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USC - POLI 101 - POLI 101, Week Two Notes - Class Notes

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USC - POLI 101 - POLI 101, Week Two Notes - Class Notes

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: Introduction to Global Politics
Professor: Professor Epperly
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: prisoner's dilemma, parties, and freerider
Name: POLI 101, Week Two Notes
Description: First Reading of the Week
Uploaded: 09/02/2017
0 5 3 18 Reviews
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background image “Party Competition and the Prisoner’s Dilemma: An Argument for the Direct Primary” by John 
G. Geer and Mark E. Sheer
Political parties are necessary because they show who is responsible for positions and 
accomplishment, providing voters with clarity on who to vote for
Intraparty competition from primaries is beneficial to the public because it discourages 
interparty collusion 
The Prisoners’ Dilemma: Two prisoners have been arrested for a serious crime, but the 
police does not have enough evidence to convict, they only have evidence for a minor 
charge. Separated from each other, each prisoner is offered a deal. They can a) both say 
nothing and get a year in prison, b) one person can confess and receive no jail time while 
the other prisoner gets 10 years, or c) they both confess and both get 6 years
o Confessing is the best individual strategy, but the worst collective strategy o The police and the prisoners have conflicting goals The Prisoners’ Dilemma with Parties: Two parties want to maximize their spoils through 
narrow self­interest policies by being in office. They can cooperate with each other they 
can avoid 
   the public     eye and evade oversite by ignoring key topics and not criticizing  each other. Or they can defect from each other where one party tailors its platform to the 
voters’ wishes and against the other party. 
o Defecation is the best individual strategy but not they best collective strategy  where everyone gets something to serve their best interests o But, with parties, they aren’t separated and they play repeatedly so collusion is  much more likely Cooperation is different than compromise; cooperation is collusion to benefit the parties 
at the expense of the public and compromise is making a concession so one side isn’t 
quite as badly treated
Intraparty competition generated by primaries prevents interparty collusion by having 
people within the party whistle­blow about collusion to further their own political goals
o Needs to be open to anyone to run o Rank and file party members need to be able to vote so party leaders can’t buy­off voters Collusion grows from minor issue to major policy the more people cooperate because 
trust is being built
o Third­parties can’t prevent it because they have little to no power o Free press can’t prevent it  Class, 9/5/17 Games are payoff structures that rely on strategic interaction (best outcome depends on 
what the other player does
In the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD), what is collectively rational is not individually rational o Smarter to defect to avoid the worst scenario, dominant strategy o Equilibrium is mutual defection in one­shot (Nash Equilibrium)
background image Backwards Induction Strategy: if you know how many games are going to happen then 
you can assume that everyone will defect on the last round, so you defect on the 2
nd  to last round Morals don’t factor in games, only incentives Set up institutions to prevent defection Collusion becomes increasingly prevalent if the game isn’t finite  Shepsle and Bonchek, Chapter 9 Lobbies are groups of people trying to influence public policy According to Pluralists, groups (lobbies) naturally occur, and politics changes as groups 
support and fight each other
A group needs its members support if it’s to achieve its goals. o If all group members need to contribute to achieve the goal, and the benefit (B) is  greater than the cost (C), then it is in everyone’s best interest to contribute o If only some members need to contribute to achieve the goal, and B is greater that C, then its only in the best interest for someone to be the final contributor because
if they are a person short then he/she will lose money or if they are over people 
then he/she could have achieved the goal without any cost
The higher the contribution needed, the more likely people are to 
contribute because it appears that more people will be need than if the 
contribution number is smaller
Class, 9/7/17 Study of politics is the study of collective action Collective goods: goods people have a shared interest in having o Can’t produce on their own

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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Political Science
Course: Introduction to Global Politics
Professor: Professor Epperly
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: prisoner's dilemma, parties, and freerider
Name: POLI 101, Week Two Notes
Description: First Reading of the Week
Uploaded: 09/02/2017
3 Pages 52 Views 41 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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