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USC / Biology / BIOL 101 / Describe the goal of science.

Describe the goal of science.

Describe the goal of science.

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Biology
Course: Biological Principles I
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Biology, Science, evolution, charles darwin, scientific method, natural selection, speciation, Molecular, Extinction, variables, hypothesis, experiment, Diversity of Life, DNA, and cellular biology
Cost: Free
Name: Biology 101, Week 1 Notes
Description: These notes cover: -The Scientific Method -Theory -The goal of science & Technology -Experimental Variables and Controls -Characteristics of life -Central Dogma -DNA -Cells/ Cellular Biology -Energy -Evolution -Charles Darwin -Natural Selection -Variation -Diverse Species -Fossil Record -Molecular Biology -Speciation -Concepts of Evolution -Our Role in Evolution -Extinction
Uploaded: 09/01/2017
6 Pages 300 Views 5 Unlocks
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Biology 101We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 critical innovations of the chordate body design?

Biology is applying science to life.

We also discuss several other topics like one of the basic facts of life is that people must make choices as they try to attain their goals. this unavoidable fact comes from a reality an economist calls
If you want to learn more check out What are the things communicated by Art?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does the environment influence an individual's growth?

Scientific Method:

  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Predictions
  • Experiments / new observations
  • Theory

We also discuss several other topics like 1060 material

Rejected or Revise

  • Hypothesis = results are not adding up.
  • Hypothesis becomes theory if the results are stable and unchanging.

If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of commutative?

Theory

  • Supported by a lot of evidence.
  • Less limiting than a hypothesis.
  • Can lead to a new hypothesis.

Goal  of science is to understand natural phenomena.(marked by “discoveries”)

Goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge.(marked by “inventions”)

Experimental Variables and Controls

Controlled Experiment

  • Experimental group.
  • Controls help researchers rule out results - affecting factors.

Independent Variables

  • Variable that stands alone and remains unchanged

Dependent Variables

  • Variable that relies on other factors.

Most scientists work in teams they cooperate by sharing data about:

  • Model organisms - a species that has been widely studied because it is easy to maintain and breed in a laboratory setting. Ex. fruit fly.

Characteristics of life:

  1. Complex
  1. Many different factors.
  1. Able to adapt / change in response to an environment.
  2. Capacity to evolve.

All organisms are made of either a single cell or a group of cells.

Cells can store and transmit information.

Central Dogma

DNA → RNA → protein

prokaryotic cells - nucleoid.

eukaryotic cells - nucleus.

Both have:plasma membrane - external boundary (wall) of a cytoplasm that regulates the passage of molecules.

All cells have a way of “separating” themselves.

  • plasma membrane(protein coat)
  • Defines limits of the cells.

Harnessing Energy

2 sources of energy.

  • The sun
  • Chemical compounds

Why isn't a virus considered a living thing?

        They can

  • Store and transmit information.
  • Protect themselves using a plasma membrane(protein coat)

        But:

  • They can't reproduce on their own.
  • They can't harness energy.
  • They don't respond to stimuli(but the cell their affecting does)

BIO 101 Evolution and Molecules of Life

Evolution is one of the principles of biology (core theme)

Charles Darwin

→ Natural Selection.

  • Theory:
  • Variation within a population.
  • Any population can reproduce.
  • Limited resources for population
  • ↑ competition for the resources.
  • Survival of the fittest.
  • Selection: those who are able to obtain those resources will survive and live on to pass their traits to the next generation.

Evolutionary applications account for the unity and diversity of all species on earth.

Evolution

  • Scala Naturae.
  • Scale of nature.
  • Uniformitarianism.
  • The processes we see in geology today are the same processes we would have seen thousands of years ago.
  • Fossil Record.
  • Ex. Dinos; allows us to see what came before, how a species evolved.

Charles Darwin

  • Naturalist.
  • Galapagos Islands.
  • Darwin's finches

Darwinian Evolution

  • Long periods of time and fossil record.
  • Small changes in each generation can lead to changes in population.
  • Accumulate over many generations.
  • Variation.
  • A lot of the variation is heritable.
  • Able to be passed onto the next generation.
  • Natural selection.
  • Survival of the fittest.
  • Unequal ability to survive causes changes in populations.
  • Diverse species.
  • Over time species can become more diverse / evolved.

Evidence for Natural Selection

  • Fossil record.
  • Living diversity, Biogeography, tree of life.
  • Shows us common ancestors.
  • Comparative anatomy.
  • Homology.
  • Having the same or similar relation, related position, or structure.
  • Similar appendages can show you a species' common ancestor.
  • Comparative Embryology.
  • Different structures on embryos can be compared / differed to determine common ancestors.
  • Molecular Biology.
  • Deals with the structure and function of the macromolecules.
  • Speciation.
  • Formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution.

Concepts of evolution.

  • Individuals don't evolve, populations do.
  • Evolution does not give an explanation for the origins of life.
  • Organisms don't evolve on purpose.
  • Evolution is not just a theory.

Our Role in Evolution

  • We can breed certain things to our benefit.
  • Ex. corn
  • We have led to an increase in certain species because of our environment.
  • Ex. cockroaches, rats.
  • Extinctions:
  • We have caused certain species to entirely disappear due to us hunting them or our change in environment leading to their inability to survive.

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