glomerulosa- mineralocorticoids (chiefly aldosterone); zona fasciculate- glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol); zona reticularis- gonadocorticoids (chiefly androgens) 58. It is a steroid whose primary job is to regulate water through regulating sodium-reabsorption in the kidneys. Some regulators are increased potassium in blood, decreased blood pressure, increased stress, and increased blood volume/increased BP. 59. Addison’s disease and severe dehydration, hypotension, low blood glucose, low sodium and high potassium. It is hypo-secretion of the adrenal cortex and includes mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. 60. Hypothalamus ↓ CRH –amino-acid based ↓ Anterior pituitary ↓ ACTH –amino-acid based ↓ Adrenal Gland ↓ Cortisol- steriod High levels of cortisol inhibits the hypothalamus .Negative feedback control 61. Stress and promotes gluconeogenesis (conversion of amino-acid to glucose), lipolysis, proteolysis (break down of proteins in skeletal muscle), insulin resistance. It also decreases inflammation and it compromises the immune system. 62. It is excess glucocorticoid (cortisol) with no idea why. 63. Excess ACTH is due to tumor in anterior pituitary. Symptoms include hyperglycemia, skeletal muscle atrophy, loss of bone mass, edema, buffalo hump on back of neck, elevated ACTH. 64. Androgens which lead to testosterone which leads to the production of estrogen. It is made in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex. 65. Adrenogenital syndrome. In males it can cause early puberty, male sex characteristics, and sex drive. In females, it leads to masculinization such as beard, body hair, increased sex drive and enlarged clitoris. 66. It is an amino-acid based hormone that is secreted by the pancreas (an endocrine and exocrine gland). Its job is to help raise blood glucose levels to a desired ranged during fasting between meals. Blood glucose falls (stimulus) → cells in pancreas detect decrease in blood glucose, alpha islet cells also produce and secrete glucagon→ glucagon circulates out and targets liver → stimulates liver to breakdown stored glycogen into glucose→ glucose released into blood and raises blood glucose levels→ return to homeostasis. 67. It an amino-acid based hormone secreted by the pancreas to lower blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels rise(stimulus)→ detected by beta islet cells in pancreas→ beta islet produce and secrete insulin→ stimulates glycogen formation in liver from glucose, stimulates glucose uptake by cells→ blood glucose falls to normal range and homeostasis is restored. 68. Type 1 diabetes is juvenile or insulin dependent diabetes. It is when beta islet cells die and there isn’t enough insulin produced. Can happen in adults, but mainly in children. Blood glucose levels are elevated. Type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent or adult on-set diabetes that is most common. Insulin is produced but only intake a limited amount of glucose. Blood glucose is elevated and the person is resistant to insulin. 69. Yes, the woman has a 80-90% probability of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. 70. It is in the epithalamus in the diencephalon that secretes melatonin. 71. Melatonin, derived from serotonin, is a hormone that is in control of circadian rhythm control, induces sleep and is suppressed by light exposure. 72. Aldosterone 73. Hypothalamus
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