Pt 1: Emancipation and Reconstruction
I. Reconstruction: Reuniting a Nation Torn
1865—Surrender of General Lee
- 750,000 causalities out of population of 30M; ~1/10 of population - Civil War lasted 10-12 years (late 1860s to 1877)
- Winning peace post-war = conflict ridden
o How much reconstruction? Should Southern states be reintroduced w/ more or less changes?
o Who will be in charge? President vs. Congress
o How long with Reconstruction be?
o Does freedom require civil/econ rights for former slaves? (Garfield believed it did)
II. Snapshot of America 1865
Not a world power; nation was mostly rural villages/farms - American Dream = owning a farm
- American Dream begins to change
Few deaths during reconstruction = surprising
III. Presidential Reconstruction—the “gentle” approach Presidential Reconstruction—Lincoln and Johnson— “forgive and forget” o No retribution
o Abraham Lincoln’s 2nd inaugural address: “with malice toward none and charity for all”
A. 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty—for southern states to rejoin union o 10% of voters in 1860 must sign loyalty oath to US
o Call Constitution Convention for state that accepts 13th amendment—no slavery
o Admit that succession was wrong
B. Racial Moderate
o Lincoln was deeply opposed to slavery but did not believe in equality. Southern states did not have to give former slaves rights to rejoin the Union.
C. Andrew Johnson
o VP President after Lincoln’s assassination
o Southerner from mountains vs. plantations so did not support Confederacy. Northern sympathizers. If you want to learn more check out What is platonic dualism?
o Extremely racist but believed in rights for black soldiers o Despised abolitionists b/c lacked moral sympathy for former slaves: hated that only rich whites not all whites could afford slaves
o Cont. gentle approach w/ no direction on how Southern states should treat slaves
o All Confederate generals had to go to D.C. for pardons
IV. Radical Reconstruction
Johnson vs. Republicans (Radicals)
- Republicans strongly disagreed w/o gentle approach. Wanted deep/permanent changes to fix root cause of war. Thought South would rise again
o Black Codes—laws passed to tell freed slaves what they could and couldn’t do—inc. restrictions to reestablish slavery
- Hated Johnson and didn’t want former Confederates in new gov (ex. Alexander Stevens—former Confederate VP—as GA Representative) Get “tough” approach If you want to learn more check out How many miles can I travel in a truck that gets 22.8 miles per gallon?
(1)Against Black Codes and ex-Confederates
(2)Constitutional Changes—13th, 14th, 15th amendments—even Johnson believed black vets should be able to vote
a. Republicans believed former slaves needed to vote to protect their freedom
b. Highly unpopular platform even in North b/c many Northerners didn’t believe in equality (15th amendment) but eventually gained support in N not S.
i. Short lived era of black political influence in the South
ii. Freedman’s Bureau—main goal = assist former slaves’ transition; Johnson hated it and vetoed it but Radicals
overturned it; affiliated w/ military; run by white
supremacists so didn’t serve it’s purpose
V. Impeaching Andrew Johnson
Tenure of Office Act (1867): Radicals in Congress passed law that says that Johnson needs approval to fire cabinet member from that member himself. - As Congress expected, Johnson disregards law and fires member of cabinet
- Congress impeaches Johnson, but he’s saved by one vote - Reputation damaged beyond repair, so Radicals running gov If you want to learn more check out what is Knapp’s Stages?
VI. “Redemption”—White South Regains Power
1870s Radical Nightmare begins to come true: no one’s enforcing 15th amendment
A. Preventing the vote
Jim Crow Laws
- Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests
o Grandfather Clause—allows illiterate whites to exempt literacy test
o Plantation states in South are the ones who have both poll taxes and literacy tests
B. Reconstruction Fatigue
(1)Panic of 1873—econ problems so even Northerners begin to forget about freedom for former slaves
(2)Racism and Death of Radicals—Northerners are distracted and powerful Radical leaders die loss of momentum
(3)Legal Setbacks—Supreme Court against equality
(4)Growing labor strikes and industrialism
VII. Final Act: Compromise of 1877
Rutherford vs. Hayes—Republicans win but withdraw Union soldiers from the South allowing the beginning of segregation that continues in the South until the 1960s
Pt 2: Remaking the South
I. History of Slavery
American slavery began from Caribbean—sugar plantations - Native Americans enslaved first but died out African slaves - Slavery key to Southern American econ during 1860s; extremely profitable Don't forget about the age old question of What is Ethnocentrism?
o 1 slave = $50,000 today
- 2 most important status symbols: slaves and cotton
II. Slavery and the South
A. Plantation Elite—top 4% of white southerners
Leaders of the Confederacy = plantation elite Don't forget about the age old question of Chemical, virus, or radiation that causes damage to the zygote, embryo, or fetus.
If you want to learn more check out Opportunity Cost
Slavery profitable in North too (most Founding Fathers had slaves) but more important in south
B. Poor Whites
Why did 70% of south made of yeoman farmers and small business owners w/o slaves fight?
(1)Racism—believed that whites were better than blacks
(2)Aspired to have slaves
C. Reestablishing Slavery
Why reestablish slavery post-Civil War?
(1)White supremacy—not unique to South
(2)Loss of hierarchy—for plantation elites (loss of status); for poor whites (nothing separates them from freed blacks except race)
(3)Loss of econ system
III. What to do with Freedom?
A. What do newly freed slaves want?
(1)Search for family—often separated because each had multiple owners throughout lifetime
(2)Schools and Education—literacy important to creating unified message
(3)Establish Churches (ex. Black Baptist Church and AME) (4)Enter Politics
B. Freedman’s Bureau
Created by Radical Republicans; important in educating freed slaves C. Black Churches
First organizations that were run by black people for black people - Important to modern African American culture
- Allowed them to take control of spiritual interpretation of the Bible - Gave rise to Civil Rights community (ex. MLK Jr. was a preacher)
A. Freedman’s Dream
Yeoman farming—independent farming, owning land
- Nothing but freedom—no longer slaves, but no land/econ freedom - Resistant to Black Codes and Old Plantations
- No way to make a living
B. White Plantation Owners
No workforce for land
- Need cheap labor force to replace slave system
C. Sharecropping Solution
In theory, white landowners provide food, clothing, housing for black laborers. Black laborers make 1/3 profit.
- Sharecroppers had to pay for seeds and supplies from their profit, so net profit is >1/3
- When cotton crop failed, sharecroppers had to pay for supplies w/o profit.
- Establish system where sharecroppers accumulated debt that rolled over year after year
o Debt Peonage: debt so large that working whole life won’t pay it off
- Eventually, poor whites join system
- Lasts until 1940s i.e. until machines (ex. tractors) were cheap enough to replace human labor
Period post war 1870s-80s westward movement
- Native Americans?
I. Heading West
Most Americans want land. Dream = farming. No land in the East (ex. Massachusetts). West was less developed.
A. Cheap Land—Homestead Act of 1862
Homestead Act: gov land policy to help Americans become farmers.
- Get rid of Natives to give people cheap land
- Divided West into grids/squares unlike places in the E
o Quarter Section = 160 acres for about $200 while 1 acre is about $2000 today
- Attracted Europeans
- Blacks could get land under Homestead Act
B. Business Opportunities
West set foundations for modern economy
- Real Estate—buy land for cheap, resell for more
- Cattle Ranches—owned cowboys and shipped to Chicago (meat packing hub), distributed throughout the country
Led to labor strife—extreme strikes in 1800s over hours and pay; gunfights in the streets
C. Manifest Destiny
Columbia = symbol for Westward Expansion
- Progress inevitable b/c it’s the will of God
- Justification for driving out the Natives
o Conquering nature massacres; “only good Indian is a dead Indian”
D. Black Westward Movement
Blacks escaped from South and established black towns out West
A. Eradication School
Either kill the Indians or assimilate them; assimilation = better/progressive B. Assimilation
Most Natives lived on reservations. Children taken from reservations and set to boarding schools—deliberately stripped out their culture to make them “white”
III. Dawes Act and Assimilation
Dawes Severalty Act 1887: turns Native land into farms; immediate 50% loss of land
A. Loss of “excess” land—Natives didn’t use land for farming so gov seized it and sold it
B. Land speculation problems
C. Lack of compatibility with Native Culture—farming = women’s role while hunting/warrior = men’s role; inverting culture alcoholism, depression that exists today
I. Industrialism—EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!
Largest businesses in 1860s had max 500 employees; hundred year later, businesses had over 20,000 employees
II. American Businesses Before 1870
Dream job was farming not working in a factory
- Changes economy but more importantly lifestyle
- Raises questions about democracy and freedom
- Local farms large cities
- What is the role of democracy in a world of extreme wealth? o Industrialists have more power than politicians
- Industrialism brought comforts (modern housing, clothing, food, etc.) and econ efficiency at extreme human cost
o Costs to humanity: ex. breaker boys—what is the role of child labor in industrialism? Breathing in coal dust, hazardous
- Why does industrialism happen?
Time zones created because of railroad corporations that spanned the country
III. Andrew Carnegie (Case Study)
A. A Fortuitous Combination of Development
Andrew Carnegie: Scottish immigrant whose father, ironically, came to the US in the 1840s because English Industrialist Revolution put weaving out of business.
- Carnegie was a child laborer in charge of factory telegrapher railroad company in his 30s.
- Access to tech, invented new ways to make railroads better; wanted to become like Vanderbilts
- Invests in steel b/c rare to find material that’s strong and flexible - Got loans from rich friends. Est. Homestead Steel as one of most famous companies ever.
- Retires as one of the richest men alive.
Mining important to railroads. Allowed rise of railroads. Led to easy transport. - Immigrants cheap laborers
Corporate businesses had no regulatory structure; eventually huge railroad companies board of execs
B. Important Corporate Business Technologies
Rise of new business techniques
- Integration of production—want to control everything from mining to transport to selling
- Price Fixing—oil companies in extreme competition, make a deal to not undercut each other. Divide into regions and keep prices w/in margin so everyone profits from their regions. Consumers lose in the end. C. Other Helpful Developments
Pro-industrialist US gov (Republican Party)
- Electorate = farmers but w/o slavery agriculture’s profitability dec. Passed Homestead Act but realized it wasn’t econ efficient so turned to industrialism.
- Allowed factory owners to call in army to stop strikers
- Changed laws to support industrialists and courts interpreted laws to serve businesses
- Ironically, at this time, Republicans believed in big gov involvement - Gave businesses “rights”
o 14th amendment and Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad = pro-industrialist
Social Darwinism: although Origin of Species says nothing about social/political life, in fact, says almost nothing about human evolution at all until descent of man, bastardized and interpreted science as a way to rationalize something that’s N/A. Sumner believed in separation of classes, proponent of “survival of the fittest”
IV. The Gilded Age—late 1880s-90s
Gilded = gold outside but not inside; which was accurate i.e. nice outside but not as it appears
A. Ambivalence about “Robber Barons”
Americans love making money and businesses, but there are also consequences for those who cannot adapt in changing econ. Conflicted about what to do with robber barons w/ extreme wealth!
B. Carnegie’s Social Conscience
Ambivalent about money because rich man but also believe you shouldn’t die rich
- Believed in educating others and giving them the opportunity to become like him
Pt 1: Labor Movement—Workers
I. Working Conditions in U.S. Factories, c. late 19th century Women and children begin entering workforce in large #s
35,000 people die per yr b/c of industrial jobs
- Three anti-industrialist groups = workers, farmers, Progressives A. Sanitation
Ex. Meat Packing factory not clean
- No hairnets
- Excess dumped in Chicago River
- No safety regulations
o The Jungle accurately describes situation
B. Working Hours
Long, unreasonable—6 days/wk, 10-16 hours/day not 40h/wk in factories C. Work Style
Regimented, repetitive, “on the clock”
- Mind-numbing work
o Most workers grew up on farms where work isn’t regimented - Econ efficiency at human cost
o Speed = too fast = criticism of workers
- Taylorism: scientific management system for labor
o Ways to move body to be more effective
o Makes human workers into machines
D. Loss of Skills
“Deskilling” of Labor—when craftsmen make artisan products. Human connection to products lost w/ machines.
Low wages = point of conflict strikes
- Better wages than in Europe
o immigration of factory workers to America
- Extremely dangerous; no compensation for injury/death o Triangle Shirtwaist factory fire in NY
II. Unionization & Strikes—Workers Resist Industrial Conditions Complaining about working condition firing b/c many immigrants and unemployed Americans ready to replace factory workers
Lack of concern for factory workers unions
A. National Labor Union (1866)
First major union; had no real impact on working conditions B. Great Railroad Strikes (1877)
20% cut in salary strikes sympathy across the country from other factory workers nationwide strikes railroad shutdown
- Gov = pro-industrialist so factory owners could call in army - violence b/w strikers and soldiers
- Strikers lose, go back to work w/ 20% less pay, wanted to try again - formation of K of L (1st important labor union)
III. Knights of Labor (1870s-80s)
10% of all factory workers = K of L; 15,000 local chapters
- Allowed Irish, blacks, women unlike most others
o Only Chinese not allowed—most hated minority
- Included everyone who “worked w/ hands”
o Ex. Factory workers and working class sympathizers
o Non-ex. Rockefeller, stock brokers, bankers, etc.
A. What do they want?
(2)Better sanitation practices
(3)Slower working pace
80,000 people gathered for 8h movement. Altercation b/w police and strikers death of strikers. Small group of radicalized strikers rally in support of fallen striker place bomb. Police open fire.
- Anti-union = Haymarket Massacre vs. Pro striker = Haymarket Riot K of L blamed for Haymarket negative public perception loss of momentum
IV. American Federation of Labor (1886)
Mainstream union aka moderate compared to K of L
- Moderate = no black membership
- Replaced K of L
V. More Radical Unions
A. United Mine Workers of America
Coal jobs = worse than sharecropped
- Not reformers, instead revolutionaries—believed system so bad must tear it all down
o Housing: living in factory owned buildings so lose job = lose house
o Scrip: not compensated in real $, instead given paper only redeemable at stores owned by factory
- Many coal workers = veterans
Ludlow Massacre (1914): Colorado guards conflict w/ workers workers kicked out of housing workers living in tents. Army burned down tents. B. Industrial Workers of the World
Very radical—socialists, communists, anarchists
- Believed everyone was mooching off of factory workers and that workers not top 1% should live well
VI. Homestead Steel Strikes (1892)
Despite social conscience, Carnegie fought back.
Pt 2: Alliances—Farmers
I. The Rectangle of Righteousness
Kansas = Rectangle of Righteousness
- Like factory workers, farmers concerned about industrialism - 1890s Nebraska to Texas (even extends to Georgia)
- Wanted to check progress (industrialism)
II. Agrarian America
A. Jeffersonian Agrarianism
Farmer = American Hero
- Yeoman farmer = farmer who owned his own land = 1870s American Dream
o What freed slaves wanted, Homestead Act, method to assimilate Native Americans, etc.
o Why was it the American Dream? Independence—no one controls he who provides food, clothing, housing for himself
Jefferson believed this independence made farmers
percent citizens b/c independence = true vote vs. factory
worker who is controlled by factory interests
B. New American Dream
Industrial entrepreneurs overtaking farmers in terms of status. - Important motivation for farmers to oppose industrialism o Similar to one of reasons why South wanted to reestablish slavery post-Civil War
III. Industrialism’s Threats to Farmers
A. Financial Troubles, Debt, etc.
Problem = overproduction = always problem w/ farmers. Why? Too good at jobs bottom out prices.
- farmers breaking even or in debt
- Now what? Make more. However, inc. volume bottoms out prices even more
B. Monopolies—Railroads and Bankers
Bankers—farmers in debt go to banks but bankers label farmers as high risk high interest rate.
- Farmers feeling cheated, but no choice because need money - farmers hating eastern bankers
Railroad: only way for farmers to get their product to market, so they can charge whatever they want
- Carnegie and large companies get lower rates than farmers farmers feeling cheated
*Farmers against industrialism b/c American hero not competitive in new econ
- Producerism: the true source of wealth according to farmers o Wealth created by labor of working people (same idea as labor unions). Farmers, unlike bankers, b/c bankers make $ off the backs of other people.
o Ideology includes factory workers
o Farmer’s Slogan = “I feed you all!”
o Biblical Support that wealth belongs to workers = “If any shall not work, he shall not eat”
C. Status Anxiety
What are farmers going to do? Form unions aka alliances to push interests and reestablish
IV. Forming “Alliances”
A. Patrons of Husbandry aka “The Grange” (1867-70)
Don’t do much; simply discuss issues w/o enacting change - The “grangers” abide by specific lifestyle
- Involved w/ insurance companies
o Still seen today (ex. State Farm)
B. National Farmers’ Alliance (1880s)
Extremely opposed to eastern industrialism
- Against Wall Street bankers b/c they profit while farmers’ prices dec and their lifestyle vanishes.
- Against pro-industrialist gov b/c believe gov not supporting people o Populist Movement Throughout South
o Linked to K of L b/c Populists believed plight of farmer = plight of factory worker
o Not revolutionaries who want to tear down system; reformers who want to change current system
V. National Alliance’s Plan—the “Ocala Demands” The “Omaha Platform” (1892)
A. Public Ownership of Railroads
Wanted to nationalize railroads b/c believed railroads belonged to “us who create labor”
- Too important to the econ to be privately owned
- Amtrak = only railroad ever nationalized
Wanted telegraph nationalized for the same reason
B. Direct Election of Senators & Graduated Income Tax
Senators formerly appointed by the states, so influenced by businesses and new industrialist econ
- constitutional amendment still in place today
C. No Protective Tariffs on Industry
No special favors for industry. Believed consumer shouldn’t have to suffer and buy domestic products.
D. The “Subtreasury” System
At the time, construction = road, railroad, and silo
- Populist plan = gov build silo
- Farmers in local area cooperatively store crop in silo and sit on it to create scarcity
- Wait for right market thus inc. prices
- While crop stored, gov (not eastern bankers) should give low interest loan to farmers w/ crop as collateral
E. Free Coinage of Silver
U.S. on gold standard in this period
- Each dollar was backed up by quantity of fold at Fort Knox - Gold = rare metal = limited the dollar
Populists want to back dollar with gold AND silver
- Silver = semiprecious = value of dollar goes down = more dollars can be made
- Relative value of debt goes down
VI. The Populist Party (1892-96)
Most important third party ever in U.S. political scene.
- Populists began to run for state goc
- Populists very popular in Midwest, Republicans popular in the North, and Democrats popular in the South.
o Republicans dismiss Populists b/c they think Populists have backwards way of thinking and that industrialism is the future o Democrats see Populists as a threat, b/c Populists gaining momentum w/ agrarian South. Worried Populists would steal votes and Republicans would win.
A. William Jennings Bryan & Fusion Party
Democrats wanted to fuse with Populists. Populists initially resisted b/c they believed Dems = Reps which is why they created the third party. However, Populists know they don’t have a chance of winning w/o another major party’s help and Rep = industrialists, so agreed to fusion.
- Democrats worried Populists would take over their party - Grangers People’s Party (Populists) Democrats and Populists B. Populists’ Decline
Election of 1896—William McKinley (Republican) vs. William Jennings Bryan (Dem/Populist)
- Is industrialism good or bad?
- McKinley believed in gold standard i.e. “sound money” - America chooses McKinley aka industrialism
- Populists disappear politically at the federal level but still have some state and local offices. Remain important
Immigration and Urbanization
I. Great Melting Pot
1880s-1920s = 3rd wave = largest immigration period in American history
II. Four Waves of Immigration
1st and 2nd waves = NW Europeans
- Slaves aren’t immigrants b/c forced
3rd wave = Mostly Polish, Russians, and some Germans and Italians. Also, Mexicans, Latin Americans, and Chinese.
III. Why Mass Immigration?
Push vs. Pull Factors aka forced to immigrate vs. attracted to immigrate (1)Economic Reasons—pull factor—immigrate to U.S., make money, send money home, take money back home and retire nicely; almost half of immigrants in this period left for home
(2)Safety—push factor—Jews, especially in Russia and Poland, persecuted, so like in Fiddler on the Roof, came here for freedom. a. 60M people stayed in previous American population of 100M
IV. City Life
Where do you go after immigrating?
- Immigration (ex. through Ellis Island) = rigorous process - Find your people
- High volumes of immigrants in NE and MidW
A. Cultural Support
People speak the same language and have the same culture/religion. America = mostly Protestant vs. New European immigrants = Orthodox or Catholic
Connections w/in community job secure position in new country C. Political Machine
Organization that runs a city. Not about ideology. Politicians in it to get rich. Corrupt system, but helped immigrants.
o NYC’s Tammany Hall—I will take care of your needs (i.e. pick up trash, have the police avoid your bar, provide food, find you a job, etc.) if you vote for me and pay me a little
V. Living Conditions
Close community and job opportunities.
Living in a city = crowded, dirty, expensive, high crime, disease - Tenements—housing most immigrants lived in
o Avg 4 bedroom had 18 people
- People of different races sat together or even living together which was extremely dangerous in many places in the country during this period - Each ethnicity found a specialty
o Poles and Russians = clothing
o Germans = cigars
Nativism: Americans fear of new immigrants; “natives” = born in America A. Religion/Culture
Feared Catholic, Orthodox, and Jewish customs. Many Jews immigrants because of persecution in Eastern Europe. Most hated = Chinese b/c of diff language and strange superstitions—believed they were all opium addicts.
Feared that new immigrants would work for less and take American jobs. - Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): Chinese immigration became illegal until 1965
o In 1924, Asia excluded entirely (i.e. Japan and Korea as well) C. Radicalism
Believed immigrants would bring Marxist and socialist politics to America.
VII. Urban Reform
Some welcomed immigrants. Wanted to teach them how to be “Americans.” - Similar idea to Freedmen’s Bureau and Native American Assimilation Jacob Riis = immigrant himself, classic progressive who wrote How the Other Half Lives
I. Beginnings of Progressivism
3rd group against industrialism after factory workers and farmers = Progressives
- Progressives = middle class whites who benefited from gov/industrialism.
o In fact, many of them were Republicans.
o Wanted to change the party from within aka reformers not revolutionaries. Terrified of revolutionary unions
II. Middle-Class Response
Why criticize a system you benefit from?
- Realized the consequences of industrial, for ex. environment, and felt that they were the only ones who had the power to enact change b/c they were educated
III. Progressive Characteristics
Progressives = middle class = lawyers, doctors, college professors, etc.; Included women and blacks; deeply committed Christians who believed “if people can be saved, nations can be saved from their sins” A. Scientific Efficiency
Believed that science was the future; believed in sociology. B. Political Reform
Hated political machines like Tammany Hall. Wanted to get rid of corruption. C. Economic Reform
Scared of the consequences monopolies had on the econ.
D. Social Justice
a. African-American Social Justice
Black Progressives Movement included people like WEB DuBois who were against lynching. Progressives were friendly to the Civil Rights Movement. b. “Social Gospel” Movement
WWJD? Or What Would Jesus Do?
- Came from a novel by Charles Sheldon who was from Kansas, involved in the Civil Rights Movement, and a prohibitionist.
- Book begins with a homeless man entering church saying he’s a hard worker but industrialism strife that destroyed his life, and he dies. - So, for a year, the preacher and the church community asked themselves WWJD before making any decisions.
IV. Three Progressive Stories
A. Settlement Houses
Hull House = settlement house in Chicago = founded by Jane Adams who provided services to immigrants (i.e. English classes, child-rearing classes, the ‘right way’ to do things).
- Settlement Houses = women’s involvement in Progressive Movement b/c portrayed America as one giant house to take care of
o Staunch suffragists and prohibitionists
- Pros = sincerity, inc. female political activism, eventually women’s suffrage
- Cons = motivated by fear/disgust of immigrants; condescending, self serving attitude—we must help them b/c they cannot help themselves o Consistent problem w/ reform = reformers want to turn group into their own image regardless of what the other group wanted (ex. Native American assimilation)
o Fear = if we don’t fix their problems, there will be a revolt from below.
o Extreme Radicals feared their procreation and advocated for their sterilization.
B. Pres. Teddy Roosevelt
i. Trustbuster = classic Progressive
ii. Environmentalism: conservation of natural resources, preservation of wildnerness
o Progressives began environmentalism
o Teddy Roosevelt = most environmentally conscious U.S. President ever
o Believed the state should teach enviro conservation b/c of costs of industrialism
o US Forest Service and Grand Canyon as National Park C. Prohibition (1918-1933)
i. American drinking was higher than it is today. Consumed moonshine and hard liquor like crazy. Temperance also targeted immigrants b/c Irish, Polish, Russians portrayed as heaviest drinkers
ii. The Anti-Saloon League and Women’s Christian Temperance Union o Cary Nation and legion of supporters