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cs105 stanford

cs105 stanford

Description

School: Stanford University
Department: Computer Science and Engineering
Course: Intro to Computers
Professor: Patrick young
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Computer
Cost: 25
Name: Cs 105
Description: this is week 1 note it teaches you how to operate your pc
Uploaded: 08/22/2017
13 Pages 95 Views 0 Unlocks
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How do I know (and keep track of) all of the programs that are running at once?




*How much data can it store?




*How fast can it perform tasks?



BASIC COMPUTER SKILLS On any given day, most of what you do will involve computer  systems. The Television channels you watch, the radio stations that you listen  to, the car that you drive in, and even the cash register at the local grocery  store are all controlled in some way by computer systems! They help us  perform tWe also discuss several other topics like realizeit gsu
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asks, keep track of a great deal of information, and even control the  airplanes that fly above us. During the course of this class, you will learn about  how they work, how to perform simple tasks, and much, much more. 2 Identifying Major Computer Components As with most products, computers are designed in a variety of  ways. There are, however, major similarities regardless of brand. All computers have the  following components and mechanisms: THE MONITOR: The monitor looks like a television screen and is where you see  what is happening on your computer. By using shadows and graphics with over a million  colors, much of what you see will appear 3-dimensional. THE TOWER/CPU: “CPU” stands for “Central Processing Unit” and houses the  machinery that allows your system to work correctly. In a laptop, all the pieces are squished  under the keyboard, but in a desktop it is usually a separate unit THE KEYBOARD: The keyboard is one of two ways to input data into your computer. It has been modeledafter a traditional typewriter. THE MOUSE: This is another way to input commands into your computer. Most  mice have two buttons, but some feature up to five! On laptops, they are often designed  as a “touch pad” with two buttons. The following things are important to consider when appraising a  computer system: *How fast can it perform tasks? *How much data can it store? *How many programs (i.e. software) can it run simultaneously? Desktop Computer Laptop Computer 3 INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES Computer Systems are designed to work with “data.” Data comes  in a lot of forms, whether it is typed data (such as a letter to a friend), audio data (like a  song), video data (like a popular movie or DVD) and more. Certain types of software  programs work with different types of data. For example, the popular iPod device from Apple  Computer works primarily with audio data, and Microsoft Word works primarily with written  data. The keyboard is just one of the ways in which you can input data into the  computer system. Conversely, there are a number of ways to get data off of the computer, such  as printing it out on paper, copying it to a CD-ROM or DVD, or publishing it to the Internet. It is a common misconception that computer systems have “a  mind of their own.” Although they can perform tasks much easier than humans can (like  counting, performing mathematical calculations and more), they always respond to your  commands! In fact, the computer system will do nothing that you do not tell it to do. In this  vain, it isimportant to remember that you are in control of the computer in  the same way that you are in control of your car. It won’t move until you put your foot on  the accelerator, and it will not stop until you press the brake. How Computer Systems Work OPERATING SYSTEMS Computers without operating systems are exactly like televisions  without a signal. Yes, it will turn on, but you will be looking at a blank screen with no hope of interacting with it! The most popular operating system on the planet is “Microsoft  Windows,” and is utilized by 90% of the world’s computers. It is a very complicated  program that acts as the brains of the computer, allowing you to run other programs, work on  projects, and do basically everything of which computers are capable. There are other operating systems out there as well – the Apple  Computer company uses an operating system called “Mac OSX” which, while looking very  different from Microsoft Windows, runs under the same basic principles. The operating system is so important that computers are sold  with them already installed and ready to go. In addition to this, popular software programs  are often already on computers, so all you have to do is plug it in! This is the  equivalent of buying a television set with cable already installed, as well as several DVD videos  stored on it as well. Do you ever need to mess with the operating system? No. It  should run correctly and without error for as long as you have your computer – in fact, if  you ever bring your computer to get fixed (for whatever reason), you can bet that the  technician will be lookingprimarily at your operating system (not your programs) in the  same way that a mechanic will look at your car engine. 4 In order to use your computer effectively, you must input commands  using both the mouse and the keyboard. Learning just a few certain keys will help to improve your  efficiency in typing as well as present you with more options within the program. The following is a  list of commonly used keys that have special functions : 1. Backspace: This key deletes backwards as you type. 2. Delete: This key deletes forwards as you type. 3. Shift: This key, when pressed WITH another key, will perform a  secondary function. If the key is a letter key, pressing the shift and letter key at the same time will  result in a capitol letter. There are 2 on the keyboard 4. Spacebar: This key enters a space between words as you type. 5. Tab: This key will force the cursor to indent, or jump forward 10  spaces. 6. Caps Lock: This key will present the capitalized version of each letter  key. It is a toggle switch that locks until you press it again. 7. Control (Ctrl) & Alternate (Alt): These keys, when pressed WITH another  key, perform a shortcut. There are 2 on the keyboard 8. Enter: This key executes a command (pressed in MS Word, it begins a  new line) 9. Number keypad: This is a redundant keypad existing only for user  preference. It is not present on all keyboards. 10. Arrow keys: Like the mouse, these keys are used to navigate through  the document. The Keyboard 1 2 3 3 4 5 67 7 8 9 10 A Word of Caution Remember that computers are machines just like any other mechanical object. Sometimes, although rarely, they are subject to failure, and certain parts must be replaced. It is important to note that they also need to be maintained, just like your car or other machinery; adding a bit of sporadic care to your computer will return to you in the long run, allowing your system to run smoothly and efficiently. Remember to be careful with foods and liquids! BCPLS 09/10/2010 PEMA 5 While the keyboard primarily inputs data (in the form of text and  numbers) into the computer, the mouse is used mostly for navigating around the screen. They  come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and are entirely designed for comfort. Each mouse, however different they may be, all feature similar  functions. A traditional mouse has two buttons and a wheel between them (gray) that spins  called a “trackwheel.” Both buttons perform separate functions, and are known by which side  of the mouse they are on. In other words, pressing the LEFT mouse button is called “left clicking,” while pressing the RIGHT button is called “right-clicking.” Left-clicking is used far  more often than right clicking. For now, know that left-clicking executes a particular  task, while right-clicking presents menu options. CLICKING One of the most difficult things to learn when starting out with computers is how to use the mouse. It takes coordination, finesse, and precision. Fortunately,every single time you practice, you will get better! It is important to know that the mouse will change its look and application depending on which environment you are currently in. For example, the mouse will  most often look like a pointer: but occasionally will change into something else, like a  hand. There are actually a lot of possible combinations, depending on what task you are trying  to perform. The buttons on the mouse will also assume different roles, again  depending on which program you are using. If you are working in Microsoft Word, for  example, the mouse will offer options related to Microsoft Word. Conversely, if you are  working in Microsoft Excel, the mouse will offer options related to Microsoft Excel, and so on. For now, remember these rules: 1. The LEFT mouse button SELECTS items. 2. The RIGHT mouse button GIVES YOU MORE OPTIONS. 3. Double-Clicking the LEFT mouse button EXECUTES options. 4. Double-Clicking the RIGHT mouse button DOES ABSOLUTELY  NOTHING! The Mouse Practice makes perfect. Using the keyboard and mouse may seem difficult at first, but it will become easier over time. Note: the mouse is intended for you to use with your right hand, regardless of whether or not you are right­handed. 6 TURNING THE SYSTEM ON Let’s get started! As you sit down at your desk, you can assume  that your computer system is in one of two states: OFF: This is exactly what it sounds like! The computer system is  as good as being unplugged from the wall. The monitor is black (nothing on it), there is no  “whirring” sound from theCPU, and the system is unresponsive to mouse movements. It is  time to locate the POWER switch on the front of the CPU and press it. SLEEP MODE: Modern computers have a mode called “Sleep” in  which the computer is ON, but it has assumed an energy-efficient minimal power mode.  To “wake” it up, simply move the mouse around, and it will come back to life at exactly  the same place that it went to sleep (in other words, if you were using a word processing  program and put it to sleep, it would return to exactly what you were working on upon waking  up!). LOGGING ON Once you turn the computer on, the monitor will show a series of  tasks before it is ready for your commands. This will last about one to two minutes; If the  system is performing as it should, however, you will probably come upon a log-in screen like  the ones below. This is called a “Log On” window, and it allows the computer  system to be password protected. If you do not see this window upon starting the  computer, you can assume that your computer is NOT password-protected and may be used by  anyone. If you are sitting in front of a public computer (such as the one  that you might find at a public library), it can be assumed that someone has already  “logged on” for you. Starting the Computer and Logging In 7 The computer will reach what is known as your desktop within a  few minutes of turning it on. Here you will see a digital representation of a real-life desktop, complete with a workspace, files and file folders, and even a trash can!One of the neatest features about Microsoft Windows is that your  desktop may not look anything like this one! While this sounds terribly unfair, it actually  means that you are able to manipulate, alter and change almost EVERYTHING about your  desktop environment. If you do not like the color blue as your background, where the icons are, or even what language it is in, you can change it! The Desktop Microsoft Windows XP Microsoft Windows Vista/ Windows 7 Some examples of desktop pictures and looks 8 Microsoft Windows is a friendly, colorful and customizable  operating system. Due to it being a staple in a business environment, it also is extremely efficient  and professional looking. It has, just like any other piece of software, undergone many  changes over the past 22 years, and is now being released in a version called “Microsoft Windows 7.”  Other versions of the program that you might have heard about include “Windows 3.1,” Windows 95,” Windows 98,” “Windows ME,” “Windows XP,” “Microsoft Windows VISTA,”  and the newest version: “Windows 7.” The START MENU is a good place to, well, start! It is found in the  lower left corner of your screen – just LEFT-CLICK on it once to open it. Notice the incredible amount of options that are immeditely presented to the user. Popular programs, like Internet and Email software are on the left, while folders, files and help features are on the right. It is also important to note the “Log Off” and “Turn Off Computer” buttons on the bottom of the menu. Consider these your “ignition” for the computer. If you want to shut it off, this is where you go! By LEFT-CLICKING on “All Programs,” anothermenu will spring to life. This is a list of all of the programs that you have installed on your computer. Everything that you would ever need to do with your computer system can be found in the Start menu. This includes finding help, using programs, getting on the internet, emailing, printing, playing videogames, customizing your desktop, and much more! Both of these start menus are from windows XP, like the desktops, they are customizable. Windows Vista and Windows 7 have start menus with a search  box for programs, but otherwise it are very similar! The Start Menu 9 Microsoft Windows is capable of running more than one program  at once. In other words, you can write a letter in Microsoft Word, while surfing the Internet  while using Microsoft Excel while checking your email and so on! This is called “Multi-Tasking” and is a feature of all computer  systems. The question that follows is: How do I know (and keep track of) all of the programs that are  running at once? The answer is found in the Taskbar, which sits on the bottom of  your screen next to the Start Menu. It looks like this: Microsoft Windows is called Windows” for a reason. Programs appear on your screen as “windows,” and are laid 3-dimensionally on top of one another. The graphic to the right illustrates how “windows” are arranged on the desktop. The desktop is your “bottom“layer,” and all of your open windows appear on top. The Task Bar Windows and 3­D Viewing 10 Using the “Filing System” in your Computer Once you start using the programs on your computer, you can  save your work. Each piece of saved work is called a “file” or a “document.” Just as in real life  - you can organize these files or documents into folders inside your computer. Think of it as a virtual file cabinet. Just as some people keep an organized file cabinet in real life, and others keep a messy one - your computer will reflect your sense of  organization. It is always easier to find things if you organize them well! Most people keep their files or documents organized in their “My  Documents” folder. It should be located on your desktop, or can be found in your start menu under the “Documents” option. Once inside “My Documents” - you can  either save all your files or documents in one big pile, or you can make separate  folders for each area (for instance, a folder for family correspondence and  one for financial records). Making Folders in Windows XP • Double-click “My Documents” on your desktop • Click on the link on the left side of the screen that says “Make a  New Folder” and a new folder will appear in your window. Don’t click on anything after  you click “Make a New Folder” • The folder will be ready for a name, so just type in what you  want to call it and Pressenter on your keyboard. Oops - I clicked and it won’t let me name it… • No worries, just right click on the folder with your mouse and choose the  “Rename Option.” Then just type the name you choose and press enter! To Put an existing File in your new folder • Find the file you want to move into a folder • Right click the icon for that file - use your left mouse button to  choose the “Cut” option • “Navigate to” (computer speak for find) the folder you want to  put the file in • Right click the icon for that folder - use your left mouse button to choose the “Paste” option Variation: Click and drag the icon for the file into the new folder. You will see  the outline of the file icon move as you drag it, and you will see the folder turn blue when the file  icon is on it. Be sure you don’t drop into the wrong folder - it can be tricky to find when that happens. You can also save a file directly to the Folder of your choice! When you work in a program and choose “Save As” - navigate to the correct folder, name the  file, and hit save! Each program is a little different, so refer to the information you have  for the program to see how to save a document or file. HOWEVER, there is also a company called “Apple.” Apple’s  computers (sometimes referred to as “Macs”) are a different breed of computer system. It is the equivalent of buying a British car – they may look similar, but you will be  driving on the opposite side of the road while sitting in the right seat, so to speak. Both types of  computers are good and work really well. But 90% of the world’s computers are PCs, and  they are what you will find at most libraries and in mot homes. It’s a good place to start! Other Programs and Software Key Facts About Computer Systems*A Computer does not need to access the Internet in order to run  properly. *A Computer needs an “Operating System” in order to work.  Common operating systems include Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and LINUX. *Printers, Mice, Keyboards, USB devices, DVD burners and more  are all called “Peripherals” and may be purchased in order to expand the  capabilities of the computer. 12 Logging Off or Shutting­Down When you are done with a session, you should always log off a  computer or shut it down. If you are in public, log off! (especially here at the library). If you  are at home, then you can choose whether to log off and let other family members log in with their own accounts, or shut down completely and save electricity! In order to turn your computer off, simply locate the “Turn Off  Computer” or “Shut Down” button located in the Start Menu. Left-click on it once. It will probably bring up a separate box that will ask you what you want to do - choose Shut Down and click ok. To Log off, open the Start Menu and locate the “Log Off” Button. Left-click on it once, and a dialog box will pop up that asks you if  you want to log off, press ok and it is ready for the next person. If the  Log Off button does not appear in the Start Menu, click the “Turn off  Computer” or “Shut Down” button. When the dialog box appears, it will give you the option to “Log Off”. Choose this and click ok. At the Library: click “done” on the time box at the top of the screen and then click “end now” to finish!If you ever get stuck, help is right around the corner. The HELP  feature for Microsoft Windows is located in the Start Menu and is called “Help and Support”; all other programs on your computer will also have an individual  help feature as well. They are very user-friendly, and, most likely, have a well prepared answer to your question. In addition to this, most programs come ready with 1-800 numbers to connect with a technician who is readily available to help you  on your way. By professor Vincent

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