Exam 2 Study Guide- Sociology of Education
Exam 2 Study Guide- Sociology of Education SOC 440
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Date Created: 08/21/15
SOC 444 Exam 2 Review COLLECTIVE IDENTITY OGBU People s sense of who they are their feeling of we or belonging Expressed with emblems or cultural symbols that re ect attitudes beliefs feelings behaviors and language Develops from collective experiences For Black Americans it began with slavery Continue to feel it even though there are no laws Created and maintained by Status problems 0 External forces that mark a group of people as distinct segment from the rest of the population 0 Involuntary incorporation into society 0 Minorities forced into minority status against their will 0 Instrumental discrimination 0 Denial of equal access to good jobs education housing 0 Social subordination 0 Segregation violence laws that keep people separated I Expressive mistreatment 0 Culture language intellectual abuse CULTURE FRAME OF REFERENCE Voluntary refugees immigrants undocumented workers 0 O O O 0 Positive Discrimination is temporary US is land of opportunity Trust institutions If they don t like the school may establish their own charter school Involuntary nonimmigrants O O O O O Negative Feel discrimination in institutionalized Speaking standard English may be seen as selling out Involuntary professionals are not as tied to the community and are not as visible Distrust schools and institutions OGBU PAGES 398408 PostCivil Rights Era Black Responses to Acting White Status Problems 0 Changes have occurred in the status problems of blacks since the civil rights movement of the 19605 These changes were more evident in the economic and political sectors The factors that raised the job ceiling for blacks included execute orders federal legislation the war on poverty and pressures from civilrights organizations The changes benefited mainly college educated blacks college educated blacks in the white establishments have complained of a glass ceiling 0 Social discrimination this has decreased but has not been entirely eliminated O Expressive discrimination many whites probably no longer believe that blacks are inferior to whites but the residue of this belief remains O The coping strategies include the following 0 Assimilation or emulation of whites Black professionals choose to abandon black cultural and dialect frames of reference to behave and talk according to White frames of reference 0 Accommodation without assimilation Blacks adopt White cultural and language frames of reference where they have to in order to succeed in school or in other white controlled institutions They do not give up their black identity or cultural and language frames of reference They learn and follow the stande practices for success in White Americans in their institutions without giving up their racial identity and ways of behaving or talking code switching O Ambivalence Blacks adopt White behavior and talk in order to achieve success because they do not believe that the reason Black people are not as successful as White people is because they do not know how to behave or talk like White people 0 Resistance or opposition Blacks do not think they should give up their dialect because of their collective identity requires them to talk like Black people not like White people They resist the White culture 0 Encapsulation Blacks do not behave or talk like white people anywhere 0 Some individuals trying to act white may experience psychological stress 0 The sanctions experienced most commonly by blacks striving for academic and professional success are disloyalty to the black cause or black community threat of personal embarrassment and humiliation and fear of losing friends andor a sense of community 0 Black women who were attending a community schools to get their GED the biggest opposition was against speaking Standard English O The coping strategies include o Camou aging I This requires activities that give other blacks the impression that one is for black people not for white people I Active participation in the civil rights struggle is a good way to camou age I Academic identity program for achieving black students called The Minority Achievement Committee Scholar MAC Scholars 0 Accommodation without assimilation I Convincing others that one is able to behave and talk like white people in white controlled environments and yet behave and talk like black people in the black community is another way to handle social sanction 0 Support group or mentorship I Black professional organizations or associations function to provide needed support to blacks I One function of the mentor is to serve as a stabilizing force against peer pressures and selfdoubt BURDEN OF ACTING NEITHER WHITE NOR BLACK LEW 0 Asian Americans Korean Americans voluntary immigrants 0 Other social forces such as class peer networks and school context play a role 0 Acting White plays a role for other racial groups than black and white students 0 Magnet school highachieving middleclass and GED program workingclass low achieving high school dropouts 0 Stereotype images of Asian success or black failure cannot be predicted solely on cultural explanations but has to take into account the changing social contexts 0 The findings indicate that the two groups of Korean American students experience their racial minority status and adopted different racial strategies depending on their socioeconomic backgrounds peer networks and school contexts 0 The high achieving middle class Korean students were more likely to associate and identify with their ethnic backgrounds 0 The high achieving Korean American students associated being American with whiteness and pointed out that because of their racial minority status they would not be accepted as American despite being born and raised in the United States 0 The low achieving Korean American high school dropouts were more likely to identify themselves as minorities O The research argues that academic achievement among Asian American students involves a complex relationship between culture class race and schools Asian Americans in schools face con icting messages regarding their racial minority status they are excluded from whiteness They learn to negotiate their race and ethnic identities differently than black and white students 0 In order to resist this racial minority status and marginalization that accompanies it the middle class and high achieving students are more likely to use education as a racial strategy Racial minorities would have to work harder in school to obtain the economic parity with white Americans 0 Asian success much like black failure cannot be explained solely on their cultural orientation 0 Asian students are less likely to seek help for educational issues because they are supposed to already know it all Burden of Acting White and Oppositional Cultural Frame of Reference 0 Involuntary minorities 0 nonimmigrant people who have been conquered colonized or enslaved 0 African American students adopt low school performance as a form of adaptation to their limited social and economic opportunity in adult life 0 It is argued that involuntary minorities who were forcefully incorporated into the United States tend to attribute academic success with whiteness and thus reject school success with their own ethnic and racial identities 0 Voluntary minorities O Refugees migrant guest workers undocumented workers 0 Middle class blacks continue to perform less academically than middle class whites as a result of their oppositional culture frame of reference and resistance to acting white 0 Black students attitudes and behaviors in school cannot be separated from the larger historical opposition and systemic racism that African Americans have faced in the United States 0 Culture is important issues of class race and school context play an integral role in academic achievement among Asian American students 0 Poor and working class low achievers are more likely to disassociate from their ethnic identities and adopt oppositional cultural frame of reference from their peers as a way to resist their limited opportunities at home communities and schools CHAPTER 20 INVISIBLE INEOUALITY LAUREAU I Concerted cultivation middleclass 0 Key elements I Parents fosters child s talents opinions and skills by including organized activities 0 Daily life I Adultorganized activities I Parents believe activities provide a wide range of benefits important for child s development I Activities provide a learning ground for important life skills 0 Language use I Elaborated language pattern I Engage in indepth conservations that include interaction between parent amp child I Reasoning I Negotiation I Parents offer children choices and use descriptive speech I Employ talking as their preferred form of discipline 0 Social connections I Weak family ties with extended relatives I Child often in homogenous age groupings 0 Consequences I Emerging sense of entitlement in children I Parents teaches child to be an informed assertive client in interactions with professionals 0 Accomplishment of natural growth workingclass poor 0 Key elements I Parents placed a premium on conformity to external authority I Parents cares for child and allows child to grow I Parents do not focus on developing their children s special talents I Distrustful of professionals 0 Daily life I Children participate in few organized activities and have more free time I Hangs out with kin 0 Language use I Restricted language pattern I Parents do not ask questions they are brief in their remarks I Parents issue more commands to their children I Place more emphasis on physical discipline 0 Social connections I Strong extended family ties I Children often in heterogeneous age groupings I Distrustful of professionals I Parents depended on public assistance 0 Consequences I Emerging sense of constraint Ethnographic methods to study inequality Based on interviews and observations of children aged 810 and their families Problems faced altered family dynamics for short period Much of the empirical work is descriptive Time parents spend with children also has been examined as well as patterns of children s time use Laueau seeks to show that social class does indeed create distinctive parenting styles She demonstrates that parents differ by class in the ways they define their own roles in their children s lives as well as in how they perceive the nature of childhood Lareau s traces the connections between the class position of family members and the uneven outcome of their experiences outside the home as they interact with professionals in dominant institutions Differences in family life lie not only the advantages parents obtain for their children but also in the skills they transmit to children for negotiating their own life paths Income differences among the middle class families were not associated with differences in childrearing methods Race is less important than class in shaping childrearing patterns Parents economic resources helped create the observed class differences in childrearing practices Differences in educational resources also are important Middleclass parents superior levels of education gave them larger vocabularies that facilitated concerted cultivation particularly in institutional interventions Poor and working class parents were not familiar with key terms professionals used Middle class parents educational backgrounds gave them confidence when criticizing educational professionals and intervening in school matters Working class and poor parents viewed educators as their social superiors Childrearing strategies are in uenced by more than parents education It is the interweaving of life experiences and resources including parents economic resources occupational conditions and educational backgrounds that appear to be most important in leading middle class parents to engage in concerted cultivation and working class and poor parents to engage in the accomplishment of natural growth 0 Drawbacks to middle class childrearing 0 The exhaustion associated with intensive mothering O Hectic family schedules 0 Children s lack of experience that leaves them feeling too advanced for simple games and toys 0 Children are less likely to learn how to fill empty time with their own creative play leading to a dependence on their parents to solve experiences of boredom FORMS OF CAPITAL 0 Economic capital 0 The more money parents have the better they are able to educate their children 0 People with the most money have more choices and power 0 Human capital 0 Education job 0 People with weak ties supportive parents and communities are likely to develop more human capital 0 Parents share their human capital with their children 0 Social capital 0 People with the most cultural capital also have the most social capital 0 When parents and teachers know students and participate students perform better 0 When there are norms that create safe environments people have more social capital 0 Trusting relationships between parties and high expectations equals more social capital 0 The more people you know the more information the more social capital 0 Having more social capital leads to more human capital 0 Coleman argues that social capital provides more group cohesion and a way for people to be upwardly mobile 0 Cultural capital Bourdieu O Combines con ict theory and symbolic interaction 0 The general cultural background knowledge disposition and skills that are passed down from one generation to the next 0 The most successful people are those with more cultural capital Wealthy people pass on their cultural capital to their children 0 Transmission of cultural capital allows for some students to have more 0 opportunities and higher achievement than others SOCIAL REPRODUCTION THEORY Reproducing social structures poor kids will grow up to poor adults Education system is intentionally set up to benefit some over others Seeks to link structure and agency Agency 0 Own feelings actions and choices affected by the structure environment Habitusaspirations 0 Attitudes beliefs values and behavior pass from one generation to the next 0 Helps determine expectations for future 0 Most important factor for contributing to social reproduction FUNCTIONALIST THEORY Durkheim Functionalists would assert that educational and occupational success is a meritocratic process Study how the different parts of society work together to create order and stability Education is the key to creating a moral society Problems with functionalist theory 0 Ascribes states race gender social class often determines educational achievement and occupation 0 Does not address inequality CONFLICT THEORY Marx Weber Meyer Argues that schools functions in the interests of the dominant groups in a society rather than everyone A con ict theory would argue that public schools increase inequality Emphasizes struggle between groups People in society are competing Those in power make the rules Schools teach students what the elite want them to know Educational experiences are not equal Randall Collins status group struggle 0 Educational credentials are meaningless unless meaning is assigned to them 0 Credentials are important but not a symbol of knowledge Skill requirements increase as technology increases Formal education provides skills needed Education requirements rise so more people spend more time in school Problems with con ict theory 0 Does not look at what works 0 Not enough emphasis on the individual 0 All about the problems 0 Highlights inequalities
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