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Study Guides For Introductory Biology Course

by: Brittany Sullivan

Study Guides For Introductory Biology Course BISC207025

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Biosystem Engineering > BISC207025 > Study Guides For Introductory Biology Course
Brittany Sullivan
Introductory Biology l

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Study Guides For Introductory Biology Course - Two Study Guides for Final Exam - One Bio Lab Study Guide
Introductory Biology l
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Sullivan on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC207025 at University of South Carolina taught by in Fall 2010. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology l in Biosystem Engineering at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/23/15
WH WHY HOW E UATIONS RESULTS DNA Isolation Extract and isolate Researchers often mix mashed strawberries w DNA NONE sugars bind to dish DNA isolate molecules frm extraction buffer reagent cells for further study lter into test tube amp add meat solution turns blue Want to prove extracted tenderizer amp ethanol on top gt indicates material is DNA cool and twist DNA on stick presence of DNA mix coiled DNA w reagent amp heat Extraction extract and isolate allows us to characterize crude extract frm leaf put on paper Rf dD Absorption Rates and Isolation plant pigment using absorption spectra of amp paper put in solvent T ltls x 100 high to low of Plant paper plant pigs w a solvent pulls up molecules A logloT chlorophyll a Pigments chromatography spectrophotometer depending on size and solubility chlorophyll b isoate diff pigments and put in carotenes acetone xanthophyll use spect To get wavelengths of Determinatio measure curve used to determine set up reaction BSA Biuret and C1V1C2V2 wavelength data had n of a concentration of the concentration of an blank C1 x df C2 upward trend that Standard protein molecules in unknown sample determine Absorption Spectrum amp peaked at 535 and Curve for solution and plot to A max for BSA biuret decreased Bovine create standard curve generate standard curve for BSA amp unknown frm A vs Serum use it to nd concentration of concentration graph Albumin unknown Cell Structure view cheek cells learn how to use a collect cheek epithelial cells and t test cheek cell data was Using the under a microscope microscope examine them w a microscope compared with class Microscope learn about cell measure diameter and calculate data and tested for structure and function mean and standard deviation correlations Scienti c use scienti c method learn processes of the drop ruler reaction time experiment t test conclusions drawn Method to develop hypothesis scienti c method record data and analyze results t mean1 from ttest and and test it through design your own experiment mean2 graphical displays observing reaction varianceln1 times variance2n2 Enzymes extract catalase frm determine the effect of immerse paper in enzyme solution product production as concentration Effect of potato cells and test pH and concentration on dry and immerse in substrate beaker rate 1te increases so does concentratio effect of catalase function time how long it takes for paper to product production n amp pH on concentration and pH resurface rate catalase on catalase function function Cell measure response of to see how cells respond make dilutions of glucose and NaCl C1V1C2V2 membranes cells to various to difference solute stock solutions nd transmittance and isotonic molar environmental solute concentrations concentrations determine lsotonic coef cient absorbance for RBCs in different molar concentrations of NaCl and glucose concentration of glucose isotonic molar concentration of NaCl Photosynthes is determine the rate of photosynthesis at different light intensities show relationship between light intensities and rate of photosynthesis monitor the C02uptake by a leaf that is placed in an airtight container air frm bag is pumped over leaf amp C02 analyzer monitors C02 uptake by leaf photosynthetic rate umolsC02liter x 0033 literssec ow rate 009m2 leaf surface BISC 207 Exam 3 5 Methods of Signal Relay 1 Direct intercellular relay a Gap junctions protein channels in animal cells b Plasmodesmata open channel lined with plasma membranes plant cells 2 Contact dependent signaling 3 Autocrine signaling makes own receptors may affect other cells close by 4 Paracrine signaling signaling cells lack receptors short distance 5 Endocrine signaling long distance hormones Cells Resoond to Signals bv Receptor activation and shape change 0 Signal transduction Activation of enzymes structural proteins and genes Types of Cell Surface Receptors 1 Enzyme linked receptors usually phosphorylate cytosolic proteins 2 Ligand gated ion channels protein membrane that opens and closes in response to ion signal 3 GProtein Coupled Receptor GPCR a Steps i Signal Binds to GPCR ii GPCR binds to G protein iii G protein releases GDP binds to GTP complex dissociates activated subunits propagate response Intracellular Response Interact with steroids to change gene expression Initial Signal Amplified Signalligand 1St messenger binds to receptor 0 Small molecules ions 2nCI messenger are produced which convey info in cell 2nCI messenger allow signal ampli cation and speedy response 0 cAMP is a common 2nCI messenger activates protein kinase A PKA l phosphorylates proteins Signals turned off Enzymes convert cAMP to AMP Enzymes remove phosphate groups frim proteins 0 Pumps sequester ions Chromosomes BISC 207 Exam 3 0 Units of genetic material made of DNA and proteins chromatin Contain genes 0 Sequence of DNA that codes for a product 0 Structural genes code for a protein Occur in Sets 0 Diploid 2 copies of each chromosome 2N ex autosomal cells 0 Haploid 1 copy of each chromosome N ex gametes Cell Cycle Consists of 4 main phases 61 S 62 and M o Interphase contains 61 S 62 Gl longest phase contains 61 checkpoint S DNA synthesis chromosome replication GZ synthesize proteins for M phase 0 M composed of mitosis and cytokinesis Checkpoints 61 62 Metaphase Checkpoint 0 Act as sensors to determine if cell is ready for next phase D loss of checkpoint results in mutations cancer 0 Cyclins 61 and 62 checkpoint proteins 0 Amounts vary as cell cycle progresses o Bind to and turn on cyclin dependent kinases CDKs D needed to continue in cycle Mitosis Part of the M phase consists of 5 phases that occur after interphase generally forms 2 daughter cells Phases 1 Prophase chromosomes condense 2 Prometaphase nuclear membrane breaks down spindles form kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins 3 Metaphase sister chromatids align on metaphase plate 4 Anaphase sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles 5 Telaphasecytokinesis nuclear membrane reforms cleavage furrow separates 2 daughter cells Meiosis Haploid N daughter cells produced from a diploid 2N parent 0 2 rounds of division l meiosis l and meiosis II Maintains chromosome numeber from generation to generation Meiosis l 1 Prophase l tetrads form CROSSING OVER occurs 2 Prometaphase l bivalents attach to microtubules 3 Metaphase l bivalents randomly align on plate BISC 207 Exam 3 4 Anaphase I homologous chromosomes move to separate poles 5 Telaphase I haploid daughter cells separate Nuclea r 11 em bra e Maternal entrnm we h mnl glues I Ermiing over with itinet chmel 39 g Spinquotlame 39 39 39ll39ert ra cl Fatemail horn slog was DIFL li i FEHPHASE ll MiETJ aFH be Ill aF H r S E I TEEL lPHASE lllr Il EEF iDmE EEML ENE MKIMESIS I 1 Prophase ll NO tetrads or crossing over 2 Prometaphase ll sister chromatids attach to microtubules 3 Metaphase ll sister chromatids align on metaphase plate 4 Anaphase ll sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles 5 Telaphase ll cleavage 4 haploid cells produced i t 39 Chron l astids separate 5 Hapi i d offspring cells I PHDPHAEE ll METAPHAEE ll AMAFHASE u TEL FHASE ll AND E f39l39DltllillESIEll Once a popular idea about genetics Offspring were averages of their parents 0 ex tall x short medium Mendel Studied traits using pea plants 0 Truebreeding plants that when selffertilized produce offspring with same traits same alleles BISC 207 Exam 3 Focused on 7 traits 2 variants each 0 Plant height experiment 0 Data supported particulate inheritance because offspring were short or tall not medium E suggests that offspring inherit traits as unchanging secrete units genes Alleles different forms ofgenes Data suggests that alleles segregate separate when gametes are formed Punnet Sduare Monohvbrid Cross 39F39arental I23 n r ati n n l l 39 F 3 n rati I n 3 Hawaiians immme 39quot l are Tl ll are tall l F39T t d l quotl Ta l 13 r1quot 2 39l Genotype of male gametes across top female on le39 Heterozygous produce 2 kinds of gametes o Recessive allele 0 Dominantallele Inheritance of 2 different traits Two factor cross Possibilities o 2 genes are physically linked Hound yellow Floruridl green Wrinklecl yellow Wrinklecl green and are always inherited asa unit 0 2 gene are not linked and are inherited wri ia ilm independently of each x other 0 Some offspring show new trait quotFf combos 5121 Sign P Mendel39s Law of Segregation r quotr39 Hrquot m Eraland wallow lusj Gamma F HE 2 Gametes Gametes 397 739 T t l T T 39T t T l I I d Gameies Ff r H r 1quot F 1 E 1 1 I1 1 I 4 3 ma rm Fun fry Err m Hr Wquot H i ifquot L 1 I39 1 15 no 15 is H hi I V a q HIE Wy39 HER y r Hr39rwfy l Hfr W H inquot 1 V 1 quotl 7 1 1 m 15 3915 15 l 5 39 H H l b 5 Fm WE H fr 39 y rfr39 jlrfjr39 HT 2 WP f quot 1 J l 39339 1 E13 16 16 ll H quot 1 I r WV Hf Wyr Hr My l Hr W r 15 1o 5 i is 4 39 39 9 a 3 H 33 3quot 0 states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation and randomly unite at fertilization BISC 207 Exam 3 Segregation of alleles homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase of meiosis I Mendel39s Law of Independent Assortment Independent inheritance of genes on different chromosomes because of the random alignment of chromosomes during metaphase I of meiosis I Applies to 2 or more genes each with a locus diff location on a different chromosome Predictino Patterns of Trait Inheritance Probability the chance that an event will have a particular outcome 0 P of times an event occurs total of possible outcomes 0 Product rule probability that two or more independent events will occur is equal to the product pf their individual probabilities 0 Ex getting head 2x in a row 12 x 12 14 0 Sum Rule probability that one of two or more mutually exclusive outcomes will occur is the sum of the probabilities of the possible outcomes 0 Ex probability of getting either heads or tails l 12 12 1 Sex Chromosomes Found in many but not all species with 2 sexes Sexed linked genes found on one sex chromosome but not the other e In humans X is larger and carries more genes D Xlinked genes are more common Recessive xlinked genes are more likely to show in males D only have 1 copy of X Molecular basis of Dominant and Recessive Traits Dominant allele encodes a protein made in the proper amount and functioning normally 0 quotwild typequot allele most common in natural population usually dominant Mutant alleles produce defective protein altered by mutation tend to be rare in natural pop 0 Simple dominance a single copy of the dominant allele produces enough protein to produce the wild type phenotype Incomplete dominance heterozygous has intermediate phenotype neither allele is dominant Environment affects Phenotype Norm of reaction variation in phenotype due to environment that is typically seen 0 Ex genetically identical plants vary in height as a function of temperature BISC 207 Exam 3 TVpes of Traits Discrete rare clearly de ned phenotypic variants Continuous or quantitative common vary continuously over a phenotypic range 0 Polygenic products of more than 1 gene contribute through gene interaction Linked Genes Genes located close to each other on the same chromosome tend to be inherited as a group 0 Thomas Morgan39s Fly Experiment 0 Found Lots of parental phenotypes l A anage quot 7 r l 39 But some new phenotypes D doesn39t support linkage Morgan hypothesized that new phenotypes quotquot quot39quot are a result of crossing over 7 Map Distance 0 Map distance is the distance between two genes 0 of recombinant offspring total of offspring EXAM 1 MATERIAL Chapter 1 0 Seven Characteristics of Life 1 Cells and organization 2 Energy use and metabolism 3 Response to environmental change 4 Regulation and homeostasis 5 Growth and development 6 Reproduction 7 Biological evolution 0 Cell theory states that o All organisms are made up of cells 0 Cells are the smallest unit of life 0 Cells come from preexisting cells via cell division 0 Respiration metabolic reactions that a cell uses to get energy from food molecules and release waste products 0 Metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within an organism o Hierarchical Structure of Life 1 Atoms 2 Molecules 3 Cells 4 Tissues 5 Organs 6 Organisms 7 Population 8 Community 9 Ecosystem 10Biosphere 0 Unity of Diversity and Life 0 Can classifygroup organisms by how they differ or by what they have in common 0 Cell structure Eukaryotes complex internal structure includes protists single cell eukaryotes Prokaryotes simple internal structure includes bacteria and archea 0 To see comparisons between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes you can look at DNA 0 Woese s Data Ba cte ria Origin of Archerea n5 Lle Eu Remote 0 Achaeans prol 39 gtated to eukaryotes than bacteria 0 An analysis of Genomes and Proteomes helps us understand the characteristics of individuals and how they survive in their native environments 0 Genome the genetic composition of a species 0 Proteome collection of proteins that a cellorganism make 0 Biology as a Scienti c Discipline o Involves observation identi cation experimental investigation and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena 0 The scienti c method hypothesis testing series of steps to test validity of hypothesis EXAM 1 MATERIAL Hvoothesis Vs Theorv o Hypothesis must be testable o Observationsexperiments support or don t support the hypothesis can t prove disprove o If lots of data support a hypothesis it becomes a theory Chapter 2 The Chemical Basis of Life Atoms the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element Hydrogen atom Hydrogen Atom quot 39 orbit Inaccuracies of diadram electron Electrons in cloud not a circle l 0 I 0 Only 2D drawing Not drawn to scale 0 Periodic Table 1proiton 0 Rows of 0 Columns elements with similar propertie Elements in Biolooical Svstems o Organisms mostly consist of CHN and O 0 Elements may be present in small quantities but still be required for life Ex Na Mg P Cl Tvoes of Bonds 0 Molecule 2 or more atoms bonded together 0 Compound molecule containing 2 or more elements 0 3 types of bonds covalent hydrogen and ionic Covalent Bonds oAtoms share pairs of electrons strong bonds 0 Nonpolar covalent bonds electrons are shared equally between bonding atoms 0 Polar Covalent bonds electrons are not shared equally formed by differences in electronegativity EN of bonding atoms 0 Electronegativity atoms ability to attract electrons measured in pauling units no dimensions scales from 7 40 AEN is small bond is nonpolar covalent AEN is intermediate bond is polar covalent 0 Molecule polaritv depends on polarity and geometry 3 examples water C02 and phospholipids Water big AEN so bonds are polar bond lt s concentrate charges on one side of molecule l molecule is polar C02 AEN l l c and 0 bonds are polar molecule is linear because the bonds oppose each other molecule is nonpolar Phospholipid polarity varies across the molecule amphipathic has polar head and nonpolar tail spontaneously forms bilayers in water Hydrogen Bonds 0 H atom in polar molecule is attracted to an electromagnetic atom in another polar molecule 0 Polar molecules like to interact and form H bonds 0 Individuals bonds are weak but many together are strong Ionic Bonds 0 AEN is large 2033 EXAM 1 MATERIAL 0 Electron is almost completely transferred to the high EN atom ex NaCl 0 Water oDipoe essential for life water molecules are attracted to each other cohesion and other types of molecules adhesion oWater is the primary solvent of organisms Hydrophilic contain many polar bonds and like to interact w H20 Hydrophobic don t contain many polar binds and don t interact w H20 Water is thermally stable high speci c heat capacity Freezingboiling point changes when solute is added pH o acids release H ions into solution 0 bases lower H concentration in solution 0 buffer minimize pH functions in solutions when acids or bases are added 0 organisms regulate pH and vary it even within different cell compartments ex blood and cytosol l basic urine and gastric acid l acidic 0 Life is Carbon Based oCNO and H make up 95 of the mass of living organisms oSilicon is similar to Carbon but life isn t silicon based because Si is generally stable and not reactive Si bonds are weak oSi is big weak bond strength cant form double or triple bonds 0 Carbon is smaller than silicon and has stronger bonds Chapter 3 Orqanic Chemistry Organic molecules contain carbon 0 Electronegativity H x C ltltO Functional groups groups of atoms w special chemical featuresfunctions Four major types of organic molecules carbs lipids proteins and nucleic acids Carbohvdrates 0 Made of C and H20 12 i o Monosaccharaides simplest sugars H H H H CHE o H Pentose 5 C sugar ex glucose no quot quotT Ho 2quot H O Hexose 6 C sugar ex ribose deoxyribose quot quot0 quot2 o H ang o Disaccharides quot H H quot5quot 0H Link monosaccharaides by dehydration reaction remove ill 2 H 01 o Polvsaccharides link of many monosaccharide quot quot0 H3 quot02quot Starch some branches energy stored in plants H H H Glycogen highly branched highly soluble short term energy storage H0 quot quot o in plants quot quot Cellulose unbranched linear structural ber in plants All 3 have glucose just linked differently FattyH Acids 0 Made of H and C SHHH HHHHFH HHHHHH D H H H H H H H o Nonpolar molecules insoluble in water u l l l l l l l HDCHEHHCHCHCHCHCHCH 0 Three kinds of lipids fats phospholipids and ster0Ids wlwlwlwwlwlwm o Fats I fH39llHi L1lLl39HquotHquot3IHCIH 3H H H H H H H H Used for energy storage structural support ex fat UHHHHHH FHWHS c H H H H sqrrounqs kldney H H H I H 39 H 39 H 39 H H H Triglyceride mixtures H D Cwlcw iwlfw l H 39i39 H I H C E C C CzcC WC o l rftt CldS trilceride2HO IHIHIHIHI HeHf Gyceo a ya I gy 2 H H H H H CHHHCHI 39 xm 39 HHH EXAM 1 MATERIAL Saturated Cs linked by single covalent bonds solid at room temp o Unsaturated one or more double bonds link Cs liquid at room GB temp f Cl H o Phospholipids Form cell membranes Glycerol 2 fatty acids phosphate group charged N containing molecule polarity varies across the molecule amphipathic Polar head and a nonpolar tail o Steroids Four interconnected C rings CH 0H Ex cholesterol estrogen testosterone cortisone VitamirLH x 3 PrLeins 0 Contain C H N O o 0 Proteins consist of one of more polypeptides polymers of amino acids 0 Amino acid structure ln solution at carilloer 151 mi 0 Amino group accepts H base and carboxyl group donates a H acid 0 Side chains are structurally diverse Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a side chain c Glycerin R group H nonpolar o Cytosine R group CstH nonpolar o Threonine R group OHCH3 l polar o Peptide bonds link amino acids 0 Polypeptides are linear chains of amino acids Has an amino N terminus on one end and a carboxyl C terminus o the other end 0 Count central carbons R group to see number of amino acids from Nterminus to Cterminus 0 Proteins have levels of structure v r Primary structure amino acid sequence l determined by ge 394 394 sequence Secondarv structure repeating folding patterns stabilized by 0 oz helices spiral llllllllll o B helices pleated VV Tertiarv structure polypeptide folds into 3D shape can be nal level of structure Quatomarv structure 2 or more polypeptides associate form multimeric protein ex hemoglobin o 5 factors that promote protein folding and stabilitv l H bonds 2 lonic Bonds between opposite charged side chains 3 Hydrophobic Effects nonpolar aa fold to center of protein in aqueous solution 4 Van der Waals Forces weak attractive forces of ateens that are an optimal distance apart 1 I I 5 Disul de bridges SS bonds h 39 O I DEUZYI IDL JSH NUCIEUdHJ u Guam I39ll Clubber EXAM 1 MATERIAL 0 Nucleic Acids 0 Polymers of nucleotides 0 Store express and transmit genetic information Chapter 11 DNA Structure and Replication 0 An quotinformational moleculequot must 0 Contain necessary information 0 Be passed to offspring 0 Be variable but still accurate 0 DNA Structure 0 DNA has many levels of structure Nucleotides Strand Double helix Chromosome 0 DNA and RNA are polymers made from nucleotides 0 Nucleotides 3 part structure 0 Phosphate Sugar 0 End base single or double ring of C and N o Carbons in sugar are prime 0 2 kinds of bases Pyrimidine 1 ring ex cytosine thymine uracil RNA Purines 2 rings ex guanine adenine 0 DNA is missing an O at the 2 Carbon 0 5 carbon covalently bonded to phosphate group 0 Phosphate group connects to the 3 of the next sugar by a covalent bond between P amp O o Backbone Alternates phosphates and sugars Nonvariable part of DNA ls negatively charged 0 Strand is linear All sugars in a strand are oriented in the same direction 0 Base sequence is the variable part of DNA Stores information Base sequence of 2 DNA strand is H bond base pairing consistent width 2 H bonds for AT 3 H bonds for GC ATGC base pairings keeps width consistent o 2 strands of DNA are antiparallel 5 to 3 and 3 to 5 Strands are complementary 0 DNA forms a righthanded repeating double helix phosphate groups are on the outside interacting with water 0 O EXAM 1 MATERIAL 0 DNA Replication o 3 models of replication Semiconservative 1 parent strand to 1 daughter strand Conservative parental strands stay together daughter strands stay together Dispersive segments of parent and new intermixed o Meselson and Stahl Experiment Grew Ecoi in 15N light Switch to 14 N light Collect sample after each generation spin to separate DNA based on density showed that DNA replicates by a semiconservative mechanism 0 DNA replication starts at sites called origins Bacteria one small circular chromosome Eukaryotes multiple large linear chromosome mult origins of replication PUSSEIJIE MDdEIS Bf IIINH HEI liEEtiD 339 539 irepl Imtloni Oink irepl iwitioni forrlk a 539 l 3I origin of implication Bidirectional B 5 3 to 3 direction Parental strands separate and serves as templates New nucleotides are added by ATGC m helicase Hydrolyzes ATP to unwind the double helix and move fork forward Singlestrand binding proteins keep parental strands separate DNA topoisomerase relieves coiling ahead of fork Cleaves both strands swivels the ends and rejoins strands DNA polymerase elongates existing strands starting at their 5 end DNA polymerase catalyzes covalent bonds between nucleotides l elongates strand DNA primase makes a short strand of RNA called primer DNA polymerase contines the strand from the primer 0 So 2 new DNA strands are made in each direction from each origin Leading strand continues 5 to 3 Laddind strand made in pieces Okazaki fragments 0 DNA primase makes primers 0 DNA polymerase extends strand 0 DNA ligase bonds fragments 00000 0000 00 Chapter 12 Gene Expression gene expression is gene function at the molecular level cells control the levels of gene expression amp the timing of gene expression central dooma o transcription and translation or DNA to RNA to protein 0 transcription a copy transcript of a gene is produced 0 translation a gene product is produced using the transcript if it is in RNA mRNA 0 transcription and translation occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes o prokaryotes transcription and translation occur in cytoplasm transcription produces a usable mRNA product 0 eukaryotes transcription in nucleus translation in cytosol transcription makes premRNA requires processing to form usable mRNA 0 molecular de nition of a gene EXAM 1 MATERIAL 0 an organized unit of DNA sequences that I enabled a segment Of DNA to be transcribed into RNA I results in formation of functional product categorizing genes by product 0 structural genes code for polypeptides o nonstructural genes code for RNA product no translation 2 maior types 1 transfer RNA tRNA 2 ribosomal RNA rRNA 0 One scenario of a structural gene transcribed region regulatory sequence ploteins bind here to affect o Transcription Produces RNA copy in 3 stagesswmm 1 lnitiation Requires sigma factor Sigma factor binds to RNA polymerase and DNA promoter region RNA polymerase separates DNA strands 0 Forms open complex of 1015 base pairs 2 Elongation Sigma factor is released Template strand used for mRNA synthesis RNA synthesized in its 5 to 3 direction Uracil not T DNA rewinds behind open complex 3 Termination RNA polymerase and mRNA transcript dissociate at termination sequence ln prokaryotes transcript is usable mRNA 0 Eukaryotic Transcription 0 Same steps as prokaryotic but more proteins 0 3 forms of eukaryotic RNA polymerase Two forms transcribe nonstructural genes for tRNA and rRNA One form transcribes mRNA requires 5 proteins called transcription factors to start 0 Eukaryotic transcription structural genes produces premRNA that must be processed o PremRNA contains exons and introns Exon quotrealquot coding sequence lntron quotintervening sequencesquot which are transcribed but then removed 0 Splicing removes introns and connects exons 0 Spliceosome small nuclear RNA and protein complex of several units that solice mRNA exons 0 Alternative splicing a single gene can encode 2 or more polypeptides by varying the splicing o lntrons are unusual in eukaryotic RNA and tRNA sequences If present rRNA and tRNA selfsplice remove own introns 0 Also A compound the 5 cap is covalently bound to the 5 end Allows mRNA to exit nucleus and bind to ribosome 0 100200 adenine nucleotides added to 3 tail l increases mRNA stability and lifespan in cytosol 0 Translation mRNA to Protein 0 A group of 3 bases l codon terminator end of transcription EXAM 1 MATERIAL 0 Sequence of bases in a codon specifies an amino acid or start or stop 0 Each base is part of any one codon the code does not overlap o Prokaryotic translation 5 ribosomal binding site Start codon usually AUG Typical polypeptide is 300 amino acids Start codon de nes the reading frame Single base addition shifts reading frame More than one codon specifies the same amino acid code is degenerate Anticodon is complementary to mRNA codon 2D tRNA fods for 3D structure 0 tRNA moecue coding for each amino acid is unique 0 an enzyme attaches the right amino acid to tRNA charged tRNA 0 Ribosomes Mixture of protein and tRNA Composed of large and small subunits Contain sites for interacting with tRNA


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