Exam 1 Study Guide- Organization Psychology
Exam 1 Study Guide- Organization Psychology PSYC 3680
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Sanders on Friday August 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3680 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Organizational Psychology People Maslow 0 Need Theory Herzberg O Twofactor Theory Skinner O Behaviorist approach Vroom O VIE Theory Festinger O Dissonance Theory Theories Maslow s Need Theory 0 All humans have basic set of needs that express themselves over life span of individual as internal pushes or drives Physiological needs I Basic needs like food and water 0 0 Security needs I Need to produce a secure environment 0 Love or social needs I Desire to be accepted by others 0 Esteem needs I Being respected for accomplishments or capabilities O Selfactualization Desire to develop capabilities to fullest 2Factor Theory Herzberg O 2 basic needs 0 Needs are independent not hierarchical 0 1 Hygiene needs I Physical and security needs 0 2 Motivator needs Social esteem and selfactualization needs Reinforcement Theory 0 Behavior depends on 3 elements stimulus response and reward O Contingent reward reward depends on response 0 Intermittent reward given for only correct responses 0 Continuous reward reward presented every time a correct response occurs Dissonance Theory Festinger O Suggests that tension exists when individuals hold incompatible thoughts 0 Assumes that individuals always seek some sense of balance and will direct their behavior toward seeking and maintaining that balance Equity Theory Study Guide Exam 1 Organizational Psychology 0 Motivational theory 0 Individuals look at world in term of comparative inputs and outcomes 0 Individuals compare their inputs and outcomes with others I VIE Theory Vroom 0 Motivation theory 0 Valence value strength of person s preference for particular outcome 0 Instrumentality usefulness perceived relationship between performance and attainment of a certain outcome 0 Expectancy confidence individual s particular behavior will lead to higher performance I Goalsetting Theory 0 Goal seen as a motivational force 0 Individuals who set specific difficult goals perform better than individuals who simply adopt a do your best goal or no goal at all 0 Feedback loop connection between knowledge of results and the intermediate states that occur between goal commitment and performance I Control Theory 0 Based on principle of feedback loop 0 Assumes individuals compares a standard to an actual outcome and adjust behavior to bring outcome into agreement with the standard instrumentality Concepts I Research designs 0 Provides the overall structure or architecture for the research study allows investigators to conduct scientific research on a phenomenon of interest 0 Experimental I Random assignment of participants to conditions I Conducted in a lab or the workplace control conditions I Cause and effect 0 Nonexperimental I Does NOT include any treatment of assignment to different conditions I 2 common designs I Observational design observes and records behavior I SurveyQuestionnaire design most common 0 Quasiexperimental I Nonrandom assignment of participants to different conditions I Qualitative methods 0 Observations interviews case studies written documents 0 Produce ow diagrams and narrative descriptions of eventsprocesses I Quantitative methods 0 Tests rating scales questionnaires and physiological measures 0 Yield results in terms of numbers I Generalizability Study Guide Exam 1 Organizational Psychology 0 To apply the results from one study or sample to other participants or situations 0 The more areas a study includes the greater its generalizability 0 Every time a compromise is made the generalizability of results is reduced 0 Experimental control 0 Eliminates in uences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret 0 Control over variables 0 Statistical control 0 Statistical techniques used to control for the in uence of certain variables 0 Data visualization 0 Frequency distribution Histogram I Historical axis scores running low to high I Vertical axis indicates frequency of occurrence 0 Measures of Central Tendency O Statistic that indicates where the center of a distribution is located 0 Mean average score 0 Mode most frequent score 0 Median middle score 0 Standard deviation 0 Average deviation points away from the mean 0 Skew mean is affected by high or low scores median is not mean pulls in direction of skew 0 Correlation O Scatterplot displays correlational relationship between 2 variables 0 Regression straight line linear that best fits the scatterplot and describes the relationship between the variables in the graph 0 Correlation coefficient I Liner association between two variables I Positive correlation as one variable increases other variable also increases as one variable decreases other variable also decreases I Negative correlation as one variable increases other variable decreases as one variable decreases other variable increases I Curvilinear nonlinear relationship curved line I Multiple correlation coefficient overall linear association between several variables and a single outcome variable I A value of 00 means that there is no association between two variables 0 Reliability 0 Consistency or stability of a measure 0 Testretest calculated by correlating measurement takes at time 1 with measurements taken at time 2 0 Alternate equivalent forms calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test 0 Interrater calculate various statistical indices to show level of agreement among raters Study Guide Exam 1 Organizational Psychology 0 Internal consistency assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct 0 Validity 0 Whether measurements accurately and completely represent what is to be measured 0 Content demonstrates that content of selection procedure represent adequate sample of important work behaviors and activities or worker KSAOs defined by job analysis 0 Criterion demonstrated by correlating a test score with a performance measure improves researcher s confidence in the inference that people with higher test scores have higher performance 0 Concurrent no time lag between collection of test scores and performance data test administered to current employees performance measures collected at same time 0 Construct concept or characteristic that a predictor test is intended to measure 0 Person as Machine 0 People s behaviorsactions are re exive and involuntary performed without conscious awareness O Pushed by internal needs pulled by environmental stimuli 0 Person as Scientist 0 People are active information gathers and analysts who seek knowledge and understanding 0 Voluntary response by individuals 0 Person as Judge 0 Individual seeks information about the extent to which the person and others perceived as responsible for positive and negative events 0 Looks for evidence of intention in the actions of others and considers those intentions in choosing a personal course of action 0 Selfregulation 0 Compatible with control theory 0 Individuals take in information about behavior and make adjustmentschanges based on that information 0 Selfefficacy O The belief in one s capacity to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal 0 Expectancy confidence
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