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LSU / Anatomy and Physiology / BIOL 1201 / What is the smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means

What is the smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means

What is the smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means


School: Louisiana State University
Department: Anatomy and Physiology
Course: Biology for Science Majors I
Professor: Joseph siebenaller
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: scientific method, solubility, polarity, valence, bonds, and electronegativity
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 1201; Week One Class Notes
Description: These note cover part of our first exam
Uploaded: 08/27/2017
4 Pages 89 Views 6 Unlocks

August 23, 2017

What is the smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means and retains all the properties of that element?

What is science?

­ Process (scientific method)

­ Study of the natural world

What do scientist do?

­ Make observations

­ Make sense out of the observations that results in creating a model

­ Assume that the future is like the past 

Scientific Method

­ Observation 

­ Generalization or Model

­ Predictions or Hypothesis

­ Test/Experiment

What happens as a result of this process?

­ Good models

­ Models get more accurate

­ Can get very close to the truth

­ strongest bonds when dry, is what?

If you want to learn more check out How the brain influences behavior?

­ Science starts with observation

Ex: Do animals have souls?

Believed souls had mass

Weighed animals, killed them, weighed again

­ Technology changes our way we can make observations


­ Hypothesis: explanation for something thats relatively untested We also discuss several other topics like What are the four levels of management?

­ Theory: hypothesis tested repeatedly and always supported; model we think is really good ­ Law: shouldn’t have exceptions; 

What is biology?

­ Study of life; 

What is life?

­ Not defined by single characteristic

Characteristics of Life

­ Organization (Made up of many chemicals but the way our chemicals are organized make us  unique)*

Study of the natural world.

­ Energy use*

­ Develop and change over your life time

­ Reproduction: all cells come from preexisting cells*

­ Evolve: generation of species have to adapt to survive

­ Respond to environment*

­Viruses don’t use energy but are extremely close to life Don't forget about the age old question of What is the freedmen’s bureau?

Scale of Nature & Approaches to Biology

­ Minimalistic approach

­ Alanna notes

What determines solubility?

­ Like dissolves like; like in terms of polarity If you want to learn more check out What is the history of evolution in education?

­ Non polar solutes dissolve in non polar solvents

­ Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents

What determines polarity of a molecule?

­ Bonds in a molecule

­ Bonds are the result of electrical attractions between atoms


­ smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means and retains all the properties of  that element

­ Structure of atoms tell us how different atoms come together

Atomic Structure 

­ Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of an atom, with electrons orbiting the nucleus.  ­ Electron charge: ­1

­ Neutrons: mass of 1 daltons

­ Electrons: mass of 0 daltons

­ Atomic number: number of protons

­ Atomic mass: number of protons and neutrons

­ Mass number


­ The number of electrons that need to be gained or lost to fill the outer shell of electrons ­ Valence also predicts the number of bonds the atoms will form

­ Valence electrons, the electrons in the outermost shell

­ K shell full with 2 electrons; L shell full with 8 electrons; M shell full with 8 electrons ­ Always fill shell from the inside to the outside

­ Carbon can do a lot of things because it is so flexible with a valence of 4 If you want to learn more check out What are the 5 characteristics that an organism must possess to be considered alive?

Ionic Bonds

­ Form when atoms completely gain and lose electrons

­ Strongest bonds when dry

­ Ex: Sodium 1 valence electron (valence of 7) ; Chlorine 7 valence electrons (valence of 1)

Covalent Bonds

­ Form when atoms share electrons

­ If shared equally covalent

­ If shared unequally polar covalent

­ Strongest bond in water

Are Covalent, Polar Covalent, and Ionic Bonds really different? ­ deranged sharing of electrons Don't forget about the age old question of Who created the periodic table of elements?

­ variations of how the electrons are being shared

­ they are different places along a continuum of sharing

­ result of electrical attractions 

What determines the number and type of chemical bonds? ­ Valence determines the number of bonds

­ Electronegativity determines the type of bonds


­ Measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons ­ Measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons

­ Increases from left to right and bottom to top

Week One Pre­Lecture Notes

Basic Chemistry 

­ Atomic Scale 10^­8 meters

­ Community/Ecosystem Scale 10^6 meters

­ Keep in mind where we are in that scale

­ Approaches to biology include reductionist approach (minimalistic) and wholist approach ­ Reductionist approach for 1201

­ Organisms are composed largely of 11 basic elements. Value in an average human being  is  about $1,000 dollars. The thing that makes us unique is the organization of these chemicals.

Basic Chemistry Atoms 

­ Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means

­ Smallest unit of matter that retains all of the properties of that element

­ Protons: Mass 1 dalton ; Charge +1 ; Location nucleusVal

­ Neutrons: Mass 1 dalton ; Charge 0 ; Location nucleus

­ Electrons: Mass ~0 dalton ; Charge ­1 ; Location outer shells

­ Atomic Number: number of protons (and electrons) in an atom 

­ Atomic Mass: number of protons and neutrons in an atom

­ Isotopes: variants of an atom, having different atomic mass but same atomic number ­ K shell: 2 electrons ; L shell 8 electrons ; M shell 8 electrons

­ Valence: number of electrons and atom needs to gain or lose to fill the outer shell ­ Valence electrons: amount of electrons on the outside shell

­ Valence predicts the amount of bonds an atom will form

­ Figure 2.4 in textbook

Basic Chemistry Bonds 

­ Chemical bonds form when atoms gain and lose or share electrons

­ Chemical bonds are results of electrical attractions between atoms

­ Ionic Bonds: forms when atoms completely gain and lose electrons ; strongest when dry ­ Covalent Bonds: forms when atoms share electrons ; can be shared equally (non­polar covalent bond) or shared unequally (polar covalent) ; strongest in water

Covalent, Polar Covalent and Ionic bonds aren't really that different ; No, just different variations in how electrons are being shared ; on different places along a continuum

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