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ASU - CDE 232 - Study Guide - Midterm

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ASU - CDE 232 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Exam 1 Study Guide for Human Development: Development:  Change over time Culture:  Behaviors, values, beliefs of a person. The total pattern of a group’s customs,  beliefs, practices, languages, arts and technology. Ethnicity : Group identity that may include cultural origin, traditions, race, religion, and  language. SES (socioeconomic status):  A person’s social class, including educational level, income  level, and occupational status. Natural Selection:  Evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted to their  environment survive to produce offspring of their own. Individualism:  Values such as self-expression or independence. Putting all your effort into something and putting yourself first to make yourself successful. Collectivism:  Values such as obedience or group harmony. What’s best for your family is  what you should be doing.  Psychoanalytic Theory : Interprets human developments in terms of motives and drives. • Sigmund Freud (psychcosexual)
• Three stages of development in first six years
•oral, anal, phallic
•in early childhood, latency and then adolescence, genital 
•each stage includes potential conflicts
• how a person experiences and resolves conflicts determines personality and patterns 
of behavior Psychosocial Theory:  Erikson’s Ideas (follower of Feud) : 8 stages each developed by a  developmental crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs Shame, Initiative vs Guilt, Industry 
vs Inferiority, Identity vs Role diffusion, Intimacy vs Isolation, Generativity vs Stagnation, 
and Integrity vs Despair.
Ecological theory:  Bronfenbrenner says: Individuals exist in the world and have to go by 5 levels (not stages): 1.Microsystem: Direct context of individual, immediate environment, settings where  people experience their daily lives  2.Mesosystem: Composed of environments or structures in which your contexts might  need, connections between all microsystems.  Ex.  If a child is experiencing abusive  treatment from parents, it may become difficult to handle in relationships with 
teachers
background image 3.Exosystem: An environment you don't directly participate in, but it affects you.  Ex.  If  your kid has a bad day at school, you have a bad day too 4.Macrosystem: Cultural beliefs that influence a society  Ex.  In Saudi Arabia, cultural  beliefs and values are based on the religion of Islam  5.Chronosystem: Time, we are influenced by changes that shift over time  Ex.  being born  in great depression, or losing your job at 45 compared to 15 Cognitive Theory:  Focuses on the structure and development of thought processes, which shape perceptions, attitudes, and actions. Will be at a state of equilibrium. Our brain will 
create little rules on how we think the world should work. When we arrive at a novel/new 
(disequilibrium):
simulation : take in this new input/ fit it in with pre-existing schema  accommodation : To break away/revise from the pre-existing schema that will allow you to account for the new information.  Ex.  When a child is used to seeing statues, one day when they see a real human statue,  this makes them accommodate with what they have thought before and account for the 
new info they are taking in that not every statue is fake.  
Major Person: Jean Piaget  Stages: sensorimotor birth to 2 years , pre-operational (2-6), concrete operational (6-11),
formal operational (12-adulthood)
1.Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance
2.Cognitive adaptation—assimilation, accommodation of ideas
Behavior Theory : Behaviorism is built on laws of behavior and processes by which  behavior is learned
•focus: ways we learn specific behaviors that can be described, analyzed, and predicted 
with scientific accuracy •Laws of behavior are:  Classical/Respondent Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov):  Stimulus response conditioning. Process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus. Ex. Using a 
bell ring and dish of food to a dog every time to tell them it’s time to eat. After awhile 
you could simply ring the bell without carrying the dish of food, and the dog would still 
come running simply by classical conditioning.
Operant/Instrumental Conditioning (B.F. Skinner):  Process by which a response is  gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment.  Social Learning- Extension of learning theory that includes modeling which involves 
people observing behavior and pattering their own after it. 
Alfred Bandura - most likely to occur if model is admired or observer is inexperienced.  Negative Reinforcement:  Taking away something bad to still increase the positive  reinforcement.

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School: Arizona State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Human Development
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Human, development, HumanDevelopment, cde232, Studyguide, and exam1
Name: CDE 232: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Study guide for chapters 1 through 3! Human Development ".....Classical/Respondent Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): Stimulus response conditioning. Process by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated
Uploaded: 09/02/2017
6 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
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