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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Emma Ashworth

Final Exam Study Guide SOC371

Emma Ashworth
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Completed study guide for criminology final
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Ashworth on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC371 at University of Miami taught by Antonaccio in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 08/21/15
SOC 371 STUDY GUIDE Final Exam Crime and Its Costs Types of Crimes Conklin reading four major categories of crime 0 conventional crime whitecollar crime organized crime and Victimless crime tangible and intangible costs of crime 0 O tangible costs include money and valuables intangible costs include pain suffering decreased quality of life and psychological stress kinds of financial costs of crime 0 direct loss transfer of property costs related to criminal violence illegal expenditures enforcement costs and prevention and protection costs definitions of major types of crimes e g murder robbery theft burglary etc 0 O O O murder is defined as the willingful killing of a human being forcible rape an event that occurred without the victim s consent that involved the use or threat of force in vaginal anal or oral intercourse robbery is the theft of property from another person by force or threat of force an assault is an unlawful attack by one person against another hate crime a criminal offense that is motivated in whole or in part by the offender s bias against a race religion sexual orientation ethnicitynational origin or disability and is committed against persons property or society terrorism violence against innocent civilians that is designed to have a psychological impact on a broader audience in order to achieve a political messianic or vengeful goal burglary unlawful entry on a building to commit a serious crime usually the theft of property larceny the unlawful taking carrying leading or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another fraud the crime of obtaining money or property by false pretenses cybercrime any crime committed in the electronic environment of linked computer networks arson is the willful or malicious burning of a building a motor vehicle an aircraft or personal property vandalism is the willful or malicious destruction injury disfigurement or defacement of property without consent of the owner white collar crime is any illegal act punishable by a criminal sanction that is committed in the course of a legitimate occupation or pursuit by a corporation or by an otherwise respectable individual of high social standing organized crime is criminal activity by an enduring structure devoted primarily to the pursuit of profits through illegal means a Victimless crime is an offense that is consensual and lacks a complaining participant 2 Violent and Property Crimes Conklin reading types incidence and characteristics of violent crimes 0 types murder forcible rape robbery assault O sometimes take the form of clergy sexual abuse of children intimate partner violence hate crimes terrorism or genocide 0 types incidence and characteristics of property crimes 0 theft or destruction of things of value including money and material goods 0 types burglary larceny motor vehicle theft and fraud 0 sometimes includes cybercrime 3 Hate Crimes Conklin reading 0 definition of hate crime 0 a criminal offense that is motivated in Whole or in part by the offender s bias against a race religion sexual orientation ethnicitynational origin or disability and is committed against a persons property or society 0 types of hate crimes and their prevalence from most common to least 0 destruction damage or vandalism of property intimidation simple assault aggravated assault larcenytheft burglary robbery other offenses includes murder and forcible rape 0000000 4 Terrorism Conklin reading amp Terrorism readings on Blackboard 0 definition of terrorism 0 violence against innocent civilians that is designed to have a psychological impact on a broader audience in order to achieve a political messianic or vengeful goal 0 domestic and international terrorism their prevalence types and examples 0 nationalist seeks domestic and international support for a group s goal of forming a separate state I Irish Republican Army I Palestine Liberation Organization I Basque Fatherland and Liberty 0 religious uses violence against nonbelievers to achieve some version of divine Will I al Qaeda I Hamas I Hezbollah I Aum Shinrikyo Japan 0 statesponsored used by the national government as a tool of foreign policy I Iran Hezbollah I Syria Abu Nidal Organization I North Korea 0 leftWing involves the use of violence to destroy capitalist systems and replace them With socialism or communism I BaaderMeinhof Group Germany I Japanese Red Army I Weathermen United States I Red Brigades Italy 0 rightwing employs violence to replace liberal democracies with fascist states I neoNazis I other groups that attack immigrants and racial and ethnic minorities O anarchist uses violence to try to destroy established governments but lacks clear ideas about what would replace them foreign terrorist organizations locations causes history examples of their terrorist acts 0 RIRA Real Irish Republican Army 0 Hamas Islamic Resistance Movement 0 AlQaida the base for Jihad O ISILISIS the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria correlates and causes of terrorism profiling terrorists the case of Osama bin Laden 0 large family 0 wealthy O converted to Islam after his father did 0 was kicked out of Saudi Arabia the USA Patriot Act provisions advantages disadvantages controversies O provisions I prevention of noncitizen terrorist suspects I permits nationwide execution of warrants in terrorism cases I outlaws moneylaundering in the US of proceeds from cybercrime I prohibits individuals from supporting terrorist organizations and from participating in foreign crimes of violence or political corruption I sneak and peek search warrants allow officers to search the home of suspected criminals plant listening devices and seize physical objects or electronic communications without telling the target of the investigation until an unspecified later time 0 advantages I allows investigators to use the tools that were already available to investigate organized crime and drug trafficking I facilitates information sharing and cooperation among government so that they can better connect the dots enabling law enforcement intelligence and national defense communities to talk and coordinate their work I updated the law to re ect new technologies and new threats I increased the penalties for those who commit terrorism crimes I prohibits the harboring of terrorists O disadvantages I some consider it an abusive act by the government I has led to unnecessary arrests I not clear on when law enforcement is justified to sneak and peek searches I allows FBI to obtain records and other tangible things of people not suspected of criminal activity I was passed very hastily do a lot of things are unclear Organized Crime Conklin reading amp Organized Crime readings on Blackboard the documentary Cocaine Cowboys 0 examples and characteristics of organized crime 0 O has the characteristics of a formal organization a division of labor coordination of activities through rules and codes and an allocation of tasks in order to achieve certain goals illicit drug trafficking trafficking in arms nuclear materials illegal immigrants women and children and body parts theft and smuggling of vehicles money laundering and collaboration in terrorism 0 traditional and new organized crime groups in the US 0 O traditionally was Italian American Mafia the Japanese Yakuza and the Chinese Triad societies major new ones include the Columbian Drug Cartel Russian Mafia and Mexican Federation 0 the Mafia as a formal organization Conklin reading 0 0000000 0 there is a hierarchy boss who has absolute power underboss who acts as chief deputy and assistant staff of counselors advisors lieutenants who act as buffers between the higher and lower levels soldiers who operate illegal and legal business for the family enforcer who arranges killings or injuries to members and occasionally nonmembers corrupter who bribes buys intimidates threatens negotiates and sweettalks himself into a relationship with the police public officials and anyone else who might help the family corruptee which is a public official but usually not a member of the organized crime family and who can wield in uence on behalf of the organization 0 Colombian drug cartel and its activities in the US 0 0000000 Most sophisticated and powerful of the new organized crime groups Also called La Empresa Coordinadora Deals primarily with illegal drug trade Predominant group in the cocaine industry More success than any other organized crime group in history Probably the world s most profitable business Consists of a number of small organizations called cartels Most successful cartels are Medellin and Cali cartel 0 Russian organized crime and its peculiarities O O O O O O 0 Less structures than Italian mafia Consistent with the phenomenon of organized crime as it is understood in the US Involved in wide range of crime from simple theft to extortion and murder Do not use indiscriminate violence but will use the amount of violence necessary to further and protect their illegal enterprises Most involved in activities that deal with fraud and deception Exemplifies the sophisticated nature of the Russian criminal organizations and their ability to manipulate and work the system to their advantage One of the largest and most financially successful of the frauds perpetrated have been the motor fuel tax frauds Have yet to attain the level of criminal adaption that the Italians have but are progressing in crime in a manner similar to them Have yet to establish a strong institutional dominance in a specific area of criminality Areas of criminal interest are different than those of the Italians and their level of criminal acumen is in many instance more sophisticated I enterprise theory of organized crime 0 O O O criminal ventures are entrepreneurial and economicallydriven criminals exible in pursuing various illicit opportunities small operations with little specializations short hierarchies and formalization uid and dynamic groups 0 six stages of criminal mobility of organized crime groups 0 O O O O 0 individual criminal intraethnic gang rivalry interethnic gang rivalry organized criminal accommodations ethnic gang criminal supremacy decline and fall of the ethnic gang 0 RICO law Conklin reading 0 0 Passed in 1970 Prohibits the operation of an enterprise that shows a pattern of racketeering and allows for the prosecution of all members of a criminal organization if any member commits two or more specified crimes as part of the organization s work 70008000 members of organized crime convicted between 1985 and 2010 which has significantly weakened the power and reduced the size of the mafia criticisms I many defendants charged for crimes committed by only a few I difficult to defend against I too broadly written I use of the law to bring civil actions against legitimate companies for fraud 6 Genocide Genocide reading on Blackboard the documentary The Devil Came on Horseback 0 definition of genocide and its prevalence 0 defined as any of the following acts committed with the intent to destroy in whole or in part a national ethical racial or religious group killing members of the group causing severe bodily or mental harm to members of the group deliberately in icting on members of the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group forcibly transferring children of the group to another group O genocide is not a rare occurrence 0 has occurred in many countries as recently as 20th21St centuries 0 three case studies of genocide historical political and economical factors ideology and group tensions the Holocaust 2 former Yugoslavia 3 Darfur Sudan 0 Holocaust Before WWII Germany had been involved in a number of wars Failed colonization attempts the great depression Rise of Hitler and National Socialist German Workers Party establishment of a nondemocratic government Biological determinism notion of superior Arian race creation of the great German state threat of communism Long history of antiSemitism in the country antiJewish laws 0 Yugoslavia CoeXistence of Bosnians Croats and Serbs for over 400 years after WWII Yugoslavia came together as a socialist federal republic A worsening economic situation in the 1970s and 1980s Weakening federal government rise of nationalist movements Slobodon Milosevic came to power as a president of Serbia in 1990 the breakup of Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 90s Serbs believed they were deprived of power and not appreciated in Bosnia and autonomous regions like Kosovo mostly Muslim and Albanian Christian Serbs and Croats vs Muslim Bosnians and Albanians Tensions between Arab and Black groups Arming of the arab J anj aweed militias The Sudanese government bombing of African villages The ground attacks by the Sudanese government soldiers and J anj aweed militia The explicitly racial form of attacks against black tribes Sexual violence Confiscation of property Displacement The resettlement by Arab groups on land previously held by Black African tribes 0 conditions conducive to genocide economic problems loss of state legitimacy nondemocratic government seizure of personal rights establishment of linked ideologies of race and nation establishment of a revolutionary regime with a utopian idea of a creation of a new man or a new society based on race class or ethnic divisions 0 00000 0000 0 creation of symbolic borders between particular groups negative rhetoric toward a particular ethnicracial group normative pressure to favor the in group and discriminate against the out group intractable con icts between groups may be present moments of crisis generated by warsocietal upheaval I punishing genocide Hague conventions Geneva convention Nuremberg trial the 1998 Rome statute ICC O Hague conventions of 1897 and 1907 I Laid out rules of war Geneva convention of 1948 I Provided a definition of genocide The Nuremburg trial principles I Any person committing a crime under international law is criminally liable even if domestic law permits such behavior I Following orders may not be considered an excuse The 1998 Rome Statute of the ICC I Generally concerned with crimes against humanity war crimes committed on a large scale IC Court I The Rome 1998 statute was a response to the events in Rwanda and former Yugoslavia I Officially constituted in 2002 I As of now 114 nation states have ratified the statute and thus put themselves under the ICC I US has formally withdrawn from it 7 WhiteCollar and Corporate Crime Conklin reading Corporate Crime reading on Blackboard short video clips on corporate crime I definitions and examples of whitecollar and corporate crimes 0 whitecollar crime committed by individuals I employee theft and embezzlement I financial frauds tax evasion insider trading identity theft I professional deviance crime medical fee splitting overcharging 0 corporate crime committed by corporations I crimes against consumersowners unsafe products dangerous foods security fraud deceptive advertising I crimes against other businesses industrial espionage I crimes against the government tax evasion insurance fraud I crimes against the environmentpublic waste dumping I Sutherland s definition of whitecollar crime 0 crime committed by a person of respectability during the course of the legitimate occupation I costs and examples of specific incidents of corporate crime 0 Adelphia I Responsible for 23 billion in offbalance sheet loans to the founding Rigas family I Investors lost 60 billion in value when stock fell to 15 cents from a high 66 I Family used the company as their personal bank and allegedly improperly took money and loans then created sham transactions and forged financial documents to cover it up I One of the most extensive financial frauds ever to take place at a public company 0 Arthur Anderson I Audited many companies that had to restate earnings I Settled with SEC in numerous past cases involving deceptive bookkeeping such as Enron WorldCom Global Crossing Quest Communications Baptist Foundation of Arizona Sunbeam Colonial Realty The Waste Management Case I Led to a settlement of 7 million a 229 million shareholder settlement and a cease and desist order on misleading accounting 0 Enron I Was largest corporate bankruptcy in history as of Dec 2001 I Restated its earnings and assets downward by 15 billion I Wiped out 4200 jobs I 60 billion in market value lost to shareholders 0 Global Crossing I 4th largest bankruptcy under the weight of 12 billion in debt I chartered in Bermuda to avoid US corporate taxes even though it is headquartered in US and run out of the US as well as enjoying all the rights and access to government contracts that US corporations enjoy I engaged in capacity swaps with Qwest Communications I no indictments have been returned I CEO John Legere was forgiven 10 million balance on an interest free loan and given a 275 million severance payout even though share prices were down 90 and the bankruptcy stopped severance payments to workers who had already been laid off 0 Qwest Communications I Improperly accounted for about 1 billion and may have to restate 500 million in sales I Shares dropped to one dollar each down 89 from the start of the year and a high of66 I Investors in global crossing and Qwest Communications lost billions of dollars when the truth came out about these companies finances while insiders walked away with billions of dollars 0 Tyco I Chartered in Bermuda to avoid US corporate taxes like global crossing I Looted company and shareholders of 600 million that went to themselves and others who helped cover up improper secret loans that were forgiven without proper authorization I Evaded 11 million dollars in New York State tax by falsifying documents related to the art purchases and sending empty boxes to the company s New Hampshire address 0 Worldcom I Series of restatements totaling about 9 billion so far I Displaced Enron as largest bankruptcy filing in US history I Stock prices fell from a high of 64 to 9 cents reducing their total value from 120 billion to about 4400 million I 17000 employees have been laid off I NY state pension plan lost 300 million because of investments 0 Whitecollarcorporate crime vs street crime differences and similarities O O O O planning implementation costs societal reactions Other Crimes Conklin reading and two cybercrime readings Cybercrimes and Siegel 2011 on Blackboard I examples of victimless moralpublic order crimes 0 O 0 use of drugs gambling prostitution I cybercrimes its extent and examples O 0000 new breed of offenses that can be singular or ongoing but typically involves the theft and or destruction of information resources or funds utilizing computers computer networks and the internet relatively new and understudied global in scope and in uence ranges from very basic among individuals to international and sophisticated crime groups can cause more harm especially economic to a greater number of victims than other types of crime examples I cyber theft the use of computer networks for criminal profits I cyber vandalism malicious attacks aimed at disrupting defacing and destroying technology I cyber war or cyber terrorism politically motivated attacks designed to compromise the electronic infrastructure of an enemy nation and to disrupt its economy 0 costs of cybercrime to society and differences between cybercrime and other types of crime 0 O O O O difficult to estimate likely in the billions of dollars yearly pirated software 634 billion worldwide in 2011 identity theft 21 billion in lost tax revenue for IRS between 2012 and 2017 cyber vandalism 55 bilion attacks successfully blocked by anti virus programs 0 safety of online business 0 128678 cyberattacks on just 300 of the companies served by Riptech in the last 6 months of2001 0 more than 91 of the corporations and the US government agencies that responded to an annual survey reported a computersecurity breach in 2001 O 64 acknowledged financial losses because of the attacks 0 ecommerce fraud losses in 2001 exceeded 700 million constituting about 114 percent of the 618 billion dollars in total online sales 0 19 times higher fraud rate than that of traditional in store transactions 0 16 online consumers has been victimized by credit card fraud 0 1 in 12 has been hit with identity theft 0 businesses can broaden their customer bases and increase their revenues by going online but they can also expose themselves to cyber criminals O merchants are typically on the hook for any transactions they process without validating the customer signature which is rarely done over the internet 0 merchants bear most of ecommerce fraud legal responsibility 0 90 of the bugs that consumers report to software vendors were already known to the vendors at the time of release 0 many studies have found that businesses and government agencies have been attacked via these types of software security gaps and have incurred billions of dollars in damage 0 no laws requiring software vendors to manufacture hackproof or virusresistant products 0 no software company has ever been held responsible for damages stemming from a known security aw in a product 0 get away with it by inserting disclaimers into user licensing agreements 0 Microsoft continues to oppose efforts to make software vendors liable for security breaches 9 Criminal Careers Conklin reading 1 crime by chronic offenders O 0 account for 51 of all police contacts by age 18 half of juvenile offenders had an adult arrest by age 35 crime specialization 0 000000000 violent predators robbery assault robberdealers lowlevel robbers mere assaulters burglardealers lowlevel burglars property and drug offenders lowlevel property offenders drug dealers Possible Short Essay Questions Select one foreign terrorist organization and discuss its location historical context and the causes it fights as well as give at least one example of the terrorist acts it has conducted a ISIS i Location Syria and Iraq ii Causes Islamic extremist group iii History 1 Formed in 1999 Achieved notoriety in 2003 following the invasion of Iraq Was named Organization of J ihad s Base or alQaeda in Iraq 2006 became known as 181 2012 became known as ISIS as result of Syrian Civil War 6 Pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden and alQaeda in 2004 iv Terrorist acts 1 Gained recognition for suicide attacks on mosques ciilians Iraqi government institutions and Italian soldiers partaking in the US led Multi National Force 2 More recently beheading of 21 Egyptian Christians as well as a number of Americans b Real Irish Republican Army i Location northern Ireland Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland ii History and Causes 1 Formed in 1997 as the clandestine armed wing of the 32 County Sovereignty Movement 2 Opposed Sinn Fein s adoption of the Mitchell principles of democracy and nonviolence 3 Dedicated to removing British forces from northern Ireland and unifying Ireland 4 Historically sought to disrupt the Northern Ireland peace process and did not participate in 2005 weapons decommissioning iii Terrorist Acts 1 Omagh bombing in 1998 which targeted civilian 9593 According to the chapter on terrorism Osama bin Laden is probably the number one terrorist profiled Discuss some major background factors from his biographical profile in the chapter Do you think his profile resembles that of common criminals a He is one of 50 children which could form the basis of delinquent behavior b Grew up in a fairly well off family c his father had a renewed spiritual connection which transferred to him d strongly in uenced by the arguments by Saudi Islamists who believed the agony of the Lebanese was a punishment from God for their sins and destructive in uence on young Muslims e started as a freedom fighter turned into a terrorist f increased radicalism led to isolation and alienation and ultimate expulsion from his home country as a social pariah Discuss major provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act and its advantages and disadvantages What is the current status of this legislature and debate surrounding it a Major Provisions i Roving wiretaps ii Access to records iii b Pros 1 ii iii c Cons 1 ii iii The lone wolf conducting surveillance on individuals suspected of terrorist activities but not linked to terrorist groups Enhanced investigation tools Cooperation and information sharing Increased penalties for terrorismrelated crimes Unlawful detentions Spying Privacy intrusions d Current status and debate 1 ii iii iv All of these are currently part of the Patriot Act Debate over access to records because government can access records of people not involved in any sort of terrorist activity by requesting all records of a business school medical etc Could be used to deprive citizens who engage in eco terrorism of their constitutional rights Innocent American citizens have become subject to its provision Enables spying on citizens and noncitizens alike profiling based on looks and ethnicity detention without charges searches without warrants and even torture and assassination What are three major characteristics that various organized crime group have in common Discuss them using specific examples of several organized crime groups and their activities that we reviewed in class a Provision of illegal goods Colombian Drug Cartel b Use of violence Russian Organized Crime does not use indiscriminate violence but will use amount of violence necessary to further and protect their illegal enterprises c Involvement in legitimate institutions Colombian drug cartel links to businesses such as banks various companiescorporations investments in real estate etc Compare and contrast Columbian Drug Cartel and Russian Mafia Be sure to discuss predominant illegal activities of each group their organization levels of cooperation with other groups the extent of the use of violence and their involvement in legitimate institutions using specific examples from the readings and documentary on organized crime a Colombian Drug Cartel 1 ii iii iv V is more organized and powerful deals primarily with drug trade cocaine closely aligned with coca producers of Peru and Bolivia and more recently Mexico strong use of violence involvement in infrastructure b Russian Mafia 1 ii Involved in arms smuggling prostitution racketeering narcotics trafficking gasoline theft and fraud car theft and illegal export of raw materials from the territories of the Russian Federation No use of indiscriminate violence but necessary amount to protect their enterprise iii Fuel tax fraud in which they would buy fuel taxfree and then sell it taxpaid then pocket the taxable portion of the transaction before the authorities discover lost revenue Name five precursors of genocide and discuss them using specific examples from the three case studies of genocide we reviewed in class the Holocaust Yugoslavia Darfur a economic problems i Yugoslavia growing economic problems b intractable con icts between groups may be present i Darfur ii Tensions between Arab and Black groups c nondemocratic government i rise of Hitler and socialist government d seizure of personal rights i Confiscation of property ii Displacement iii The resettlement by Arab groups on land previously held by Black African tribes e establishment of linked ideologies of race and nation i Germany lost history of antiSemitism ii Belief of Aryan as superior race Using the information from the reading and documentary discuss historical political economic factors ideology and group tensions that played role in genocide in Darfur i Tensions between Arab and Black groups ii Arming of the Arab J anj aweed militias iii The Sudanese government bombing of African villages iv The ground attacks by the Sudanese government soldiers and J anj aweed militia v The explicitly racial form of attacks against black tribes vi Sexual violence vii Confiscation of property viii Displacement ix The resettlement by Arab groups on land previously held by Black African tribes Choose one case study of a corporation involved in a corporate crime from those described in Reiman s reading on corporate crime and discuss the circumstances of this case study What kinds of corporate crime were committed and what were their costs to society How those involved in these crimes were treated Do you think societal reaction to these crimes was adequate a Adelphia i Responsible for 23 billion in offbalance sheet loans to the founding Rigas family ii Investors lost 60 billion in value when stock fell to 15 cents from a high 66 iii Family used the company as their personal bank and allegedly improperly took money and loans then created sham transactions and forged financial documents to cover it up iv One of the most extensive financial frauds ever to take place at a public company v Currently John Rigas his sons and two other executives are under criminal indictment and free on bail they also face SEC fines 9 Street and corporate crime may have differences andor similarities along the four following dimensions planning implementation costs and societal reaction Compare and contrast corporate and street crime along these dimensions using specific examples and information from readings on corporate crime a Planning i Corporate crime takes more planning ii Larger amount of people involved iii Example Global Crossing is chartered in Bermuda to avoid US corporate taxes b Implementation i Corporate crime is more difficult to implement ii Takes a lot of people and often a lot of money iii Example Global Crossing and Qwest work together engaging in hollow trades and capacity swaps c Costs i Takes far more dollars from our pockets than all the FBI index crimes combined ii Example with WorldCom NY state pension plan lost 300 million d Societal reaction i Society is furious over how easy corporate crime offenders are let off ii Street criminals more likely to receive longer sentences iii 1990 meeting about the prosecution of savings and loan criminals 10 Identify three types of cybercrime from the reading by Siegel 2011 and the lecture material and discuss one example of each type How can cybercrime cause more harm to individuals and society than street crime a Cyber theft i Illegal copyright infringement case of woman selling faulty software for a fraction of the retail price b Cyber vandalism i Distribution of viruses spread from one computer to another when a user send out an infected file through email a network or a disk c Website Defacement i Cyber bullying


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