Exam 3 Study Guide- Sociology of Education
Exam 3 Study Guide- Sociology of Education SOC 440
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 440 at Clemson University taught by Southworth in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Education in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
Discipline Lowlevel violence less likely to be punished O Bullying peer sexual harassment gay harassment psychological Results 0 Security guards metal detectors zero tolerance policies Functionalists 0 Discipline is key 0 Corporal punishment and suspensions Con ict theorists 0 Positive school environment will reduce power struggles 0 Do not need children to be treated like prisoners 0 Discipline will disproportionately affect lower classes Dropouts 1624 years old who have not completed a high school program GED completers are NOT dropouts Lowest dropout rate in diverse schools Disproportionately 0 Single parent family male low grades 23 years behind in school behavior problems minorities low income families Why drop out 0 Neighborhood dangers family problems little in school support teen pregnancy gangs teacher labeling school violence grade retention What to do 0 Suspensions and retention stigmatizes students 0 Tutoring after school programs are expensive 0 Intervention for at risk students 0 Dropout prevention programs Problems for dropouts 0 Only 47 are employed many fill prisons Banned Books No pattern violence sex paranormal etc English Language Leaners ESL CH 23 Most EL are immigrants or children of immigrants They need more resources but receive fewer resources 0 Need trained teachers teachers don t get professional development time required to take same tests as others need appropriate texts and curriculum in their native language Taught by teachers who are not fully credentialed Same textbooks as other students lower quality facilities overcrowded classrooms exposed to lower achieving peers not enough time spent on instruction Academic achievement of English learners lags behind the achievement of English background students One reason for the underachievement of English learners is that they begin school behind their English speaking peers English language learners show the most growth in the early years Remedies 0 State provide funding to train teachers provide bilingual books provide preschool Gender Inequalities Women are more likely to attend and graduate from college Males and females still likely to enroll in different majors leads to gender gap in wages Why do we see inequalities 0 Different majors family resources distributed unequally between boys and girls children model parents boys have an advantage in families where parents are educated girls have an advantage in families where parents are not well educated Why are there inequalities O Wage returns women s wage returns have increased faster rates than men Separation and Inclusion CH 5 Educating disabled students is twice as expensive as educating nondisabled students Children with special needs 0 ESL learning disabilities hearingsight impaired Separation 0 Most would argue it does more harm than good disabled students are teased by other students 0 Increases barriers among students and labels them 0 Decreases diversity in the classroom 0 Makes learning respect and mutual engagement more difficult Inclusion 0 Interaction in the classroom and playground is the best way for children to learn to appreciate and deal with people different from themselves O Collective goals of education are best achieved when students are educated together Seek mainstreaming inclusion for children with disabilities Prepares students for the future interact with students unlike them More likely to live independently obtain a job and earn higher wages Inclusion for disabled children requires additional aides specially trained teachers in regular classroom technology adjustments 0 Author is for inclusion about common good what s best for everybody Minorities and boys are over represented in special needs classes 0 Boys more diagnosed with ADHD than girls 0 Boys act out more aggressive no emotions 0 Minorities low income parents don t know how to work the school system Someone using labeling theory would say inclusion is the best way Bilingual Education CH 6 School Bilingual Education Act gave federal funds to be used to help educated children who were both poor and educationally disadvantaged because of their inability to speak English Not just Spanish Poor are overrepresented Over identificationunder identification Some argue it increases racial inequality decreases diversity in classrooms Little call for full inclusion Dual immersion classes are divided evenly between English speaking students who want to learn another language and students who speak that language seeking to improve their English teachers are bilingual and students are taught in both languages Choice CH 526 Allows parents to choose their child s public school from an array designated by the school district or state Initially used as a way for districts to get around desegregation orders Intradistrict choice within district Interdisctict choice transfer across district boundaries Republicans public and private Democrats public Vouchers 0 Government give lowincome students money lottery Charters 0 Receive public funding Any individual or group can propose a charter school Fastest growing forms of alternative governance in American education State put limit on number of schools can be shut down if don t meet their mandates 0 Reduce diversity 0 Noncertified teachers Magnets 0 Used as magnets to draw in suburban students 0 Regular public school often in poor neighborhoods 0 Originally used for desegregation didn t work Private 0 Home school 0 Mothers internet started because of religious reasons Problems with school choice 0 Good school becomes over populated 0 If good school is full students can t transfer 0 Need caps Pros O Financed by public funds Voucher voluntary desegregation leave bullies more capital can choose better school poor kids equal opportunity Cons 0 Doesn t help everybody money transportation resources overunder populated everybody can t get it not offered everywhere 0 Cons outweigh pros Theoretically school choice is a good idea but it doesn t benefit everyone Liberation hypothesis 0 Used to justify school choice component of NCLB 0 Students will be freed from poorly performing schools Competition hypothesis 0 When parents are given greater latitude to choose alternatives to their neighborhood schools school systems tend to become more competitive 0 Some students may benefit from competition but will harm the ones left at the old school 0 School choice produces higher test scores Assumptions 0 Education is a commodity schools are markets 0 Assumes that people know what their choices are 0 Everyone has a choice 0 Everyone has the ability to act on their choice 0 Everyone knows how to choose 0 Competition will increase standards 0 Parents will choose schools that best meet the needs of their children 0 Milwaukee voucher program 0 First voucher program 0 Benefits after 3 years NCLB CH 26 0 Form of intradistrict school choice 0 To improve test scores for all 0 Provisions 0 Test students yearly turn over contact information to military for recruiting purposes hold teachersschoolsstudents accountable schools cannot prohibit patriotic groups boy scouts teachers must be highly qualified if students don t perform schools can be taken over by state or lose federal money use scientifically proven teaching methods 0 School revolt 0 Some districtsstates chose not to comply and lost federal funding 0 Teacher qualifications too restrictive O Creates effects on subgroups ESL or disabled groups and their teachers are set up for failure 0 By focusing on one test schools will decline 0 Narrows curriculum effects larger in poor schools 0 Public schools become less accountable mess up local bonds 0 If a school fails to meet AYP for two years 0 Students find schools that have space and are eligible notify parents provide transportation 0 DEMOCRATS VS REPUBLICANS Higher Education CH 24 0 Prices for students rising administration increasing fewer tenured faculty more adjunct faculty faculty teaching more courses 0 Males are more likely to decline to enroll or to delay enrollment in college than females 0 Students from higher socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to enroll 0 The risk of divorce drops 6 for each additional year of schooling 0 College educated women are more likely to marry college educated men 0 Women earn 58 of bachelors degrees and 67 of black students bachelors degrees 0 Women are underrepresented in math and science fields because gender segregation and their family roles 0 When the major of the student is taken into account the return on a college degree is more for women 0 Veterans are less likely to go to college than nonveterans ForProfit Universities 0 For those who have difficulty getting into a public university 0 No labs no research no tenured faculty College for All CH 16 Community colleges initiated open admissions policies and remedial course to reduce the academic barriers to college College for all norm states that all students can and should attend college but fails to tell students what they must do to attain this goal The dropout rates from public two year college increase because school officials do not warn students about potential problems High school grades predict which students fails at their college plans Grades and homework time explain most of the differential success rate between those with BA and AA plans Females have higher grades and homework time than males but lower test scores If a student is a low achiever in high school and go to college they are at an economic disadvantage in the labor market after graduating from college If students college plans are not likely to succeed the author suggests that students have a backup plan The author suggest that schools have high expectations for all students but also offer vocational programs Opportunity costs for the college for all model 0 Students high expectations may encourage them to see high school as irrelevant and to make poor use of high school 0 It may lead to a lack of effort if students believe they can get the same outcomes without added effort they will not make the effort 0 Students with little prospect for getting a college degree will fail to get vocational training Transfer from Community Colleges to FourYear Colleges CH 17 The SES of the parents of students is strongly associated with whether students transfer Age does have a major impact on transfer students who are older than 18 when they enter community college are less likely to transfer Race does not have an impact on transfer rates blacksHispanics less likely to transfer Gender does not have an impact males slightly higher transfer rate than females Being single does not have an impact on transfer Being childless has a positive effect Not working or working fewer than 40 hours a week has positive impact on transfer Being enrolled in an academic major positive impact on transfer Being enrolled fulltime increase the rate of transfer International Education CH 15 United States students think critically have study habits Chinese s students memorize and learn facts United States and Chinese students different because two different cultures TIMSS Trends in Mathematics and Science Idea that math and science achievement is linked to economic productivity Breadth number of topics covered in a school year Depth time spent on each topic The milewideandinchdeep image suggested American teachers try to cover too many topics and it is often thought that if a teacher covers too much content this robs emphasis and detracts from achievement Intended curriculum national curriculum guidelines and textbooks Implemented curriculum what is actually taught in the classrooms Achieved curriculum what is actually learned by students from the intended curriculum What is the problem with claiming that math and science in the US educational system is broken 0 The clam isn t supported by evidence Court Cases Parents Involved in Community Schools 0 End of voluntarily desegregation 0 Schools cannot assign students based on individual race 0 Change school boundaries lines school choice Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA 0 Gave disabled children the right to receive a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment 0 Disabled children became entitled to an individually appropriate program and the parents were given the rights under federal law to appeal to school officials and turn to the courts if they believed their children were improperly classified or inappropriately place 0 Mainstreaming putting children in regular classrooms inclusion 0 Before IDEA students with disabilities were separated or did not attend school O IDEA made it possible for all children with disabilities to attend school and get an education in the environment that is best suited for the individual 0 IEDA allows disabled children the changed for personal success without entirely depending on private resources and commitments Ember Shortage CH 11 1 Student enrollment increased job openings for teachers size of teaching workforce has increased many schools with teaching openings have experienced difficulties with recruitment Large proportions of those who train to become teachers do not ever become teachers Many of those who decided not to pursue teaching indicated that they needed more education or wanted another occupation Looking at the overall pool of teachers Ingersoll found that there is an overall surplus of teachers but they are limited to certain fields The demand for new teachers is due to teacher turnover teachers moving from or leaving their teaching job Types of total turnover those who move to teaching jobs in other schools teacher migration and those who leave the teaching occupation altogether teacher attrition High turnover in poverty public schools urban public schools private schools Teacher turnover is less than turnover in lower skill occupations fields Sources of teacher turnover 0 Retirement school staffing personal reasons pregnancy health job dissatisfaction low pay lack of support poor student motivation student discipline problems large class size How schools improve the teaching job 0 Increase salaries class size reduction increase support reduction of student discipline problems After five years of teaching 4050 of teachers leave the field Why is some teacher turnover good 0 Researchers have found that effective organizations usually promote and benefit from a limited degree of turnover by eliminating lowcaliber performers and bringing in quotnew bloodquot to facilitate innovation From an organizational perspective some teacher turnover especially of ineffective teachers is necessary and beneficial Why would some people think we should separate children with special needs In the beginning supporters of separation for children with special needs thought it a mistake to educate them in classes or school with students who did not have similar types of disability Parents feared that disabled children tend to do poorly in public schools and often their problems went undiagnosed and eventually the children would become truant and drop out Supporters of separation also worried that the fears of stigmatization in a mainstream setting would undermine a student39s or parent39s resolve to obtain needed services They believed that educators in regular classrooms already held low expectations for poor rural or nonwhite students and therefore would be inclined to ignore poor performance among disadvantaged children with disabilities From the perspective of Jeanne Angus inclusion is what makes children with special needs feel isolated and that in their own place they can feel part of a group that is valued and understood on its own terms In relation to the Deaf children supporters thought they should attend schools with others like themselves that was ultimately run by Deaf adults They believed full inclusion creates language and communication barriers that are potentially harmful and consequently deny many of these children an education in the Least Restrictive Environment By mainstreaming deaf children in regular public school programs it will yield only quota new generation of educational failuresquot who will become quotfrustrated and unfilled adultsquot 2 Public policy advocates opposite things for bilingual students and special education students What is the focus of each think separation v inclusion Why After the passing of IDEA advocates begin to support full inclusion in regular classrooms They became concerned about the new tendency of schools to identify too many children as needing special education They believed that if disabled children are to be removed from regular classrooms teachers will have an incentive to label as emotionally disturbed those children who are unactive or defiant and to eliminate the problem without helping the child White middle class parents may also seek to have their underachieving children classified as learning disabled in order to obtain extra aid and a legal boots against potential competitors in the arena of high stakes testing Critics eventually came to believe that the cumulative effect of removing special needs students from the classroom was substantial harmful and costly Proponents of more inclusive policies thought that students with disabilities can only attain success later in life if they begin in a regular classroom and they believed that all children will benefit when some students are educated in regular classrooms In order to be truly prepared to take part in the real world as adults children with disabilities need to be educated in languagerich classrooms and to interact daily with peers who are appropriate role models Proponents also believed that an inclusive classroom promotes the collective good of teaching children and adults essential lessons in democratic values and practice For the most part Americans agree that children who are not uent in English need help to learn it so they can pursue their individual dreams Even most advocates of inclusion concur that some temporary separate education is necessary to help English learners get started in their schooling Some immigrants say that having to sit through Englishonly sessions and being pinched by teachers for speaking Spanish will produce insults humiliation and bewilderment 3 What does Ingersoll suggest schools do to attract and keep teachers Ingersoll suggests multiple things for schools to do to attract and keep teachers The strategies Ingersoll suggest include increase salaries reduce student discipline problems reduce class sizes allow teachers more input into issues and increase support though mentoring In relating to student discipline schools with more student misbehavior problems have more teacher turnover regardless of the background and poverty levels of the student population In regards to teachers39 input how much decisionmaking in uence they have over school policies also affect their jobs especially those concerned with student behavioral rules and sanctions Ingersoll found that on average teachers have little say in many of the key decisions that concern and affect their work but schools where teachers are allowed more input into issues have less con ict between staff and students and less teacher turnover Lastly after controlling for the background characteristics of teachers and schools Ingersoll found a strong link between participation by beginning teachers in induction and mentoring programs and their likelihood of moving or leaving after their first year on the job 4 Describe the ways in which family structure affect college attendance differently for boys and girls Family resources are not equally distributed between girls and boys in the same household Children often model their parents as they determine their own educational and occupational aspirations and attainment According to gender role socialization arguments quotafter controlling for the overall education level of the parents daughters should do better in households where the mother is better educated than in households where the father is better educatedquot Since the mid 1960s the female advantage has remained the largest in families with absent or high school educated fathers Males gain an advantage when they have a father in the home with some college education but lose the advantage when their father has only a high school education or is absent The changes in gender roles also have an effect on college attendance especially for girls Young women39s expectations for future employment encourage them to attend and complete college The age of first marriage among college graduates has risen in recent decades As women are marrying later they take college more seriously and form their identities before getting married and having a family Women39s access to reliable contraception e g birth control pill has positively impacted their college attendance as well 5 What does Berlinger describe as the quotunexamined 600 pound gorilla in the roomquot What does he mean by this Berlinger refers to poverty as the quotunexamined 600 pound gorilla in the roomquot He believes high rates of poverty are associated with low levels of educational achievement as the graduation rate decreases among poor students When he thinks about the gorilla it seems foolish that most of what the nation does to try to help poor youth is classroom and school based Berlinger thinks we need to face the gorilla by looking at the effects of poverty on students Living in poverty can ultimately limit the availability of needs that all people need in order to be able to fulfill growth needs In order to raise student achievement the school system needs to recognize the 600 pound gorilla and assist students in learning so they can overcome the hardships of poverty 6 What are some health issues that hurt children in school What can schools do to help Two of the simplest health issues that hurt children in school are medical problems such as otitis media and those associated with vision Recurring otitis media has been known to be related to hearing impairments which causes language development and reading problems in school Vision can also effect a student39s behavior in school Mass screening tests that schools use rarely assess the ability of children to do closeup work including reading writing arithmetic and computer learning Another health issue is asthma Asthma prevents children from attending school and studying diligently According to Berliner children with asthma miss 20 to 40 school days a year The effects of lead on mental functioning can hurt children in school The Centers of Disease Control estimates that some 450000 children in the United States show levels of lead in their blood that are high enough to cause cognitive and neurological damage A leaddamaged nervous system is often associated with learning disabilities ADHD increased aggression and lower intelligence Lastly premature births and low birth weight children are more likely to have an atomic brain abnormalities than do fullterm full birth weight controls The degree of the abnormalities is strongly associated with measure of intelligence Since most of these health issues are related to poverty school people need to see communities as agentsprincipals and hold communities to standards that ensure all of the children are accorded the opportunities for growing well People need to realize that the whole society needs to be held as accountable for providing healthy children ready to learn as schools are for delivering quality instruction 7 What are some changes Berlinger think the US should make The US should raise the minimum wage to more livable wages Berlinger says quotif we really want a more egalitarian set of educational outcomes our nation needs a more equalitarian wage structurequot The US also needs to demand that women39s wages be set equal to those of men doing comparable work since it is working women and their children who make up the majority of the America39s poor When the US pushes for advanced placement courses for the nation39s students they should provide universal medical coverage for all students By doing that all of the children will have the health that allows them to attend school regularly and learn effectively instead of missing opportunities to learn due to a lack of medical treatment Since lead and mercury polluted areas increases the number of health issues among the poor the US should provide affordable housing throughout the communities The US needs to build a more economically equitab12e society in order to reduce the above health issues among children
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