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ASU / Biology / BIO 182 / What are some practical applications of natural selection in agricultu

What are some practical applications of natural selection in agricultu

What are some practical applications of natural selection in agricultu

Description

School: Arizona State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology II
Professor: Foltz-sweat
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology, evolution, phylogenetic tree, fossils, and taxonomy
Cost: Free
Name: Week 1
Description: Pages 1 and 2 include notes from the first week of lecture. Pages 3 and 4 include important notes from the homework exercises.
Uploaded: 08/29/2017
4 Pages 227 Views 0 Unlocks
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Evolution - changes in genetic makeup of populations overtime

Natural selection - inherited variation in a population of organisms best suited for growth and reproduction in a given environment will disproportionately contribute to future generations

Farmers have used this principle to select for crops (resist drought and disease)

Variation among individuals within a species causes

  • Environmental Variation
  • Variation due to differences in environment
  • Genetic Variation
  • Differences in genotype among individuals in a population
  • Arises from mutation
  • Mutations arise from random errors during DNA replication or environmental damage to DNA
  • Mutations that are :

            Harmful to growth and reproduction - die out after a handful of generationsDon't forget about the age old question of How are Judges selected?

            Neither harmful or beneficial - can persist for 100’s to 1000’s of generations

            Beneficial to growth or reproduction - gradually into genetic makeup of  every individual species

    Evolution predicts a pattern of relatedness among species

    “The Tree of Life”

    3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes

  • Family tree of organisms
  • Describes genealogical relationships between species
  • Single ancestral species at base
  • Speciation = natural selection causes populations of one species to diverge to create new species

    We also discuss several other topics like What do you mean by scanner class?

    Taxonomy : naming and classifying organisms

    Carolus Linnaeus - formed taxonomic system (plants and animals)

            Hierarchical series of taxa(levels of classification)

    Kingdom→Phylum→class→order→family→genus→species

    5 Kingdom System (proposed 1960s)

  • Prokaryota
  • Protista
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Animalia
  • Don't forget about the age old question of How information systems are transforming business?

    Carl Woese - studied rRNA sequence to understand relationships between organisms

                    - developed 3 DOMAINS (new taxa level)

    * Bacteria * Archaea * EukaryaIf you want to learn more check out How do you measure risk?

    Phylogenetic Tree : present relationship among species

                    * branches close together = species closely related

    Taxon - all species in some entity

    Monophyletic - all members come from a single common ancestor

              - most informative evolutionary history of a taxon

    Paraphyletic - includes some but not all the descendants of a common ancestor

    Polyphyletic - do not include the common ancestor

    Homologies result from shared ancestry

            ↳ only homologies (not analogies) are useful in constructing phylogenetic treesWe also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between macronutrients and micronutrients?

    - Trees can be built using anatomical features, but mainly relies on molecular data

    - in order for a character to be useful for constructing a phylogeny, it must have a genetic basis.

    Mass extinctions - eliminate much of life on Earth at the time

        - allow new groups to proliferate and diversify

    *Greatest mass extinction: 252 million years ago: end of Permian Period

    ↪Environmental catastrophe (volcanic eruptions) eliminated ½ of all families in oceans + 80% of all genera

    ↪Caused global warming and ocean acidification and lack of oxygen in seawater

    Data from phylogenies based on living organisms and data from the fossil record are in agreement when the tree of life is examined us a whole but are often contradictory when individual branches are examinedWe also discuss several other topics like What are the sources of variability?

            FALSE

    Fossils contain unique combinations of characters

       ↪ can offer about the same info about species

            (feathers on dinosaurs)

    Tiktaalik Roseae - skeleton in rock 370 million years ago

            Record transition of : colonization of land by vertebrates

      ↪ water to land

    Half life ofis 5,730 years

    If a sample contained 100%+ 0% at a point in time 17190 years ago, then what % of would it contain today?

    50→25→12.5

    12.5%

    = 3 half lives

    DNA Sequences of 2 closely related taxa are expected to show :

            Fewer differences because mutation rates are usually relatively constant and recently diverging species have had less time to accumulate differences

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