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MU - POL 201 - Class Notes - Week 2

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MU - POL 201 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image READING ​ ​NOTES:​ ​Ch.​ ​2​ ​Haidt  ○ Head ​ ​is​ ​rational​ ​soul​ ​&​ ​the​ ​heart​ ​is​ ​distrusting   ■ Philosophers ​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​passion​ ​was​ ​sinful.  ○ When ​ ​a​ ​leader​ ​says​ ​what​ ​is​ ​considered​ ​sacred​ ​everyone​ ​agrees​ ​and​ ​loses​ ​the  ability ​ ​to​ ​think​ ​for​ ​themselves.  ○ Head- ​ ​soul​ ​#1  ■ Ability: ​ ​to​ ​think​ ​rationally​ ​and​ ​critically;​ ​mainly​ ​used​ ​for​ ​math​ ​and  science.  ○ Heart- ​ ​Soul​ ​#2  ■ Ability: ​ ​Feel​ ​what​ ​is​ ​moral​ ​versus​ ​what​ ​is​ ​not​ ​moral  ○ Difference ​ ​between​ ​Philosophers   ■ Plato-reason ​ ​is​ ​the​ ​master  ■ Hume-passion ​ ​is​ ​the​ ​superior​ ​over​ ​reason  ■ T. ​ ​Jefferson-co-rulers​ ​independently  Wilson ​ ​Prophecy  ○ Sympathy ​ ​is​ ​the​ ​“foundation-stone”​ ​of​ ​social​ ​instinct  ■ “Richest, ​ ​successful​ ​nations,​ ​races,​ ​and​ ​individuals​ ​are​ ​the​ ​fittest.”  ● No ​ ​donation​ ​to​ ​the​ ​poor​ ​because​ ​they​ ​are​ ​weakest​ ​thus​ ​we​ ​must​ ​not  give ​ ​them​ ​the​ ​resources​ ​they​ ​need​ ​to​ ​breed.   ■ Radical ​ ​politics  ● Humans ​ ​are​ ​a​ ​blank​ ​canvas​ ​and​ ​can​ ​put​ ​anything​ ​on​ ​it  ● Impossible ​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​gender​ ​equality​ ​if​ ​built​ ​differently​ ​(refers  back ​ ​to​ ​my​ ​personal​ ​thought)  ■ Natural ​ ​Selection  ● Influences ​ ​human​ ​behavior  ● “Human ​ ​nature”-makes​ ​us​ ​raise​ ​our​ ​children​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​way​ ​and  design ​ ​institutions.  ○ Questions!  ■ Do ​ ​human​ ​rights​ ​really​ ​exist?​ ​OR​ ​Do​ ​we​ ​make​ ​them​ ​up​ ​as​ ​we​ ​see  situations ​ ​to​ ​justify​ ​our​ ​emotions​ ​of​ ​what​ ​is​ ​wrong​ ​and​ ​right?  ○ Study ​ ​of​ ​Ethics  ■ Will ​ ​be​ ​handled​ ​individually​ ​versus​ ​letting​ ​philosophers​ ​take​ ​the​ ​wheel.  ■ Consilience: ​ ​combined​ ​ideas​ ​creating​ ​a​ ​body​ ​of​ ​knowledge.  The ​ ​Emotional​ ​90’s  ○ Moral ​ ​Psychology:​ ​to​ ​acquire​ ​knowledge​ ​&​ ​improve​ ​reasoning.  ○ De ​ ​Waal​ ​argued:​ ​Primates​ ​&​ ​humans​ ​happen​ ​to​ ​have​ ​the​ ​building​ ​blocks​ ​that  construct ​ ​their​ ​morals.  ■ Emotions: ​ ​fear,​ ​anger,​ ​sympathy,​ ​&​ ​affection  ○ Damasio ​ ​experiment:​ ​tested​ ​people​ ​who​ ​were​ ​brain​ ​damaged​ ​moral​ ​reasoning 
background image ■ Results: ​ ​passed​ ​but​ ​failed​ ​to​ ​make​ ​personal​ ​life​ ​decisions.  ■ Conclusion: ​ ​gut​ ​feelings​ ​&​ ​reactions​ ​of​ ​the​ ​body​ ​were​ ​needed​ ​to​ ​think  rationally  ■ Thomas ​ ​J.​ ​“when​ ​one​ ​co-emperor​ ​is​ ​knocked​ ​out​ ​and​ ​the​ ​other​ ​tries​ ​to​ ​rule  the ​ ​empire​ ​by​ ​himself,​ ​he’s​ ​not​ ​up​ ​to​ ​the​ ​task.”  ● The ​ ​head​ ​cannot​ ​do​ ​stuff​ ​by​ ​itself​ ​so​ ​the​ ​heart​ ​needs​ ​to​ ​take​ ​over  and ​ ​vice​ ​versa.​ ​They​ ​need​ ​each​ ​other​ ​to​ ​survive.   Why ​ ​Atheists​ ​Won’t​ ​Sell​ ​Their​ ​Souls  ○ Questions!  ■ Can ​ ​people​ ​make​ ​a​ ​moral​ ​judgment​ ​just​ ​as​ ​well​ ​when​ ​carrying​ ​a​ ​heavy  cognitive ​ ​load​ ​as​ ​when​ ​carrying​ ​a​ ​light​ ​one?  ■ Answer: ​ ​Yes  ■ Why? ​ ​The​ ​cognitive​ ​load​ ​was​ ​not​ ​affected​ ​when​ ​people​ ​use​ ​their​ ​moral  reasoning ​ ​&​ ​often​ ​it​ ​does​ ​not​ ​change.  ○ Questions: ​ ​Were​ ​these​ ​judgments​ ​representative​ ​of​ ​moral​ ​judgment​ ​in​ ​general?  “Seeing-That” ​ ​Versus​ ​“Reasoning-Why”  ○ Judgment ​ ​&​ ​Justification​ ​are​ ​individual​ ​processes  ○ Margolis: ​ ​2​ ​Different​ ​kinds​ ​of​ ​processes​ ​when​ ​making​ ​judgments:  ■ 1) ​ ​Seeing-That  ● The ​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​spot​ ​patterns​ ​&​ ​know​ ​how​ ​to​ ​react​ ​to​ ​them.  ● Intuitive ​ ​(automatic)  ■ 2) ​ ​Reasoning-Why  ● The ​ ​need​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​why​ ​you​ ​made​ ​the​ ​judgment.  ● Requires ​ ​work,​ ​conscious,​ ​not​ ​automatic  ○ Intuition ​ ​did​ ​not​ ​go​ ​off​ ​of​ ​the​ ​success​ ​or​ ​failure​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reasoning  ○ Margolis ​ ​Experiment​ ​(pp.49)  ○ We ​ ​are​ ​to​ ​use​ ​our​ ​reasons​ ​to​ ​influence​ ​others​ ​in​ ​our​ ​judgments.  The ​ ​Rider​ ​&​ ​The​ ​Elephant  ○ High ​ ​cognition:  ■ Conscious ​ ​reasoning  ○ Lower ​ ​cognition:  ■ Visual ​ ​perception  ■ Memory ​ ​retrieval  ○ Do ​ ​not​ ​make​ ​emotions​ ​&​ ​cognition​ ​different  ○ Intuition ​ ​describes​ ​effortless​ ​moral​ ​judgments.  ○ Jeffersonian ​ ​Dual-Process​ ​Model​ ​(pp.42,​ ​fig.​ ​2.1)​ ​vs.​ ​(pp.​ ​55,​ ​fig.​ ​2.4)  ■ Changed ​ ​the​ ​humean​ ​model​ ​to​ ​making​ ​emotion​ ​(inutition)​ ​the​ ​#1​ ​cause​ ​to  moral ​ ​judgment.  How ​ ​To​ ​Win​ ​An​ ​Argument 

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School: Miami University
Department: Political Science
Course: Political Thinking
Professor: Jeremy Fortier
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: political, critical thinking, haidt, Reading, arguments, philosophy, religion, empathy, and sympathy
Name: Reading Notes Ch.2 Haidt
Description: These notes only cover CH. 2 The page numbers and figures are for you to get a better understanding. Questions are something we can ponder on to add to our first paper assigned to us.
Uploaded: 09/03/2017
6 Pages 8 Views 6 Unlocks
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