Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 3680
Popular in Organizational Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3680 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
mm 3 Studv Guide Theories 0 Trait Approach 0 Attempted to show that leaders possessed certain characteristics that nonleaders did not 0 No consistent relationship between traits and leader effectiveness were found 0 Power approach 0 Leadership theory that examines the types of power wielded by leaders 0 Reward power the potential of a supervisor to dispense valued rewards O Coercive power the potential of a supervisor to dispense punishments 0 Legitimate power the right of a supervisor to in uence a subordinate and the obligation of the subordinate to accept that in uence 0 Referent power the identification of the subordinate with the supervisor the desire of the subordinate to be like and act like the supervisor the power of example 0 Expert power the knowledge that a supervisor has in a special area 0 Leader Member Exchange LMX O Leaders adopt difficult behaviors with individual subordinates 0 In group members I People who have highquality relationships with their leader 0 Outgroup members I People who have lowquality relations with their leader 0 Transformational Leadership 0 Burns I Behavior of inspirational political leaders who transform their followers by appealing to nobler motivesvalues I Transactional Leadership 0 Leaders show followers how they can meet their personal goals by adopting a particular behavior pattern 0 Bass I Perceived transformational leadership as building upon transactional leadership in a hierarchy re ecting effectiveness I 4 general strategies 0 Inspirational motivation leaders articulate an appealing vision of the future challenge followers with high standards 0 Idealized in uence leaders display conviction emphasize trust take stands on difficult issues 0 Intellectual stimulation leaders question old assumptions values and beliefs 0 Individualized consideration leaders deal with others as individuals I Charismatic Leader 0 Charisma I Personal attitude of a leader that hypnotizes followers and compels them to identify with and attempt to follow the leader 0 Followers are emotionally attached to leader never question leader s beliefs or actions and see themselves as essential to accomplishment of leader s goal Acquire some power from situation 0 Approach with many different versions of the notion that charisma is related to leadership 1 in a crisis situation followers perceive charismatic characteristics in an individual and accept that person as a leader 2 certain leader behavior contribute to a charismatic characteristic 0 Contingency Approach 0 Leadership theory proposed to take into account the role of the situation in the exercise of leadership 0 Hersey amp Blanchard s situational theory I Proposed leadership depended in part on maturity of subordinate 0 Job maturity O A subordinate s jobrelated ability skills knowledge 0 Psychological maturity O The selfconfidence and selfrespect of the subordinate O 0 Behavioral Approach 0 Leadership theory that focused on kinds of behavior engaged in by people in leadership roles 0 2 major types of behavior I Consideration I Relationsoriented behavior I Initiating structure I Taskoriented behavior 0 Participative behavior I Allows subordinates more participation in decision making and encourages more twoway communication Concepts 0 Organizational justice 0 Type of justice that is composed of organizational procedures outcomes and interpersonal interactions 0 Distributive justice 0 Perceived fairness of allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members 0 Definitions of what is fair I Meritequity norm those who work hardest or produce the most should get the greatest reward I Need norm people should receive rewards in proportion to their needs 0 EX Given financial aid when you need help paying for school because you re unable to afford it on your own I Equality norm people should receive equal awards 0 Procedural justice 0 Perceived fairness of the process by which rewards are distributed 0 Voice having the possibility of challenging in uencing or expressing an objection to a process or outcome 0 Has an impact on layoffs and selfesteem 0 The process is fair but the outcome is unfavorable 0 Interactional justice 0 Sensitivity with which employees are treated and linked to extent to which employee feels respected by employer 0 Informational justice how information is presented 0 Interpersonal justice manner in which outcome is presented to the person it is happening to I EX A person gets laid off in a nicerespectful way 0 Deontic justice 0 Form of organization justice based on what is the correct m course of action for a company or for an individual 0 The outcomeprocedure may not be fair but it is morally correct 0 Affirmative action programs AAPs distributive justice 0 Program that acknowledges that particular demographic groups may be underrepresented in the work environment provides specific mechanisms for reducing this underrepresentation 0 Provide enhanced opportunities for subgroups based on a principle of equality or need 0 Cannot hirefirepromote based solely on racegenderagereligion 0 Much emotion surrounds AAPs I Favored vs unfavored employees 0 AAPs enhance diversity 0 Research findings on reactions to affirmative action programs are on page 460 0 Diversity 0 Differences in demographic characteristics values abilities interests and experiences 0 People value homogeneity rather than diversity I Creates trust I Enhances communication I Increases satisfaction commitment and effectiveness 0 Group members appear to value homogeneity because in diverse groups I Others don t agree With your vision I Differences in vision are result of value differences I Differences in vision lead to disagreements I Differences in expertise lead to disagreement about methods 0 Ineffective models for diversity 0 Assimilation model I Recruits selects trains and motivates employees so that all share the same values and cultures 0 Protection model I Identifies disadvantaged and underrepresented groups and provides special protections for them 0 Ideal diversity model 0 Value model I Each element of an organization is valued for What it uniquely brings to the organization I HR initiatives that support the value model multicultural of diversity are on slid 23 0 Leader emergence 0 Study of the characteristics of individuals Who become leaders examining the basis on Which they were elected appointed or accepted 0 Emotional stability extraversion openness to experience and conscientiousness 0 Leadership effectiveness 0 Study of Which behaviors on the part of a designated leader led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization 0 Leader 0 The individual in a group given task of directing taskrelevant group activities or in absence of designated leader carting the primary responsibility for performing these functions in the group Attempts at leadership 0 O Attempted leadership a leader accepts the goal of changing a follower can be observed attempting to do so Successful leadership a follower changes hisher behavior as a function of the leader s effort Effective leadership a leader changes a follower s behavior resulting in both leader and follower feeling satisfied and effective Personality and leadership 0 O O 1 or more Big Five factors appear directly or indirectly in all leadership theories Big 5 factors emphasize bright side of leadership openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism Predictors for leader failure more likely to be found in measures of psychopathology Metaanalysis on relationship between personality and leader effectiveness in 3 settings I Characteristics positively associated with leader effectiveness in 3 different environments 0 Industry 0 Emotional stability 0 Extraversion O Openness to experience 0 Governmentmilitary O Emotional stability 0 Extraversion O Conscientiousness 0 Student 0 Emotional stability 0 Extraversion O Openness to experience 0 Conscientiousness O Agreeableness Leader development 0 Develops maintains or enhances individual leader attributes Leadership development 0 Concentrates on the leaderfollower relationship 0 Leadership as social exchange 0 Interpersonal competence I Type of competence that includes social awareness and social skills Activity inhibition O Describes a person who is not impulsive 0 Male leader 0 0 Men favor autocratic styles Men are more assertive 0 Female leader 0 O 0 Women prefer democratic and participative styles Women are more extraverted Women are more tenderminded 0 KSAOs of leaders 0 O O 0 Knowledge Skill Ability Other characteristics
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