Exam 1 Study Guide- Sociology of Education
Exam 1 Study Guide- Sociology of Education SOC 440
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 440 at Clemson University taught by Southworth in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Education in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
SOC 444 Exam 1 THEORIES I Functionalist Theory Durkheim O OO Functionalists would assert that educational and occupational success is a meritocratic process Study how the different parts of society work together to create order and stability Education is the key to creating a moral society Problems with functionalist theory I Ascribes states race gender social class often determines educational achievement and occupation I Does not address inequality 0 Con ict Theory Marx Weber Meyer 0 0000000 0 Argues that schools functions in the interests of the dominant groups in a society rather than everyone A con ict theory would argue that public schools increase inequality Emphasizes struggle between groups People in society are competing Those in power make the rules Schools teach students what the elite want them to know Educational experiences are not equal Randall Collins status group struggle I Educational credentials are meaningless unless meaning is assigned to them I Credentials are important but not a symbol of knowledge I Technical functionalism 0 Skill requirements increase as technology increases 0 Formal education provides skills needed 0 Education requirements rise so more people spend more time in school Problems with con ict theory I Does not look at what works I Not enough emphasis on the individual I All about the problems I Highlights inequalities 0 Feminist Theory 0 O 0 Schools reproduce gender inequality School reinforce gender roles Schools perpetuate gender achievement gaps 0 Code Theory Bernstein 0 Language patterns SOC 444 Exam 1 0 Examined the connection between communication codes curriculum and teaching methods 0 Restricted I Low incomeworking classes I Parents give orders 0 Elaborated I High incomemiddle classes I More in depth conservations I Interaction between parent and child I Parents give more choices I Descriptive speech I Used in schools place working class children at a disadvantage 0 Interactionist Theory 0 Interactionists argue that quantitative studies of education ignore what actually happens in school 0 Labeling Theory I Students become deviant not because of what they do but how others respond to what they do I Teachers expect less of lowerclass children than they do of middleclass children I Children who were clean and neatly dressed in nice clothing tended to be placed in higher tracks than their measured ability would predict I In deciding if someone is deviant a teacher or counselor will rely on both face to face and second hand information I Focuses on deviance I Primary deviance 0 Does it once 0 Norm violation that has very little in uences on the person and can be quickly forgotten andor overlooked 0 Primary deviant will agree heshe has violated a social norm but says it does not define them as a person I Secondary deviance 0 Habitually does it 0 Deviant acts that define the actor and create a new identity I Occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label I Selffulfilling prophecy 0 If children continually receive negative feedback from parents teachers and others whose opinion they take to heart they will SOC 444 Exam 1 interpret this rejection as accurate Their behavior will begin to conform to the negative expectations they will become the person others perceive them to be 0 Rational Choice Theory 0 People look at the costs and benefits of schooling 0 Social Reproduction Theory 0 Education system is intentionally set up to benefit some over others 0 Seeks to link structure and agency 0 Agency I Own feelings actions and choices affected by the structure environment 0 Habitusaspirations I Attitudes beliefs values and behavior pass from one generation to the next I Helps determine expectations for future I Most important factor for contributing to social reproduction 0 Resistance Theory Giroux 0 Student resistance to school is a political response to limited life chances 0 Teachers and students can resist the status quo and overcome obstacles 0 Students do not believe a high school diploma is going to help them do well 0 Earoles Willis I Conform to roles defined for students I Middle class occupations I Comply with the rules and norms of the schools 0 Lads Willis I Rejects school s achievement ideology I Work in factories I Saw education as feminism I Perpetuation Theory 0 Minorities who are in desegregated schools are more likely to go to diverse schools and work in more diverse fields I Contact Hypothesis 0 Intergroup contact between students allows people to overlook differences and overcome stereotypes FORMS OF CAPITAL 0 Economic capital 0 The more money parents have the better they are able to educate their children 0 People with the most money have more choices and power SOC 444 Exam 1 0 Human capital 0 Education job 0 People with weak ties supportive parents and communities are likely to develop more human capital 0 Parents share their human capital with their children 0 Social capital 0 People with the most cultural capital also have the most social capital 0 When parents and teachers know students and participate students perform better 0 When there are norms that create safe environments people have more social capital 0 Trusting relationships between parties and high expectations equals more social capital 0 The more people you know the more information the more social capital 0 Having more social capital leads to more human capital 0 Coleman argues that social capital provides more group cohesion and a way for people to be upwardly mobile 0 Cultural capital Bourdieu O Combines con ict theory and symbolic interaction 0 The general cultural background knowledge disposition and skills that are passed down from one generation to the next 0 The most successful people are those with more cultural capital Wealthy people pass on their cultural capital to their children 0 Transmission of cultural capital allows for some students to have more 0 opportunities and higher achievement than others TRACKING 0 Heterogeneous mixed 0 Allows all students into the same classes 0 Pros teachers treat all students the same SOC 444 Exam 1 O Cons teachers lower their expectations 0 Homogeneous same 0 Putting students into academic courses based on perceived ability 0 Cons segregating kids 0 Unintended consequences 0 Segregates students by race and class 0 Expectations from teachers 0 Unequal learning opportunities 0 Hallinan O Functionalist theoretical perspective 0 Don t need to get rid of tracking fix problems instead 0 Argues that the most serious disadvantage of tracking is the slow growth of achievement for students in lower tracks 0 Con ict theoretical perspective 0 Need to get rid of tracking so all students will have equal opportunity 0 Argues that numerically the students most disadvantaged by tracking are low income white students 0 Objective criteria 0 Test scores 0 Higher tracks 0 Subjective criteria 0 Teacherparent recommendation schedule con ict 0 Middle class whites are more likely to be in upper tracks regardless of ability COURT CASES 0 Plessy v Ferguson 0 Separate but equal accommodations in transportation 0 Mendez v Westminster SOC 444 Exam 1 0 Hispanic kids in California 0 Separate not equal 0 Brown V Board 0 Held that black children in a public education system had a constitutional right to participate on the same terms as whites 0 Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal 0 Engel V Vitale 0 School initiated prayer in the public school system violates the first amendment 0 Schools can t force students to pray 0 Swann V Charlotte Mecklenburg 1971 0 Charlotte NC city that made desegregation work 0 Very segregated took to court to help desegregated 0 Schools desegregated and businesses moved in O Magnet schools 0 Swann V Charlotte Mecklenburg 2002 O 1991 daughter got rejected to magnet school then parent sued city 0 Court said you couldn t desegregate schools anymore 0 More segregated now than ever before 0 Parents Involved in Community Schools V Seattle School District 0 Washington and Kentucky 0 End of voluntarily desegregation 0 Schools cannot assign students based on individual race 0 Change school boundaries lines school choice 0 Grutter V Bollinger 0 14th amendment prohibits a public university from employing race means for the purpose of promoting racial equality and insists that the university s interest in attaining a diverse student body 0 Abbeville V State 0 Better educate students 0 Need different funding for school rather than local property taxes to make it equally fair for all schools 0 Sheff V O Neill O Hartford Connecticut 0 Wanted to voluntarily integrate system 0 Court ordered desegregation 0 Schools more segregated now than they were before the lawsuit 0 Milliken V Bradley SOC 444 Exam 1 0 Black plaintiffs who had already proved that the Detroit public schools and the state of Michigan had discriminated against black children for years would have to prove that the suburban school district boundary lines had been deliberately drawn on the basis of race FEDERAL ACTS 0 Title IX of Equal Opportunity in Education Act 0 No person in the US shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in be denied the benefits of or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance 0 Fair Housing Acts 0 Can t discriminate in housing 0 Civil Rights Act 0 Outlawed discrimination against blacks and females 0 If receive federal funds have to desegregate schools 0 Elementary and Secondary Education Act 0 Provided federal funds for schools With poor children 0 Emergency School Aid Act 0 Provided federal funds to school districts that desegregated their schools DESEGREGATION 0 Dejure O Segregated by laW 0 Defacto SOC 444 Exam 1 O Segregated by individual choices or social practices 0 Desegregation results 0 Achievement gaps decreased 0 Increased tracking within school segregation 0 Increased minority goals and aspirations 0 Increased group interactions 0 Desegregated children are more likely to work in a diverse environment and attend a diverse college 0 Increased college attendance 0 Schools are more segregated now because of neighborhoods 0 Second class generation segregation O Often schools that are racially and economically diverse at the school level become resegregated at the classroom level 0 The Army is the most integrated institution in American society 0 Overall desegregation was a success while implemented THE AMERICAN DREAM 0 If you work hard and play by the rules you should be given a chance to go as far as your God given ability will take you 0 Schools are supposed to be the great equalizer but they are not 0 Minorities are more likely to go to a high poverty school 0 Low income students are more likely to go to high poverty school 0 Different schools offer unequal access to facilities teachers money coursework afterschool programs 0 Education is at the core of the dominant American ideology 0 Inequalities in family wealth are a major cause of inequalities in schooling 0 Absolute success 0 Whether or not you succeed 0 Relative success 0 Attaining more than someone else 0 Competitive success 0 Some succeed at the expense of others 0 Success of some implies the failure of the others 0 Teach kids to compete 0 Give awards for higher grades COLLECTIVE GOALS 0 Schools must help to provide equal opportunity for all children 0 Ability to deal with diverse others in the public arena 0 Produce democratic citizen 0 Common core of knowledge everybody learns the same thing SOC 444 Exam 1 Schools have not achieved these collective goals because they are hard to meet due to bureaucracy and money TYPES OF RESEARCH Metaanalysis 0 Take What everyone else has said unanswered questions Content analysis 0 Look for themes Qualitative 0 Observations participantnonparticipant 0 Descriptive 0 Interviews Quantitative O Surveys 0 Numbers Validity 0 Measuring What you think you are measuring Reliability 0 Research information is reliable consistent Correlation 0 Things happen at the same time but are not related to the outcome Causation 0 Things that causes the outcome MAGNET SCHOOLS Located in low income areas Acts as magnets to suburban parents Voluntarily desegregated
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