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OLEMISS / BISC / BISC 336 / What are the characteristics of Genetics?

What are the characteristics of Genetics?

What are the characteristics of Genetics?

Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: BISC
Course: Genetics
Professor: Erik hom
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Genome, DNA, Mitosis, Meiosis, dr.hom, Genetics, aminoacids, and Heredity
Cost: 25
Name: Bisc 336: Genetics Notes Week #1
Description: Notes from the first week of class. Dr. Hom Mitosis Meiosis Sickle Cell Anemia Heredity Centromeres DNA Genome Amino Acids
Uploaded: 08/25/2017
13 Pages 143 Views 1 Unlocks
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Genetics                                                                                 Dr. Hom

What is genetics?

The branch of biology devoted to the Study of heredity and variation of traits (characteristics) that are observed as phenotypes (to show).

Basis of traits = genes

gene: fundamental unit of hereditary information; physically encoded by a

locus (region) of DNA

Heredity: DNA, sex, evolution

Vvariation: Statistics (populations)

Phenotypes: behavior

Central Dogma 

the flow of genetic info in biological systems via polymers: DNA, RNA, and protein Don't forget about the age old question of 9781260304176

*start learning + memorizing

- All 20 common amino acids

                structures + properties

- Nucleotides & nucleic acids

structures & properties

* know for exam 2

Sickle Cell Anemia

        glutamate → val

        ions change, dehydrates, microparticles

clogs arteries & veins

chromosome Il gene

*see white sheet for example reading assignment

* problem set #1 will be on top hat... due 9/1

Next class: cell cycle mitosis, meiosis

*problem sets begin today

Chromosomes

  • Chromosomes are found in a nucleoid in a prokaryote
  • Eukaryotic cells hold DNA in the nucleus
  • Karyotype shows the 23 pairs of human DNA, DNA is in metaphase (condensed 1 and stretched in middle of cell)
  • If you want to learn more check out What is a proposition which is always true?

    Centromere location

    Designation

    Middle

    Between middle and end

    Close to end

    At the end

    Metacentric

    Submetacentric

    Acrocentric

    Telocentric

    We also discuss several other topics like What processes are taking place right now that are chemical reactions?

    Human genome DNA

  • if stretched out, one piece of DNA woved be about 1 meter long
  • must fit in ~5 µm diameter space in the nucleus
  • * must be compacted 200,000 x

  • Heterochromatin: densely packed with lots of protein
  • Euchromatin: more exposed DNA with fewer proteins
  • methylation controls whether DNA is more or less compact
  • house keeping genes pull out & put away Structures of DNA (less wrapped around histones)
  • DNA winds around a histone and forms a nucleosome before a chromatid
  • Don't forget about the age old question of What information is provided by managerial accounting goals?

    Sugar: Ribose

    We also discuss several other topics like What is the study of social collectives?

    Nitrogenous Base

            Pyrimidine

    Uracil

    Thymine

    Cytosine

    Purine

            Adenine

            Guanine

    "Angels and god are pure and mighty"

                                          ⤷Big = two rings

    Nucleotide Nomenclature

    DNA Double Helix

            A→T (2) hydrogen bonds

            G→C grc has more hydrogen bonds (3)

    * the more cag's in a DNA strand= more stable

    * Know major and minor grooves & the size

            magor (224)

    minor (124)

    one complete tum = 34 Å

    Sickle cell Anemia

            GAG                →                  GTG

    Healthy                          sickDon't forget about the age old question of What were the tools used during the Stone Age?

            Glutamate                          valine

            Dispersed in cytoplasm         clumps in fibers

    glycine (gly, G)

    DNA Packing

    1. Primary structure         Synthesis
    2. Secondary                 Folding
    3. Tertiary                 Packing
    4. Quaternary                 Interaction

    Human Prions 

            Prp-C                                PrP-Sc

            prion protein-cellular                 prion protein-scrapie

                 (they have altered quaternary structures)

    *Next class: cell cycle

    Alanine (Ala, A) has a methyl group for R (CH3)

                                                                            pKa = 4.1

                                                                            2 methyl groups

                                                                                    Carboxyl

                                                                            Polar → acidic                 ↙repels

    (negative charge)

            

    if pH < pKa →  have proton

    if pH > pKa → no proton

    "pick a proton off above this"

    Lecture 3

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