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UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO / Psychology / PSYCH 1000 / most nerve impulses from our senses are routed through the

most nerve impulses from our senses are routed through the

most nerve impulses from our senses are routed through the

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School: University of Western Ontario
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Laura fazakas dehood
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psych 1000 Test 2 Study Notes (UWO)
Description: Study Guide for test 2!! You made it through test 1... enjoy everything you need to prepare for test 2 included in this document!
Uploaded: 08/19/2017
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Lecture 6– Oct 15th 2015: Our Senses and Perception (chapter 5a) Sensation: Stimulation of the sense of organs (you look with your eyes) Perception: selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input (you see with brain) Psychophysics: the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience  Sensory integration  Basic concepts of psychophysics  Stimulus: information in the environment that is picked up by  the receptors in our NS  Sensation: begins with a detectable stimulus  Fechner: the concept of threshold  Absolute threshold: able to detect 50% of time  Difference threshold: (just noticeable difference) the minimal  amount the stimulus needs to be increased (or decreased) to  be judged as different from the original stimulusWeber’s Law: the difference threshold (or just noticeable difference) is directly proportional to  the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being made  Weber’s Fractions **smaller the fraction the more sensitive**  1. AUDTION (tonal pitch): 1/333 2. VISION (brightness): 1/60  3. PAIN (heat reduced): 1/30 4. AUDITION (loudness): 1/20 5. TASTE (salt concentration): 1/3  Sensory Adaptation: (habituation) – the diminishing sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time  Survival Value: attend to new stimuli in the environment  Subliminal Stimuli: stimuli that register on our NS but are below our sensory threshold a) Can they affect behaviour?? (1950s James Vicary… flashed subliminal messages during a  scene of a movie; “drink coke” and “eat popcorn”) **sales doubled**  b) Can they affect attitudes?? (Krosnick Study 1992… emotional priming and attitudes)  **emotional priming has a small effect on attitude**  **RESEARCH FINDINGS: little affect on behavior… only small effect on attitudes  Audition (sense of hearing) Stimulus: sound waves  Frequency: number of sound waves (cycles/second) *pitch  Amplitude: vertical size of sound waves *loudness  Auditory System: from pressure waves to nerve impulses  Malleus  (hammer)  Tympanic  membrane (eardrum) outer External  auditory  canal outer Incus(Anvil)  Anatomy of the Middle Ear  Stapes  (stirrup)  Cochlea  innerOval  (window) Vestibular System: bodily orientation or equilibrium  Semicirucular canals  Anatomy of the Inner Ear Semicircular canals  Semicircular  canals  Perception of Loudness Cochlea  Vestibular Sacs  - Coding occurs in 2 ways (greater sound waves, vibrations in basilar membrane, greater  bending of hair cells)  1. More neurotransmitter substance is released  2. Certain cells only respond to very loud sounds  **the brain interprets these signals as “louder”** Perception of Pitch  - Frequency theory: nerve impulses per second sent to the brain match the frequency of  the sound (ex: sound of 100Hz… neurons would fire 100x/second) **but neurons cannot fire more than 1000x/second so only useful for frequency’s under  1000hz**  - Place theory: Hermann von Helmholtz – different frequencies stimulate different areas  on basilar membrane **low frequencies encoded by vibration on tip, medium by centre,  and high by base of basilar membrane** (for frequencies greater than 1000hz)  Perception of Sound  - PRESSURE WAVES: cochlea, auditory nerve, brainstem, thalamus (MGN), auditory  cortex, PERCEPTION OF SOUND  Tonotopic Organization of the Auditory Cortex: specialized neurons in the auditory cortex  respond maximally to sounds of different frequencies (these neurons are organized  tonotopically… Ascending order)  - Locating sound in 3D space…. 2 ears better than one compare information received by  each ear….  - Intensity & time of arrival (would be hard to judge directly above, in front, or behind)  Gustation (sense of taste)  Stimulus: the chemicals dissolved in saliva…  **tiny receptors in the taste buds absorb chemical substances dissolved in saliva and cause  neural firing (routed to the thalamus and then processed in the gustatory cortex which is near  the brain stem)** Olfaction (sense of smell) Stimulus: chemicals dissolved in the air…  **tiny receptors for smell (olfactory cilia) hair-like structures in the nasal passage (connects  directly with brain where it is processed… and is our oldest sense)**Tactile (sense of touch) Stimuli: mechanical, thermal, or chemical energy applied to the surface of the skin  - Cells in the NS are triggered by small areas on the body’s surface - Centre-surround receptive fields (inner is excitatory and outer is inhibitory)  - Stimuli at centre have opposite effect of stimuli falling outside the centre  PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX  Sensory Homunculus: shows the relative size of the cortex devoted to various body parts  (related to sensitivity rather than size)  Feeling Pain - Receptors: free nerve endings in skin  - Sharp pain (a-delta fiber), dull pain (c fiber)  - GATE CONTROL THEORY – spinal cord can block pain signals to the brain  - FACTORS EFFECTING PAIN PERCEPTION a) Biological (stimulation of nerve endings, endorphins)  b) Psychological (pain in the absence of physical cause [psychosomatic disorder],  personality, beliefs bout ability to control pain, placebo effects)  c) Cultural (cultural learning, cultural meaning of pain)  - Phantom limb pain: after losing limb, patients report still feeling pain or burning  sensations… pain receptors in the skin and tissue are absent… how is this possible?  **importance of brain circuits in sensation and pain**  Vision  Stimulus: light waves  - Objects and surfaces in our environment absorb certain wavelengths of light while  reflecting others ANATOMY OF THE EYE Focal Deficits  1. MYOPIA (near-sighted) - Closer objects most focused  2. HYPEROPIA (far-sighted) - Distant objects most focused **lens focuses object behind retina  3. ASTIGMATISM  - Refractive errors due to a curvature in cornea  Lecture 7– Oct 22nd 2015: Our Senses and Perception (chapter 5b)  Rods  Cones Rods: black and white brightness receptors (500x more sensitive to light than cones, more  prevalent on the peripheral visual field)  Cones: colour receptors (function best in bright light, more prevalent in the central area of the  retina(fovea), visual acuity (ability to see fine detail)) **3 types of cones**  Macula: most used part, use when we stare deeply  Neural Transduction **visual pathways in the brain** Photoreceptors: rods/cones are stimulated to collect signals that go out optic nerve  Optic nerve: Thalamus: Optic chiasm: Visual cortex: **retinal image**  - Image is projects upside-down and flipped left to right on the retina  - Retina sends image to brain to “be developed”  Theories of Colour Vision  - ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE (blue/green/red…mixtures of pure light on a white surface  provide different colours)  - SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR MIXTURE (certain colours subtract all colours except one…  colour wavelength that is not subtracted is the colour that we see)  1. Trichromatic Theory **van Helmholtz**  - 3 specialized types of receptors (blue, green, red) - 3 types of cones (each type contains photo pigments that are most sensitive to  wavelengths corresponding to the colours blue, green and red)  - patterns of activity result in our perception of colour  - can’t explain after images  2. Opponent Process Theory **Ewald Hering**  - 3 opposing sets of colours (blue/yellow, green/red, black/white) - AFTERIMAGES: process of neural adaption  3. Dual Process Theory  - TRICHROMATIC (3 types of cone receptors) & OPPONENT PROCESS (but not in the  cones, in the ganglian cells in the retina and higher in the visual system)  Visual Deficits  - Colour blindness - Dichromat (individuals missing one type of opponent system… lack of photo-pigment)  - Most common is red-green deficit  - Monochromatic (only sensitive to black and white)  Perceiving Shapes and Edges  Feature detector neurons: in the visual cortex respond maximally to very specific information  (ex: only vertical lines or diagonal lines)  Parallel processing: many systems simultaneously analyzing and integrating information  Critical periods of vision  Deprivation experiment in kittens - Kittens raised with only vertical lines (or horizontal lines) for 5h/day  - The rest of the time in darkness  - if raised in vertical striped environment would only track vertical lines not horizontal  - feature detectors in the brain did not fire to horizontal lines  **would see table top but not legs (run into legs)**  - in humans born with cataracts who were deprived of normal visual stimuli - if cataracts were removed prior to age 10 =good vision - if not removed by age 10 many problems with visual acuity remain  Restored sensory capacity - individuals born blind who had their vision restored in adulthood did not recover vision  for form or detail without touching the object - INNATE ABILITIES RETAINED: perceive figure-ground relations, scan objects visually,  follow moving targets with their eyes **brain unable to make sense of visual chaos**  Perception  Bottom-up processing: combine individual elements and combine them into a unified  perception  Top-down processing: use of knowledge, expectations, schemas and concepts to interpret  what we see  **perception is selective: attention** Making sense of a complex world - Perception is selective: - INVOLES  a) expectations b) perceptual constancies (no matter if door is open or close aka different shape, we  can still recognize it as a door)  c) hypothesis testing - IS ORGANIZED (gestalt principles)  Perceiving depth  MONOCULAR CUES - Light and shadow - Linear perspective - Relative size - Height in the horizontal plane  - Interposition  - Motion parallax  BINOCULAR CUES  - Require the use of both eyes - Binocular disparity (each eye sees a slightly different image)  - Convergence (feedback form muscles that turn your eyes inward to view a nearby  object) DEPTH CUES  - Shading (variations in light can make a 2D object appear 3D)  - Linear perspective  Perception of movement  - Movement of stimulus across the retina  - Relative movement of an object against a stationary background  Gestalt Principles  Figure-ground: tendency to perceive an object against a background  Law of similarity: tendency to perceive similar forms as belonging together  Law of proximity: tendency to perceive forms that are near to one another as belonging  together  Law of Continuity: tendency to link together individual elements in a way that makes sense  Law of closure: tendency to close open figures and fill in gaps in an incomplete figure  **ignoring inconsistent elements**  - The letters that compose words can be mangled up and we can still read the sentences  because we read the word as a whole not each individual letter  Hypothesis Testing - PERCEPTION involves “making sense” of stimuli Illusions • Size Constancy o Middle circle has same sizes but are seen as different (faulty hypothesis testing) • "Impossible” Figures… o faulty monocular depth cues (shading but figure is impossible) • Movement o Perceiving what isn’t there, black and white, yellow and blue which tires  neurons so that one seems bigger than other Lecture 8- November 5th, 2015: Chapter 6- Variations in Consciousness Defining Consciousness • What? o Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli (Hunger pains…. Sound of voice) o Broader than attention (everything) o Levels of awareness ▪ James- stream of consciousness (endless flow of ideas)▪ Freud- unconscious ▪ Jung- collective unconscious (houses memory within one’s consciousness) ▪ Sleep/dreaming ▪ Emotional unconscious/emotional priming/attitudes Consciousness is… • Subjective and private (do not know what other’s are thinking) • Dynamic o Ever changing????alert, day dreaming, asleep • Self-Reflective o Central to our sense of self (contemplate who we are) • Selective Attention o Unlimited possibilities  William James (1892)- “Stream of Consciousness” 1. Every state is part of a personal consciousness a. Each mind keeps thoughts to itself b. Every thought is owned 2. Within each personal consciousness states are always changing a. Now thinking, now seeing, now hearing, now loving etc b. our consciousness is never the same 3. Each personal consciousness is sensibly continuous a. Even where there is a time gao the consciousness after it feels as if it belonged  together with consciousness before it as another part of the same self b. the changes from one moment to another in the quality of the consciousness  are never absolutely abrupt 4. Consciousness is interested in some parts of its object to the exclusion of others, and  welcomes or rejects—chooses from among them a. Attention is selective (KNOW FROM PEVIOUS LECTURE!!!!) b. deliberate will of choosing amongst stimuli and ignoring others so our  experience is determined by “our habits of attention” Levels of Consciousness • Psychodynamic Perspective (tripartite theory of mind) o Conscious Mind ▪ Thoughts, perception mental events in our awareness (currently aware  of) o Preconscious Mind ▪ Outside of current awareness, but easily recalled (what did you eat for  breakfast?) o Unconscious Mind ▪ Normally can’t be brought into awareness (anxiety provoking and are  associated with other negative emotions) o Components of Personality▪ ID- Instinctual sexual (procreation) and aggressive (survival) drives • Unconscious • Dare!!! • Limbic System ▪ EGO- mediating between ID and Supergo • Conscious (and preconscious) • Posterior Cortex ▪ SUPEREGO- internalized morals (sense of conscience) • Conscious (and precoscious) • Don’t you Dare!!! • Frontal Cortex • Cognitive Perspective o View conscious and unconscious as complimentary forms of information  processing o “Conscious”-controlled effortful processing (not well learned) o "Unconscious”- automatic processing ▪ biological processes (digesting food) ▪ well-learned tasks (walking for adults) CARL JUNG (Student  of Freud) Evolution of Consciousness • “Cosmic Consciousness”- • “The Psychogenesis of man” ***Note: Theroized that human consciousness id evolvingStages of Evolution 1. Simple consciousness a. Awareness of one’s environment b. shared with lower animals ***Note: few days after birth*** 2. Self consciousness a. Awareness of oneself as separate and unique b. unique to humans ***Note: 3-4 years old 3. Cosmic consciousness a. Sense of immortality and awareness of all life ***Note: currently few individuals reach this level even as adults (30-40 years old)*** Example: Buddha had this Measuring Consciousness • Self Report o Describe inner feelings  ***Note: Not always verifiable*** • Physiological Measures o Establish correspondence between bodily states and mental processes • Behavioural- performance on special tasks o Ex. “Rouge Test”???? red mark on face see if they touch mirror or touch  themselves (idea of self awareness) The Electroencephalograph: A Physiological Index of Consciousness • Physiological Measures o EEG- monitoring of brain electrical activity ▪ Measures Brain waves • Amplitude • Frequency o vary during different phases of sleepCircadian Rhythms  • 24 hr biological cycles • Regulation of sleep/body functions • Physiological pathway of the biological clock 1. Light levels  2. Retina 3. >greater activity in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (hypothalamus) 4. Causes lower secretion of melatonin (pineal gland) 5. So less drowsiness • Examples: Temperature is lower and secretion of growth hormones • Why do people need different amounts of sleep… genetics and environmental factors • Jet lag: easier to adjust when traveling west because day is extended day more like free  running Cicradia rhythm (setting clocks back vs. forward) Free running Circadian rhythm ▪ Changes in sleep periods of a subject isolated from the day-night cycle ***Note: Shift to 25 hour cycle????Retire for sleep later and later with each day in isolation*** Sleep Research (Abnormalities in sleep patterns) • Instruments: 1. Electroencephalograph (EEG) a. Brain electrical activity  2. Electromyograph a. Muscle activity 3. Electrooculograph a. Eye movements b. otherbodily functions also observed c. Other moniters Sleep Stages: Cycling through Sleeping • Stage 1: o Brief transitional (1-7 minutes) o alpha????theta o hypnic jerks • Stage 2:  sleep spindles o (10-25 minutes)(breathing and heart rate are slower and harder to wake up) • Stage 3 & 4: slow wave ***Note: deep sleep (30minutes *Delta waves • REM: EEG similar to awake, vivid dreaming (initially a few minutes, progressively longer  as cycles go on)… typically don’t move • As night progresses later stages only and RE gets longer and longer• Changes in sleep patterns over the life span o With age ▪ <sleep per night REM sleep Changers in sleep patterns over the life span  With Age:  Brain Structures: - No single brain system regulates sleep - Many integrated systems and neurotransmitters Sleep occurs when: 1. Ascending reticular activating system is inhibited 2. Hypnogenic system is activated (basal forebrain and brain stem) **pons are critical for REM sleep as it contains “sleep-on” neurons that activate different  regions that control REM sleep. Sleep and Neurotransmitters:  - Acetylcholine inhibits muscle movement during REM sleep - GABA also inhibits activity in the CNS - Serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine have an important role in arousal Effect of sleep deprivation on Cognitive performance  - lower grade marks  Sleep Problems1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep (thoughts and emotions is associated  with this. 2. Sleep Apnea: reflexive grasping for air that awakens individuals 3. REM-sleep behaviour disorder: loss of muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep  is absent! 4. Somnambulism: (stage 3 or 4 sleep) Sleepwalking 5. Nightmares: anxiety arousing dreams. (REM) 6. Night Terrors: Intense arousal and panic NREM (stages 3 and 4). These usually diminish  with age. 7. Narcolepsy: You can fall asleep in any state. Even when normally awake (you could be  walking down the street and fall asleep) **Hypothesis about these problems** a) Restoration model – sleep helps restore energy and other bodily resources b) Evolutionary-circadian sleep model – immobilization during sleep is adaptive because it  reduces danger c) Memory consolidation theory – sleep is essential for mental functioning (helps you  remember) Variations in Consciousness **consciousness and the brain** Dreams:  - mental experiences during sleep a) content usually familiar b) common themesc) waking life spillover (peeing) – day residue (Freud)  - 5 Theories of Dreaming:  1. Freud’s psychodynamic theory – dreams as wish fulfillment (sex and aggression) (sex  with boyfriend or girlfriends best friend) 2. Activation-synthesis theory – hobson and Mc Carly 3. Cognitive problem solving theory 4. Cognitive – process dream theories – focus more on the process of dreaming and the  similarities between waking and dreaming. 5. Integrated model of dreaming: during REM sleep, RAS stimulates various modules in  the cortex. (and these modules then interact just as if we were awake) o PERCEPTUAL MODULES: produce images that the o COGNITIVE MODULES: then interpret these o EMOTIONAL MODULES: may overlay an emotional theme (brain tries to provide  the “best fit” of these internally generated images) o MOTOR MODULES: are active, but their output is blocked by REM muscle  paralysis Hypnosis: - Hypnosis = a systematic procedure that causes increased relaxation and suggestibility - Hypnotic Susceptibility: individual difference (10% very easily hypnotized and 10% is  very difficult to do so) - Effects produced through hypnosis  a) Disinhibition (do things you wouldn’t normally do) b) sensory distortions/hallucinations (smell and feel things you normally  wouldn’t feel/smell) c) posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia d) analgesia (dental and child birth studies) - fMRI studies show less activity in pain centers - Theories of Hypnosis: altered state of consciousness or role playing?  o SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: expectations and role playing produce “real”  hypnotic experiences o DISSOCIATION HYPOTHESIS: holds that hypnosis splits consciousness into two  streams… divided consciousness (see yourself from an outside view) o How does hypnosis work? Currently no answer to this Meditation: - Meditation = practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental  process under greater voluntary control - Yoga – transcendental meditation (potential physiological benefits. Similar to effective  relaxation procedures)Coma: complete loss of consciousness  - coma = loss of motility(movement), sensation, and consciousness with preservation of  autonomic functions. Loss to respond to external stimuli - Causes:  o Head trauma (concussion, sudden trauma) induced alteration in alert state - Contusion – bruising of brain tissue - Whiplash – bruising/stretching of axons o Hypoxia – lack of sufficient oxygen/tissue death - Potential treatments:  o Therapeutic hypothermia : injuries involving swelling of brain tissues (86-93  degrees is severe hypothermia) : Oxygen therapy is the restoring neural  function/axon development : sensory stimulation therapy is intensive multi  modal sensory stimulation, and it involves heat, cold, touch, visual, auditory, and  olfactory Drugs and the Brain  Drugs: enter the bloodstream and into the brain though a network of small blood vessels  (called capillaries)  Blood-brain barrier: screen out many foreign substances. Many drugs pass through and either  facilitate or inhibit synaptic transmission Agonist: is a drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter - Enhance neurons ability to synthesize, store, or release the neurotransmitter - Bind with and stimulate post-synaptic receptor sites - Inhibit reuptake - Ex of agonist: amphetamines-increases release of neurotransmitter. Interferes with  reuptake Antagonist: is a drug that decreases or inhibits the action of a neurotransmitter - Interferes with the neurons ability to synthesize, store, or release the neurotransmitter - Blocks (but does not activate post synaptic receptor sites) - Ex of antagonist: Clozapine (used to treat schizophrenia) – blocks dopamine at the  receptor sites. Depressants: decrease NS functioning  Alcohol - Increases activity of GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter)  - Decreases glutamate (excitatory) - Low to moderate doses o Reduces tension and anxiety  o Less inhibition o Euphoria  o Impaired physical/psychological functioning  - high doses o disorientation  o depression  o unconsciousness o slow down vital life processes (even to death)  - chronic/long term use o tolerance develops gradually  o physiological dependence  o liver damage o relationship difficulties  o sexual difficulties  Alcohol Abuse:  - a leading cause of health problems - 2/3 adults drink (15-20 million Americans) **most widely used drug in Canada & USA** - SHORT TERM RISKS: accidents, assaults, overdosing, fights  - LONG TERM RISKS: alcoholism, cirrhosis of the liver, breast and other cancers, heart  disease, brain atrophy  - Higher risk of suicide (due to depression)  - life expectancy: 10-12 years less  - DSM-IV criterion (diagnostic and statistical manual and mental disorders)  - Maladaptive pattern of use associated with clinically significant despair or distress  - Recurrent use of alcohol o Resulting in failure to fulfil responsibilities  o Use in situations where potentially hazardous  o Related to legal problems o Despite the persistent or recurrent social/interpersonal problems they still use it  **alcohol dependence: includes physical dependence, tolerance, greater amounts over time  and withdrawal (typically 20-40 years of age)  Tolerance: decreasing responsiveness to a drug over time with repeated use Withdrawal: compensatory responses continue after drug use stops  Causes of alcoholism: **not well established** - GENETIC o Identical twins higher concordance than fraternal twins o Adopted children with alcoholic biological parent has higher rate  o D2 dopamine receptor gene is inherited and enhances the rewarded feeling  related to alcohol abuse (controversial)  - BIOLOGICAL o Children of alcoholics require higher levels of alcohol to produce similar effect of  intoxication o Then, heavier drinking leads to greater dependence  o Slower metabolism of alcohol in brain OR fewer than normal dopamine levels  may also cause alcohol abuse  - PSYCHOLOGICAL o Personality (low self esteem) o High anxiety or emotional pain (self medication) o High stress and avoidant coping  - ENVIRONMENTAL  o Family use of alcohol (learned behavior)  o Alcohol use is glamorized and associated with good times o Peer pressure/reinforced behaviour  Other Depressants Barbiturates: tranquilizers, sleeping pills, valium - Suppress nervous system by increasing activity of GABA (lower heart rate, pulse rate  and respiration) - Highly addictive  High doses:  o Initial excitation followed by depression o Slurred speech, impaired co-ordination, and severe memory loss  sudden withdrawal:  o After heavy use can cause death  o So, several months of gradual decreases in dose  Lecture 9- November 12th, 2015: Chapter 6b and 7  Stimulants AMPHETAMINES (eg: speed) - Arouse the NS by increasing neural firing - >dopamine and norepinephrine activity  - >alertness - >heart rate  - >BP  - >respiration - boosts mood - produces euphoria  - >irritability  HIGH DOSES- heart failure/stroke/brain damage  - short life expectancy  - “amphetamine psychosis” (high dopamine)  SUDDEN WITHDRAWAL - may sleep for several days… “crash” ... and then when they wake up they will feel  exhaustion, depression and irritability  ecstasy: serotonin and dopamine synapse (inhibits reuptake) so overtime less is produced - new research findings: premature neural aging and neural death, higher risk early onset  Parkinson’s disease  - SHORT TERM: Brain chemistry changes: serotonin metabolites reduced  - LONG TERM: Brain structure changes: serotonin transporters reduced, serotonin  terminals degenerate  - other effects: impairs memory, can cause paranoia, anxiety and confusion Cocaine:  - >dopamine and norepinephrine activity (by blocking reuptake)  - excitation, greater muscular strength - Euphoria  HIGH DOSES - Fever, vomiting, convulsions, hallucinations, paranoid delusions  SUDDEN WITHDRAWAL - Withdrawal side effects are low - Physical dependence is low  - BUT “crave” high (psychological dependence)  Hallucinogens Mescaline, LSD - Powerful mind-altering drugs producing hallucinations  - Flooding of excitation in the nervous system  - Decreases serotonin activity  - Distorts/intensify sensory experiences  - Paranoia, panic  - flashbacks of the “trip”  **10% of Americans have tried these**  Marijuana - THC binds with receptors throughout the brain  - Increased dopamine activity (pleasurable) - Increases GABA activity (relaxing effects)  - euphoria, relaxation, enhanced sensory experience  - impaired memory, reaction time and problem solving Inhalants  Usually immediate effect on the brain: destroys myelin sheath (interferes with neural  transmission)  IMMEDIATE EFFECTS: typically, depressant  - relaxed/euphoric - disoriented - slurred speech  - nausea  - inattentive - irritability/depression  LONG TERM EFFECTS - memory loss - concentration problems  - visual disturbances; blindness - motor problems  - peripheral nerve damage  Substance induced psychosis  - hallucinogens (LSD, Mescaline)   - amphetamines (speed and cocaine)  - cannabis  **after chronic use (and sometimes even after one use)**  CAN LEAD TO: - loss of contact with external reality (cychosis)  - paranoid feelings - delirium  - depression and mood swings - flashbacks and PTSD symptoms  CHAPTER 7: LEARNING  What is learning?? Evolution: the changes in behaviour that accumulate across generations are stored in the genes Learning: the changes in behaviour that accumulate over a lifetime are stored in the CNS  **must study observable behavior** - behaviorists argued that: unobservable phenomenon aren’t necessary for an  understanding of human nature  - knowledge is learned (experience shapes growth and development) Classical Conditioning *main theory 1  - learning by associating two stimuli  - learning occurs when you recognize that one event predicts another  UCS (unconditioned stimulus): unlearned stimulus (food, pain, etc.)  UCR (unconditioned response): unlearned response (salivation in response to food, fear as  response to pain)  CS (conditioned stimulus): learned stimulus (any stimulus you’ve learned to respond to) **ex:  fish after food poisoning** CR (conditioned response): learned response (salivation in response to object paired with food,  fear as a response to a stimulation paired with pain)  **timing is important: delayed conditioning MOST effective**  ex:  Every time Robert’s wife flushes the toilet when he’s in the shower, the water becomes  painfully hot.  One day, as Robert is stepping into the shower, he hears a flushing sound and  flinches - UCS: hot water  - CS: flushing of toilet  - CR: flinching  Acquisition: original learning of conditioned stimulus (period during which response is being  learned)  Extinction: weakening of conditioned response by presenting the CS without the UCS  Spontaneous Recovery: conditioned response reappears if time has passed since extinction  without pairing CS and UCS again  Generalization: neutral stimuli that are similar to CS may also elicit the CR  Discrimination: learn differences between stimuli and only get the CR to the CS not to other  similar stimuli  Taste aversions: strong CS-UCS association after only one trial  Biological preparedness: more easily learn some associations  Acquiring “unusual” behaviour” - CLINICAL APPLICTIONS: explaining the development of unusual behaviour (sexual fetish) - Paraphilia: recurring, unconventional sexual behaviour that is obsessive and  compulsive, involving:  a) Intense sexually arousing fantasies b) Non human objects  c) Suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner  d) Objects, other non-consenting adults or children  What causes paraphilia??  1. Learning theory (classical conditioning)  - Unconditioned response: sensory stimulation ???? arousal  - Learned association built through pairing: sensory stimulation + fetish object ???? arousal  - Conditioned response: fetish object ???? arousal  Learning Phobias - John B Watson: Applied classical conditioning principles to humans  o Acquisition of phobias (little Albert) o Proposed that development is simply learned from our environment  - ethical concerns…  - Generalization in action: …. Classic Conditioning - many applications  - learning of both positive and negative reactions through pairing  - ex: after being in a MVA anxious when travelling in most vehicles  - ex: after drinking too much: nausea paired with the taste/smell of alcohol (alcohol  becomes CS)  Lecture 10– Oct 19th 2015: Learning (chapter 7b)  REVIEW: Classical Conditioning - prior to learning: UCS (loud noise) -> UCR (fear)…CS (rat) -> no response  - Learning trials: UCS (loud noise) + CS (rat) -> UCR (fear)  - After learning trials: CS(rat) -> UCR (fear)  - Extinction: Cs (rat) without UCS (loud noise) -> UCR (fear) initially  - Over time: CS (rat) without UCS (loud noise) -> no response eventually  Treatments (based on learning theory) - Based on classical conditioning  EXPOSURE THERAPIES: expose the phobic patient to the feared stimulus (CS) without  any UCS allowing extinction to occur 1. Systematic desensitization: reducing anxiety through counter-conditioning  a) Develop a fear hierarchy  b) Relaxation training c) Gradually increase exposure to feared stimulus while engaging in relaxation  techniques  2. Flooding: reducing anxiety through extinction (complete exposure to feared  stimulus) and eventually extinction or habituation occurs  a) Extinction: CS (spider) without negative consequence -> UCR (fear) initially  b) maintain exposure over time: CS (spider) -> no response eventually  3. aversive conditioning: pairing an aversive (negative) stimulus with an undesired  behavior  a) substance abuse (Antabuse): violently ill when combined with alcohol  b) sexual offenders: shock therapy,  c) covert sensitization (counter-conditioning): pairing an aversive (negative)  stimulus with an undesired behaviour…ex: treating rubber pants dude  Can classical conditioning make us sick and healthy again?  - Improving the well being of cancer patients - Chemotherapy used to treat cancer patients causes nausea and vomiting after  treatment  - ANV (anticipatory nausea and vomiting) - 20-50% become nauseated and vomit minutes to hours before chemo (they associated  clinic with vomiting)  - UCS (sickness caused by treatment) + CS (treatment room or IV needles) -> CR (nausea) - so, pair CS with relaxation and pleasant images  - classical conditioning can improve immune system functioning  a) experimental group: given sweet sherbet with norepinephrine (immune stimulant) b) control group: only norepinephrine  **subsequently, experimental group had a stronger immune system reaction when  given sweet sherbet alone (since they pair the sherbet with immune system response) Operant Conditioning **main theory 2**  A = antecedents (stimuli that are present before a behaviour occurs) B = behaviors (that the organism emits)  C= consequences (that follow behaviour) Contingencies = relationships between A and B, and B and C EDWARD THORNDIKE  - Learning by associating a behaviour with its consequences  - Again, learning occurs when you recognize that one event predicts another  - “law of effect” (if behaviour is followed by positive outcome it is more likely to reoccur)  Thorndike’s Experiment… (put cat in puzzle box and it had to try to get out…step on red  pedal)  - first trial: exploring, sniffing, grooming, reaching, scratching and by mistake hitting pedal - later trial: lever pressing is most frequent behavior  B.F SKINNER  shaping behaviour: reinforced rat and pigeon by rewarding them with food  **Reinforcement - reward for desired behaviour **intent to increase behaviour**  - strengthens behavioral response  o Positive or negative  o Primary vs. secondary  - Primary reinforcer: stimulus such as food, water, or sleep... organism finds rewarding  because they satisfy biological needs  - Secondary (or conditioned) reinforce: involves money, status, or praise (by association  with primary reinforcers)  **punishment  - Penalty for undesired behaviour  - Weakens behavioral response  o Positive or negative  REINFORCEMENT VS. PUNISHMENT  1. positive reinforcement – positive stimulus is presented with goal to increase behaviour  2. negative reinforcement – negative stimulus is removed to increase behaviour  3. positive punishment – adverse stimulus is presented to decrease behaviour  4. negative punishment – positive stimulus is removed to decrease behaviour  **things to consider** - will this increase/decrease likelihood of this behaviour in the future?  **increase =  reinforcement, decrease = punishment**  - is something being presented or taken away? **given = positive, taken away =  negative**  Examples: - a parent tells a child they can watch TV if they finish their homework **positive  reinforcement  - If you get out of bed, your roommate will stop yelling at you to get up **negative  reinforcement Escape and Avoidance Conditioning  ESCAPE: learning a response to terminate and aversive stimulus (squired and maintained  through negative reinforcement)  AVOIDANCE: learn a response to to prevent the aversive stimulus from ever happening  - Two-factor theory of avoidance learning…  1. association learned through classical conditioning  o Eg: Sam takes a turbulent flight and fear becomes paired with flying  2. And maintained through operant conditioning (negative reinforcement)  o Eg: Sam doesn’t fly to minimize anxiety  - Shaping: reinforce successive approximations of the desired behaviour  o Eg: Shaping your dog to shake a paw: dog sits, dog sits then moves paw, dog sits  then raises paw to chest height, dog sits and places paw in your hand **reinforce  behaviors that get closer and closer to desired outcome**  - Chaining: reinforce each behaviour in a sequence with the opportunity to produce the  next response in the chain  - Operant Extinction: decline in behaviour due to lack of reinforcement  o Pavlov’s Cat:  - Partial Reinforcement: behavioral response is not rewarded every time  o FIXED RATIO: reinforced after a fixed number of responses o VARIABLE RATIO: reinforced after a variable number of responses  o FIXED INTERVAL: reinforced after a given amount of time has elapsed  o VARIABLE INTERVAL: reinforced after a variable interval of time has passed Role of Cognition? Conditioning or Insight?? - Wolfgang Kohler (1925)  - Exposed chimps to novel learning tasks and concluded that they were able to learn by  “insight” (the sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem)  - Behaviorists argued the effect was simply the result of “shaping”  Role of Cognition? - Edward Tolman (1948) - Exposed rats to a new more complex maze and they responded similarly as it were the  previous maze and concluded that they were able to develop a cognitive map of the  maze   - behaviorists disagreed and the debate continued  - learned helplessness: giving up when realizing that stimulus is stimulated randomly  (dog in corner)  - beliefs about reinforcement: if we believe we will be rewarded then we will act  - self evaluation: praising self for job well done  Biological Constraints - cant learn some behaviors  - cant unlearn others   CLASSICAL   OPERANT - responses are involuntary  o salivating o panic o nausea o sexual arousal - responses are voluntary o pressing lever (rat) o cleaning room o doing homework - no cognitive component   - can include a cognitive component


o How does hypnosis work?




▪ Outside of current awareness, but easily recalled (what did you eat for breakfast?




- Phantom limb pain: after losing limb, patients report still feeling pain or burning sensations… pain receptors in the skin and tissue are absent… how is this possible?



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Treatments  Behavior Therapy - inspiration from operant conditioning  Applied Behavior Analysis (behaviour modification therapy)  - using positive reinforcement to change behaviour  - ignore the behaviors you don’t want and positively reinforce the behaviors you want  - ex: TOKEN ECONOMIES (in a residential treatment center for troubled youth, receives  tokes for good behaviour and loses tokens for bad behaviour…  GOAL; to save enough  tokens to redeem for a pizza or movie night)  Observational Learning - and imitating others  - “monkey see, monkey do…” - COGNITIVE PROCESSES o attention o retention  o reproduction  o motivation  Social Learning Theory **main theory 3**  - children watched a film of an adult playing with a Bobo doll  o adult was either aggressive (used mallet) or not  - the kids were later brought into a room with toys  o including a Bobo doll and mallet  - kids who saw the aggressive adult modelled their aggressive behavior  o if successful or behaviour is rewarded, observed behaviour is more likely to  occur  - Media Violence: violence occurs at high levels in children and adult shows  - Experimental Evidence: o Exposure to a violent TV show increased aggression, especially among boys, but  depends on gender of aggressor (in TV show)  Effects of Media on Behaviour  - Learning aggressive behaviour  - Viewing aggressive media: o Decreases concerns about suffering of victims  o Habituates to sight of violence o Increases likelihood of aggression  - learning prosocial behaviour  o increases children’s prosocial (helping) behaviour inside and outside of the  laboratory  Lecture 11– Oct 26th 2015: Memory (chapter 8)  What is Memory? - Processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information  - 3 component Model of Memory  o sensory registers o short-term memory (working memory: where we encode information for LTM) o long-term memory  Memory as information Processing **Terms** - Encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into neural code that the  brain processes (patterns of neuron activity) - Automatic Processing: encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal  attention  o Eg: your routine this morning  - Effortful processing: encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious  attention  o Eg: making study notes  Memory Codes - Once information leaves the sensory registers it must be represented by some type of  code to be retained in short-term memory before it can be transferred into long-term  memory  - Mental codes are mental representations o VISUAL ENCODING: forming a mental image  o PHONOLOGIC ENCODING: code by sound o SEMANTIC ENCODING: focus on the meaning of a stimulus (eg: learning new  psych terminology for exam) o MOTOR ENCODING: code patterns of movement (eg: learning sports or dance  step)  Memory as information Processing **Terms** - Storage: involved retaining information over time o Eg: filing it away and saving it - Retrieval: pull information out of storage when we want to use it  - Structure: way memory is organized  Steps of forming Memories 1. Sensory input (eg: visual, auditory) **information is lost in 0.5 to 3 seconds in sensory  register** 2. If you pay attention it is then transferred to short term-memory **maintenance  rehearsal holds information in short-term memory, but if it is not continually rehearsed  then the information is lost in a few minutes  3. If you continually rehearse information then it can be transferred to long-term memory  (encoded) **some information is lost over time, but some can be retrieved**  Serial Position Curve PRIMARY EFFECT: Words at beginning of list (quite good recall) ASYMPTOTE: words in the middle of list (bad recall) RECENCY EFFECT: words at the end of list (best recall)  Sensory Registers - Iconic (visual) - Echoic (auditory) Short-Term Memory  - information that is in consciousness right now - limited capacity memory component - for temporary information storage and manipulation  - mental workplace for retrieval and use of already known information (such as  categorizing, cataloging and cross-referencing)  Model of Working Memory (Baddeley, 1998)  - Auditory working memory: (“phonological loop”) when you repeat something mentally  over and over again  - Spatial Working memory: (“visual-spatial sketchpad”) allows temporary  storage/manipulation of spatial information  - Episodic Buffer: temporary storage space where information from LTM, phonological  loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad can be integrated  - Central executive: a control process directing attention and action  Miller - The capacity of short-term memory is 7+/- 2, items of information  - short term memory exercise (memory is closely linked to intelligence)  how can we function on such a small short-term memory capacity???  1. REHEARSAL: repeating items over and over as a deliberate means of remembering them  - Maintenance rehearsal: maintains information in short-term memory  o Repeat phone number until you’ve dialed it - Elaborative rehearsal: focus on the meaning relating it to concepts and examples we  already know. **More successful for a transfer of information into long-term memory  for more permanent storage** 2. MNEMONIC DEVICES: (chunking, organizing, imagery)  - Single use mnemonics  o ACRONYMS:  o RHYMES: o PHRASES:  o PERSONAL MEANING: (eg: relating someone to another person with same name)  - Multiple use mnemonics  o THE METHOD OF LOCI: remember series of locations (useful for remembering lists of items)  o PEG-WORD TECHNIQUE: taking advantage of pre-existing associations  Encoding: Imagery  - Many mnemonics use visual imagery  - Propositional Coding:  visual-spatial information is stored as a set of verbal descriptions  - Analog Coding: store information as a mental image - Dual-coding Hypothesis (Paivio): Concrete words (cigar, truck) can be stored twice in  long-term memory, once as a word, and once as a picture, but abstract words only  verbally - Concrete words are remembered better than abstract  - Imagery aids learning and memory (better storage and retrieval)  Encoding: Depth of Processing - shallow processing: structural physical features of word  - deeper processing: phonetic (sound) - deepest processing: meaning  - deeper the processing the better it will be remembered  - memory is affected by the way information is encoded (not just whether it is in the  system, how it was encoded into the system)  Storage: memory as a network - associative networks: massive networks of associated ideas and concepts  o eg: word association  - ability to retain information  o NEURAL NETWORKS: each concept is represented by a node (or pattern of  nodes) that become activated simultaneously  o Linked to neural networks (eg: sound, meaning, opposites, animals, places..etc)  Subtypes of long-term memory  LONG-TERM MEMORY  a) DECLARATIVE  o Semantic memory (general facts)  o Episodic memory (personal experiences)  b) PROCEDURAL  o Motor and cognitive  o Classical conditioning  Episodic vs. Semantic Memory Episodic: memory for specific events/episodes (where were you when??) Semantic: memory for general world knowledge (date of the attack on world trade center)  Procedural Memory  - memory for skills  o “doing things” in particular situations  o motor skills (eg: skating) o cognitive skills (eg: problem solving)  - classical conditioning effects  o conditioned reactions  o fear responseso eg: aversive conditioning  Explicit Memory: conscious or intentional memory retrieval  Implicit Memory: unconscious or unintentional memory retrieval  Some Common Sense about the Self 1. continuous over time, past and in the future  2. singular 3. responsible for controlling the mind and body (will power) 4. determines your individuality  Memory’s Influence on self-perception  - past experiences (personal history) - learning and skills - emotions - interactions with others (looking glass self) **if someone compliments you, it allows you  to remember that point about yourself**  **our perception of who we are as a person is dependent upon our memories** Facilitating Memory  Factors effecting Memory  - self-generated cues and multiple cues enhance recall  - subjects given a list of 504 words  o GROUP 1 – asked to think of 1 association for each word o GROUP 2 – asked to think of 3 associations of each word  - Unexpected IMMEDIATE RECALL CONDITION (252 words) - One cue – correctly recalled 61% - Three cues – correctly recalled 91%  Mantyla )1986) study  - One cue generated by someone else (252 words) o Correctly recalled 11% - Three cues generated by someone else o Correctly recalled 55% Factors effecting memory  - distinctiveness - serial position effect (typically only approx. 45% remember the middle words)  Encoding Specificity Principle - memory is enhanced when conditions match those that were present during encoding  conditions present during retrieval - Context dependent memory: same environment  - State dependent memory: same internal state  - Mood congruent recall: same mood  The Accuracy of Memory  - Memory is not exact - Reproductive memory: a highly accurate, verbatim recording of an event  - Reconstructive memory: remembering by combining elements of experience with  existing knowledge (must more effective)  Scripts - What is your dating script? o What happens first? o And then? o And then? **scripts also effect memory**  Memory Distortions  Bartlett’s War of the Ghosts  - English students told a native Indian story  - Memory for the story tested across time o Omissions and normalizations occurring  - results indicated that memory is reconstructive  o LEVELING (making story simpler)  o SHARPENING (Overemphasizing certain details) o ASSIMILATING (changing details to what we think)  Memory and Brain Anatomy  - encoding - retrieval  - short term memory  - long term memory  **what happens if parts of brain are damaged? **  - medical temporal lobes - hippocampus is the most important for memory formation  The Hippocampus - plays a critical role in memory encoding and retrieval (declarative… factual/personal)  Cerebral Cortex  - vital role in encoding by processing information from the sensory registers - where LTM are stored spread across various lobes in the cortex o but bound together via consolidation in hippocampus)  - storage of semantic memories  - Frontal Lobes (prefrontal cortex) o Important in short term memory (working memory) o Allocating attention  **begin with sensory registers, meaning is then attached to these experiences and then these  are pressed in different parts of the cortex**  frontal cortex: short term  cerebral cortex: memory storage thalamus: damage causes amnesia cerebellum: procedural memories hippocampus: memory formation amygdala: emotional significance of memories  Long term memory (LTM) - before experience: single synapse on dendritic spine  - After experience: formation of new synapses from new axon terminals, formation of  new synapses from original terminals  **neurons that fire together wire together** (developing better synaptic connections in  LTM)
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