Final/Course Notes Soci 1101
Popular in Introduction to Sociology
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Date Created: 08/23/15
Quizzes Book Website The Chapters bar links to a quotStudy Plan for each chapter Chapters we care about are 11 through 16 httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullwelcomeaspx Capitalism and Economy ch 14 httpsquizletcom80485928capitalismandtheeconomvsociologvfinal2015flash cardsz httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch14quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch14shortAnsweraspx Authority and the State ch 15 httpsquizletcom80493003authoritvandthestatesociologvfinal2015flashcards httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch15quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch15shortAnsweraspx Family ch 12 httpsquizletcom80497978thefamilvsociologvfinal2015flashcards httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch12quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch12shortAnsweraspx Religion ch 16 httpsquizletcom80508935religionsociologvfinal2015flashcards httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch16quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch16shortAnsweraspx Education ch 13 httpsquizletcom80514247educationsociologv2015flashcards httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconlev3fullch13quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconley3fullch13shortAnsweraspx Health and Medicine ch 11 httpsquizletcom80585638healthmedicineandsocietyfinal2015flashcards httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconley3fullch11quizaspx httpwwnortoncomcollegesocconley3fullch11shortAnswerasp Final Sociology Test Capitalism and the Economy Economy is a social institution that organized the production distribution and consumption of goods food clothing automobiles houses etc Philosophy of Materialism Marx How and what we produce and how much and what we consume defines us as a society Economy in History Agricultural Revolution Primary sector economy generates raw materials directly from the natural environment Capitalism was a direct result of the Agricultural Revolution Because of new farming technology there was a surplus of peasant labor resulting in capitalism 0 Two thirds of countries today function on an agricultural based economy quotdeveloping nations 0 In 1900 40 of US workers were farmers 0 Today less than 2 of the US workforce is in agriculture Farming and Agriculture is profitable because of corporate agribusiness Industrial Revolution Second sector economy transforms raw materials into manufactured goods Less than 20 of the US workforce is in the secondary sector today Fiver major transformations took place in society as a result of industrialization 0 New forms of energy steam electricity 0 Centralization of work factories urbanism 0 Manufacturing and Mass Production raw materials become products 0 Specialization division of labor 0 Wage Labor selling yourself for a wage or even better according to Simmel is the quotsalary system where workers are paid not for a direct service but the sum of their service Adam Smith in quotWealth of Nations 1776 Smith argued the quotbarter system should be replaced by money capitalism Money was an agent of social change Individual self interest in an environment of others acting similarly will lead to a situation of competition as long as basic laws and contracts are honored Labor Unions worker organizations that seek to improve wages and working conditions through strategies like collective bargaining and strikes 0 Max Weber Bureaucratic Inertia the inevitable tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate the established procedures and modes even if they are counterproductive or opposed to established organizational goals 0 In 1950 more than a third of workers were in unions today less than 12 varies by sector 37 of government workers v 7 percent private sector Public sector unions Police Firefighters Teachers face challenges due to the recession while private sector unions struggle to make way in the services sector of the economy hospitality Vegas Still support for unions 5570 far surpasses support for politicians or government 2540 Gallup 2013 Information Revolution Tertiary sector economy generates services rather than goods productive system based on service work and extensive use of information More than 80 of the US workforce today is in the tertiary sector Service sector jobs include everything from secretarial food service and clerical jobs to white collarjobs such as sales law accounting banking advertising and teaching If you are providing customer or client a service and not producing a tangible product you are in the tertiary structure Three transformations are occurring because of information revolution 0 From tangible products to ideas 0 From mechanical to literacy skills 0 Decentralization of work Secondary labor market work most service oriented work provides little income or benefits and often fewer rewards than factory work 0 Includes selfemployment approximately 7 of the workforce today women now own 30 of all businesses 40 of small businesses Contingent Work part time temps contract day laborers 0 Nearly 33 of the US labor force participates in contingent work 66 million part time workers Temping and Day laboring can be low wage dead end work but some part time and contract work is lucrative Underemployment workers with low salaries fewer benefits disappearing retirement 0 Underemployment 13 2014 average Primary Labor Market Jobs Professionals whitecollar high salaried high benefit work Charles Handy quotThe corporation or organization of tomorrow will be nothing more than a box of contracts The average young person will change careers three times one of which hasn t even been invented yet Recession 20082011 Since recession 1207 85 million jobs have been lost The unemployment rate as of March 2015 was 55 There are more than 87 million unemployed people of which 27 million are longterm unemployed 27 weeks 37 of the unemployed By race Whites 47 African Americans 10 Hispanics 66 Asians 4 By age Teens 1519 17 Teens 1617 19 Black Teens 40 2024 10 25 54 54 55 43 By education without HS diploma 8 HS diploma 54 Some College 51 College degree and more 27 By gender recession hit men hardest 23 ofjobs lost Unemployment rate for men peaked at 114 now 52 Women s rate peaked at 88 currently 49 By industry nonfarm construction 11 manufacturing 8 retail 8 office and administrative support 6 government 7 management business financial 28 Professional and related 28 Clearly primary labor market has not suffered to the extent of the secondary labor market The quotGlobal Economy and the global recession 1 Global Division of Labor 23rds of the world is agriculture developing nations and 25 is industrialized China Mexico etc The percentage of countries living as the US postindustrial 1015 Global Unemployment rate 7 315 Product Passage increasing numbers of products pass through several countries before ending up on one s market Rubber from Africa or South America is turned into shoes in China and sold in US Multinational Corporations Friend or Foe Do these companies hurt second and third world countries Dependency Theory multinational rape the natural resources employed by slave wage or are they helping these countries a Modernization Theory industrialize and post industrialize makes life better for those in industrialized and developing nations Economic Systems Capitalism economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned Tenets of Capitalism 1 Private Ownership 2 Pursuit of Profit 3 Free Competition Laissezfaire or Market economy Socialism economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively government owned Tenets of Socialism 1 Collective Ownership of Property 2 Pursuit of Collective Goals 3 Government Control of Markets Communism hypothetical economic system where all members of society are socially equal from each according to their ability to each according to their read and government is largely absent Welfare Capitalism economic system that combines mostly marketbased economics with government programs to provide for people s basic needs social security welfare State Capitalism economic system that combines private ownership of corporations and business but they work closely with the government in doing business trades tariffs foreign markets global economy Capitalism and the Economy Book Notes Paradox The more one earns the more one can afford leisure However the more on earns the more it costs not to work in terms of forgone wages o The home office trend started in the early 19605 and gained even more steam in 1969 with the publication of The Home Office Guide by Leon Henry The number of home offices 56 over the 19805 and another 23 in the 19905 0 Obama was the first blackberry president 0 Capitalism started to develop along with the agricultural and industrial revolutions in Europe 0 Dominant economic system before capitalism feudalism lords vassals serfs and fiefs 0 Lord owned the land 0 Vassal granted the land 0 Fief the land 0 Serfs low class workers bound to the land and the lord 0 quotEnclosure Movement when the quotcommon areas were partitioned during the Tudor period Led to many evictions of people working the land 0 Technology played the largest role in the Agriculture Revolution the period around 1700 marked by the introduction of new farming technologies that increased food output in farm production 0 Innovations such as the seed drill selective breeding and crop rotation led to an immediate increase in food abundance as a result the land could support more people allowing for increased population and further adding to the labor pool created by the enclosure movement At the end of 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century an economy once dominated by smallscale artisan labor handicrafts and sustenance farming transitioned into one dominated by manufacturing machinery and unskilled factory work Major innovation for textile production was the power loom a weaving machine powered by driving shafts which made the manufacturing process more efficient Another major innovation of the Industrial Revolution was the development of the steam engine which opened up markets through its eventual use of railroads Corporations legal entity unto itself that has a legal personhood distinct from that of its members namely its owners and shareholders Limited Liability a form of ownership that creates a division between the individual the shareholder or executive and the business entity LLP Limited Liability Partnership nc quotAnonymous Society or SA in South America Alienation a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers according to Marx the basic state of being in a capitalist society Adam Smith and George Simmel were positive about capitalism Marx and Weber were not Ford the family wage a wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children The sociological analysis of the family wage is connected by gender inequality a woman is dependent on a man s wage Single women unmarried men and married men without depends were all ineligible for the 5 day Ford insisted that his workers live in the right kind of families and his sociologists violated the workers private lives everything from their health and sexual patterns to household finances to their drinking or gambling habits Family wage is patriarchal Gender bias built into family wage persist wife is the homemaker and dad is the breadwinner idea Dual Family Incomes are now the majority Americans work longer hours than the citizens of most industrialized nations we even put in two more weeks of work each year than our alleged workaholic German counterparts Juliet Schor reported in The Overworked American 1991 that in the last two preceding decades the average US worker had added an extra 164 hours to his or her work year 127 countries including almost every industrialized nation guarantee some form of paid leave for parents but the US is not one of them In 1993 Bill Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act giving American workers the right to 12 weeks of leave to care for a newborn baby or attend to a family emergency however the leave is not paid and only applies to people who work for a company of more than 50 employees The act also doesn t apply to part time workers Arlie Hochschild The Time Bind When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work 1997 The Time Divide Work Family and Gender Inequality 2004 by sociologists Jerry Jacobs and Kathleen Gerson argue that workers do not take advantage of familyfriendly policies for a number of other reasons they are afraid of losing their jobs or afraid they won t be able to move up the career track Judith Stacey Women have quotPost Feminists Expectations for family and work They quotdesire to combine marriage to a communicative egalitarian man with motherhood and a successful engaging career Elizabeth Warren families are pinched by the cost of safe housing in good school districts combined with the high cost of health care and destabilized career paths Champagne Glass Distribution the unequal global distribution of income so named for its shape See graph in the book Remaking US Trade Policy From Protectionism to Globalization Globalization is not inevitable It s not only the result of the reduction of the price of transportation for example Even when companies each have an interest in expanding global trade they had to overcome protectionist political barriers that were in place Monopoly the form of business that occurs when one seller of a good or service dominates the market to the exclusion of others potentially leading to zero competition Oligopoly the condition when a handful of firms effectively control a particular market But there s a cost that comes with the increased power of the specialized bureaucracy People become alienated from any sense of right and wrong from a human connection what Weber calls the quotparcelingout of the soul Weber Offshoring a business decision to move all or part of a company s operations abroad to minimize costs Union an organization of workers designed to facilitate collective bargaining with employers Union Busting a company s assault on its workers union with the hope of dissolving it Unionization in America is protected under freedom of association a right that is generally considered implicit in the first amendment and was recognized a human right by the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention in 1949 Collective Bargaining a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements to regulate working conditions The interest of employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union in which the employees belong Political Arbitrage the use of insider political knowledge to earn profits Authority and the State Politics the social institution which distributes power sets a society s goals and makes decisions Government is a formal organization that directs the political life of a society while authority is power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive How people in society cede power and authority to government is what sociologists are concerned about Max Weber three types of authority and four types of intersecting political systems Types of Authority Traditional Authority power legitimized through respect for long established cultural patterns Charismatic Authority power legitimized through extraordinary personality that inspires devotion and obedience LegalRational Authority a system of authority based on legal impersonal rules the rules rule Brand of authority that is the most pervasive in modern society Even individuals in positions of authority are subject to these ubiquitous impersonal rules Four Types of Intersecting Political Systems Authoritarian denies popular participation in government charismatic authority is associate with totalitarianism because charismatic people can usually rise to power and control the masses Totalitarianism seeks to regulate all aspects of people s lives charismatic authority is associated with totalitarianism because charismatic people can usually rise to power and control the masses Monarchy political system that supports traditional authority 0 Absolute Monarchies existed during preindustrial times hereditary rule whereas constitutional monarchies today are symbolic However absolute monarchies such as Saudi Arabia continue to exist Representative Democracy places authority in the hands of the office and the elected leaders who are accountable to people US o In a pure democracy the majority rules regardless of the rights of the minority In a constitutional republic majority rules but the rights of the minority are protected The United States today is a constitutional republic Politics in the US Generally people in the US describe themselves as liberal 25 or moderate 40 Moderates are plentiful because most people are conservative on some issues and liberal on others Economic and social issue conservatives tend to vote republican while economic and social issue liberals tend to be democratic Party identification is weak in the US In 2012 38 identified themselves as independents 32 o asand as wh said they ile 50 said they quotlean democratic Yet only claim to be strong democrats and Independents are up from 1200 in 1992 2012 Presidential Election Barack Obama won 51 of the total popular vote and 332 electoral votes Mitt Romney won 48 of the total popular vote and 206 electoral votes It was the most expensive election in history 22 billion raised and spent by all the parties and their candidates from the primary to the election Add in congressional races and the total is over 6 billion Voter Demographics 1829 went for Obama 60 v 66 in 2008 over Romney 35 Obama picked up older voters 44 v 40 in 2008 Obama won among women 55 African Americans 93 Hispanic 71 and Asian voters 73 unmarried men 56 unmarried women 67 and the age category 30 45 52 Romney won among protestant 57 Mormons 79 and Evangelicals 80 Obama won the catholic vote 50 the unaffiliated 70 and the Jewish 70 Voter Apathy Political Alienation while 60 of the electorate voted in 2012 it was down from 63 in 2008 midterm or quotoff year elections are worse In 2010 despite the turn out in 2014 just 36 of eligible voters turned outthe lowest since WWII Apathy alienation and nonparticipation remain a huge problem Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society Functionalist Pluralist Model Power is dispersed among many different competing interest groups 0 Special Interest Groups SIG organizations of people interested in some economic or social issue SIGs include groups like AARP the NRA the ACLU the Sierra Club NOW etc SIGs employ lobbyists as their professional advocates o PAC Political Action Committee organizations whose aim is to raise and spend money on the election or defeat of certain political candidates Campaign finance reform was aimed specifically at PACs and Super PACs beyond reporting Individuals and corporations were to be limited in what they could give particular candidates hard money and PACs soft money Conflict Theorist Power Elite Model Power concentrated among the rich SIGs PACs and Super PACs are not political democracy they keep the people at the top in power without any real opposition The twoparty system is corrupt as the candidates people vote on have already been handpicked by the power elite in society to favor their interests no matter what the outcome Supreme Court Citizens United v FEC 2010 restricting what corporations and organizations spend in the political process quotchills political speech Campaign fianc reform was unconstitutional Corporations are considered to be quotnatural persons under the 1st amendment and may now spend unlimited amounts of money in the political process McCutcheon v FEC 2014 struck down individual limits to candidates and parties ChiefJustice Roberts said the first amendment requires striking down the limits quotThere is no right in our democracy more basic than the right to participate in electing our political leaders Dissenting Justice Breyer called the decision a blow to the first amendment and American Democracy quotIf the court in Citizens United open a door today s decision may well open a floodgate Citizens United and McCutcheon will further entrench the corporate and individual power elite in society making the quotaverage citizens concerns and vote less relevant Power beyond the Rules Terrorism random acts of violence or threat of such violence employed by an individual or a group as a political strategy Four distinguishing characteristics Terrorists try to pain violence as a legitimate political tactic Terror is therefore a weak organization s strategy to harm a stronger foe Terrorism is employed not just by groups Al Qaeda but by governments State Terrorism State terror is lawful in some authoritarian and totalitarian regimes Democratic societies reject terrorism but are especially vulnerable to terrorists because of extensive civil liberties and freedoms Terrorism is always a matter of definition One person s terrorist is another s quotfreedom fighter or quotextremist group or quotmilitiaquot Part of what makes the quotwar on terror practically unwinnable is the fact that very few countries can agree on a definition In the US definitions of terrorism in the wake of Sept 11th 2001 are also highly variable Do quotlone wolf events not fit the definition of terrorism Racial Profiling is it terrorism only if the participants are young Arabicdescent males who practice Islam Are we safer today or are things like the patriot act just so much social control Revolution the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another American French and Russian revolutions share a number of traits raising expectations unresponsive governments radical leadership establishing legitimacy Revolution will never happen in the US too lazy and selfabsorbed Authority and the State Book Notes Paradox Authority is based on the implicit threat of violence but the moment that force is used All authority is lost Politics power relations among people or other social actors Authority the justifiable right to exercise power Rulers have authority if they can persuade their subordinates that their claim to power is valid To classify the kinds of legitimate authority or domination sociologist Max Weber used three accounts of a ruler s quotsuperiority and fitness to rule or quotclaims to legitimacy or the legitimation of authority and domination Weber expects rulers to legitimate their claim to authority with better explanations Three Types of Authority Traditional LegalRational and Charismatic Reutilization the clear rulegoverned procedures used for repeatedly for decision making Rationalization an ever expanding process of ordering or organizing Bureaucracy a legalrational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and emphasizes meritocracy Specialization the process of making work consists of specific delimited tasks Taylorism the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task Meritocracy a society that assigns social status power and economic rewards on achievement not ascribed personal attributes or favoritism quotRed Tape a series of bureaucratic rules quotBureaucracy is the Iron Cage of Modern Life Max Weber Milgram Experiment Obedience to Authority Power the ability to carry out one s own will despite resistance as defined by Max Weber in Economy and Society Domination the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people State as defined by Weber in Politics as a Vocation a 1919 lecture at Munich University quota human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory Coercion the use of force to get others to do what you want Paradox of Authority although the state s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force resorting to physical coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority How did the Kent State Massacre illustrate the paradox of authority Even though the state has a monopoly of physical force because they used that force the incident sparked many protests debates and law suits and called the government s authority into question International State System a system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states Each state tacitly agrees to mind its own business when it comes to the internal affairs of other sovereign countries as long as borders are respected This is the principle of noninterference Welfare State a system in which the state is responsible for the wellbeing of its citizens The logic of Industrialism Thesis nations develop social welfare benefits to satisfy the social needs created by industrialization In this view the state intervenes to take care of people who are not needed in the labor market children people e with disabilities and the elderly Simple quoteconomic growth is the ultimate cause of welfare state development NeoMarxists Theory a view of the welfare state that questions how democracy and capitalism can coexists Explains the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality Specifically when private property is held by a small section of the population the democratic impulse that is the wishes of the masses might be to confiscate that property Citizenship Rights the rights guaranteed to each lawabiding citizen in a nationstate Civil Political and Social Civil Rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s personal freedom from interference including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely Political Rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s ability to participate in politics including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office Social Rights the rights guaranteeing a citizen s protection by the state quotPower is at its most effective when it s least observable Steven Lukes in Power A radical view Power is three dimensional 0 First Dimension of power is visible when different agenda s clash conflict results and one side prevails 0 Second Dimension of power is more complicated and occurs when the power is so formidable that no conflict results from competing interests because one side is convinced it s losing a battle 0 Third Dimension of power is power not only to persevere despite overt or veiled resistance but to quotprevent such conflict from arising in the first place Conflict may be averted through quotinfluencing shaping or determining desires wants and preferences 0 One way to wield invisible power is by shaping the choice set Power and Powerlessness 1980 John Gaventa describes his investigation of the synergistic effects of power s three dimensions on the lives of coal miners in the Clear Fork Valley in central Appalachia Joseph Nye Soft Power Power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action hard power Game Theory the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson The Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy They used game theory to understand how some states wind up more democratic than others Collective Action Problem the difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off Robert Michels the iron law of oligarchy o Mancur Olson The Logic of Collective Action 1965 assets that it is harder to organize larger groups than smaller ones The average donation from an affluent respondent is fourteen times the average contribution from a poor one Voter turnout is much lower among the poor than among the financially well off Research has shown that people receiving means tested benefits as the least likely to be politically active The civic volunteerism model points to three components to explain political participation or nonparticipation political orientation the strength of an individual s political commitments resources money to donate to parties or causes as well as civic skills such as leadership communications and organizational abilities that make it easier to get involved and mobilization efforts Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward reject the notion that political nonparticipation can be traced to individuallevel characteristics such a political orientation They argue that political strategies and political culture influence the low rate of participation Barrington Moore Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy For democracy to emerge the bourgeoisie must be strong enough to attenuate the control of the land owning feudal lords Moore believes that the emergence of modern capitalism is important to the development of political democracy The Family Social institution that unites individuals into cooperative groups that oversee the bearing and raising of children Traditionally family was persons related by blood marriage or adoption kinship Marriage a legally sanctioned relationship designed for economic cooperation and child bearing Marriage is a social institution Preindustrial societies Extended Family family unit including parents children or other kin were the norm Also known as family orientation central to socialization Extended families emphasized arranged marriages that were either Endogamous between persons of the same social categories or Exogamous persons of different social categories Polygamy form of marriage uniting three or more people as more common usually polygyny one male and two or more females Polyandry one female and two or more males was rare Couples lived with the husband s family Patrilocality or the wife s Matrilocality In agrarian societies Patrilineal descent tracking kinship through the male s family was the norm In Horticultural societies there was some evidence of Matrilineal Descent Bigamist the act of entering another marriage with one person while still legally married to another Industrial Societies Nuclear family family unit composed of one or two parents and their children becomes the norm Also known as family of procreation or conjugal family people left their extended families to seek work in industrial urban systems Society continues to arrange many marriages majority are endogamous Laws prescribe monogamy marriage joining two partners as the norm though with rates of divorce and remarriage considered one can engage in serial monogamy Today couples reporting highest levels of marital satisfaction are those who live in Neolocality settings away from both sets of parents and most practice bilateral descent importance of both bloodlines Theoretical Analysis of Family Structural Functionalist Family is the quotbackbone of society and provides several key functions 0 Socialization most important agent 0 Regulation of sexual activity The Incest Taboo the incest taboo has nothing to do with biology but society 0 Social Placement Ascribed Status 0 Maternal and Emotional Security Social Conflict the family unit perpetuates inequality from one generation to the next by stressing the following things 0 Property and Inheritance reproduces class structure in each succeeding generation 0 Patriarchy families transform women into sexual and economic property of men 0 Race and Ethnicity emphasis on endogamy shores up the racial and ethnic hierarchy Symbolic Interactionists individuals construct family life Families are not a rigid conception but an ongoing process 0 Social Exchange dating and marriage are forms of negotiation Individuals shop in the marriage market and dating sharpens the skills needed to make the best deal possible Terms of the exchange are in fact converging men have to concentrate more on how they look women have to concentrate on careers and what they can bring to table financially Stages of Family Life 1 Dating Arranged marriages in preindustrial societies took the guest work out of marriage Romantic love had little to do with it Industrialization eroded the importance of extended families so personal choice was enhanced when it came to selecting a mate Dating sharpens courtship skills and serves today as a period of sexual experimentation The basis for marriage rests ultimately on quotromantic love an emotion Feeling of affection and sexual passion toward another person quotFalling in love and marriage are strongly guided by social forces 2 Marriage In 1950 the mean age for first marriage for women was 20 for men 22 In 2014 the mean for first marriage is 26 for men 28 first children 25 and 27 respectively Only after marriage do couples get to know each other infidelity 25 men 20 of women quotMarriage changes things suddenly you wake up in bed next to a relative 3 Child Rearing in PreIndustrial Societies Families had an average of eight children children were economic assets need to preform necessary labor and to take care of parents in old age this is why childbirth rates are high in developingagrarian societies today Child Morality in 1900 onethird of children born in the US died by age 10 Industrialization turns children into economic liabilities The median number of children per family in 2014 was 99 for whites 89 for African Americans Latinos 153 dea of kids is 23 75 of respondents 2014 census Half of women 1544 do not have kids Abortion and Reproductive Technologies How we feel about abortion prolife or pro choice is often dependent on social factors and demographics According to the 655 2012 o Males slightly favor prochoice more than women 44 vs 41 o The less educated are more inclined to favor abortion restrictions 70 of those with less than high school education v 50 with some college More education more prochoice 0 People in their 405 tend to be the most prochoice those over 60 the most pro life younger persons more inclined to be prolife 58 v 42 prochoice 0 Why Young people still holding onto parent s idealsare looking to have kidsare having kids Older people already have kidshave had the chance to o Regionally the northeast tends to be more prochoice while the south particularly the south east or quotdeep south tends to be more prolife over 80 in the deep south v 20 Prochoice 0 Those wealthier less religious are more likely to vote democratic are more pro choice while those less wealthy more religious and more likely to vote republican are more prolife Reproductive Technologies to facilitate pregnancy include artificial insemination surrogate motherhood and in vitro fertilization These procedures raise several sociological issues particularly discrimination only the wealthy can take advantage of these methods 100000 for in vitro fertilization alone What it means to be a parent can also be confusing It s possible using a combo of methods for a child to have five parents three mothers and two fathers Could we see a class split eventually where the wealthy buy sperm and eggs at genetic auctions on the internet in order to have super children Is this an evolutionary instinct or something more sinister Egg Donors Ads Varsity athletes from Ivy League eggs go for 50000 Child care 23 of both husbands and wives with children work 13 of children remain at home parents and other relatives 13 spend time in some other home 13 go to an organized child care facility More than 56 million quotlatch key kids 15 school age children come home to an empty homes after school 4 Family in Later Life quotEmpty Nest myth parents don t divorce once the children have left home stats show the opposite higher levels of marital satisfaction once kids have left Class Race Gender Rubin found differences in what wives expected from husbands to be classbased lower class women doesn t drink excessively not violent maintains a steadyjob middle class women ability to communicate and share feelings with a quotsoulmatequot successful profession Jesse Bernard quotHis and Her Marriage Rate of depression are higher among married women than single women rates of depression are higher among single men than married men Why Socialization Women are still socialized to believe their identities are inextricably tied to the man they marry women have higher expectations men are socialized to avoid marriage at all costs have low expectations Extended Families are still more common amongst Latino families as well as traditional male authority over women while 70 of African American children are born to single women 45 of all AfricanAmerican families are headed by single women compared to 33 Latino families 18 Asian 18 white Interracial and interethnic marriages are still the exception rather than the rule14 of all marriages in 2012 meaning 86 of marriages are endogamous when it comes to race or ethnicity Gender also effects how marriage is viewed Divorce There are approximately 24 million marriages annually in the US and 12 million divorces While the divorce rate is half the marriage rate half of all marriages do not end in divorce 20 end within five years 3540 longitudinally for first marriages But its effect is widespread of all adults over the age of 18 21 of men and 22 of women have been divorced at some point Causes of divorce are numerous divorce is more socially acceptable and divorce is easier to legally obtain NoFault Divorce Laws Role Exit Who divorces Young spouses who marry after brief courtships few financial resources and yet to mature emotionally Within ten years of marriage the divorce rate is 50 for couples 1821 for couples 2125 35 26 and over 30 starter or trial marriages are a myth Less religious people divorce at a greater rates as do couples who both have successful careers Also those who have divorced once are likely to divorce again 50 remarry within five years Child support is awarded in 51 of all divorces yet there are more than 35 million quotdeadbeat dads who fail to support their children 4 billion in arrears During the Great Recession 20082011 divorce filings went down but rates of domestic violence due to financial stressor and unemployment went up Alternative Family Forms 1 Oneparent families Nearly 27 of US families with children under 18 have only one parent in the house 85 of which are single mothers In 2012 more than 40 of live births in the US were to unmarried women 17 million On average children growing up in single parent families start out poorer get less schooling and end up with lower incomes as adults They are also more likely to end up single parents themselves 2 Cohabitation Is it a step toward marriage or alternative to marriage It is the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple has increased from 550000 couples in 1970 to 7 million today 6 of all households Almost half of women 1544 cohabit with a partner today as a first union 70 of women with less than high school degree cohabit compared with 47 of women with bachelor s degree or higher 40 of cohabitations will transition to marriage by 3 years 30 remain intact 30 dissolve By education however 55 of women with bachelor s degree transitioned to marriage by 3 years v 30 of those wo a HS diploma 20 of cohabiters will experience pregnancy in first year of cohabitation this now constitutes almost 25 of all live births annually in the US Domestic Violence and violence are greater amongst cohabiters than married couples Despite its prevalence most research suggests that living together actually discourages marriage 3 Gay and Lesbian Couples Approximately 800000 same sex couples live together in the US raising approximately 270000 children Resistance to same sex marriage is fading 56 of Americans now support samesex marriage 2013 Pew and the Supreme Court s decisions in US v Windsor 2013 clears the way for more states to recognize samesex marriage 17 as of 414 33 states still with bans 30 of Americans now live in states where gay marriage is legal 4 Singlehood starting in 2008 more Americans 15 and older were single than married for the first time in a century In 1968 28 of women 2024 were single in 2012 percentage was 76 However with fertility declining in women after age of 27 and men after 35 A growing segment of middle age people are finding themselves childless and without spouses problematic also for couples who delay having children Domestic Violence in US 0 600000 acts of domestic violence every year 85 of which are men abusing women 20 million women aggregate Economic inequality patriarchy and the cultural battering myths quotShe probably deserved it and quotif it s so bad why not leave all perpetuate the problem 0 DatingDomestic Violence on Campus 15 of intimate relationships on campus from hookups to dyads involve violence Approximately 2030 of college women have reported a completed or attempted rape while on campus 40 of college men say they quotwould likely attempt rape if they knew they would never be caught 0 Should allegations of sexual assault on campus be handled by the college or universities Or should they be investigated and handled by law enforcement as any other claim of sexual assault would be handled Are universities qualified to make a determination about what is essentially a criminal act 0 Child Abuse more than 3 million reports of child abuse and neglect every year of which 800000 children are confirmed victims of abuse and neglect 80000 physical abuse 56000 sexual abuse 440000 neglect 31000 psychological maltreatment 7000 medical neglect Economic inequality patriarchy girls more likely to be abused than boys cultural myths quotkids deserve a good hard spanking all contribute Family Book Notes Paradox We think of the family as a haven in a harsh world but in fact Inequality begins at home Rule of Endogamy when a culture maintains either legal or normative sanctions against people marrying outside their race class or caste The caste system of India is based on a rigid adherence to endogamy In western cultures Exogamy is legally possible if not always culturally acceptable Lisa Marie Presley and Michael Jackson s 1994 wedding is an example of a couple who transgressed social class and racial groups Although they shared an equivalent celebrity status Total exogamy when people from completely different social categories get together is rare Although the Mormon Church outlawed polygamy in 1890 some splinter groups still practice one man supporting many families In 1913 Bronislaw Malinowski put to rest a longstanding family debate among anthropologists about the universal existence of families Scholars had argued that traditional tribal societies couldn t possibly have family units because of their egregious nondiscriminating sexual promiscuity Malinowski based on his research of Australian Aboriginals who seemed to have sex with everyone suggested that these natives did in fact form ties indicative of familial arrangements The Aboriginals recognized family relations and kept them distinct from other forms of social connection He established that the family was a universal human institution Talcott Parsons the nuclear family is essential for modern industrial society In 1986 less than 10 of US families consisted of a male breadwinner his stayat home wife and their children Today 23 of married couples fit that description 40 of women born in the 19805 will not marry or bear children The average of women during their first childbirth experience has increased from about 21 to 25 years since the 19705 White professional women on average postpone motherhood even longer In 2008 approximately 25 percent of the children in the US were adopted 25 is roughly 23 million children Singleparent families historically the result of death or desertion are on the rise now as more parents never marry or end up divorced In 1960 9 of children lived with just one parent by 1986 that number was 25 by 2009 it was 273 and 864 of those children lived in singlemother families As of the late 19905 approximately one fifth of all families around the globe were headed by women Stephanie Coontz The Way We Never Were American Families and the Nostalgia Trap 1992 people long for the sense of simplicity wholesomeness and ease that 19505 families like the Nelson s are perceived to have enjoyed Kinship Networks strings of relationships between people related by blood and co residence that is marriage In the preindustrial families children were thought of as quotsmall adults as Philippe Aries argued in 1962 They didn t warrant any special treatment or consideration and childhood was hardly the nurturing period we think of today The whole childhood notion is a recent invention and the result of motherhood as a full time occupation Both the notion of childhood and motherhood are made possible through industrialization Cult of domesticity the notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing The teenage birthrate was twice as high in 1957 as in the 19905 The difference was that pregnant teens in the postwar era had less access to abortion and when they bore children they more often got married n 19505 the average age of marriage for women and men was 20 and 22 respectively Kathleen Gerson 1985 the quotsubtle revolution our way of organizing work and home even as we fantasize about an imagined time gone by Women s participation in the labor force has soared whereas fertility rates have plummeted By the end of 19705 more women were in rather than out of the labor force for the first time Birthrates have dropped sinking from a baby boom to a baby bust Having a working mother in one s early years can result in lower cognitive achievement and increased behavioral problems for a child Study in Child Development For moms with lower income levels leaving kids in day care to enter the workforce is beneficial Science Conley found in The Pecking Order 2004 that when mother worked while raising her children the adult daughters and sons eventually attained jobs that were more or less equivalent and made about the same income But in families with a stay at home mom the gender gap widens Sarah Fenstermaker Berk 1985 has characterized the family as a quotgender factory of sorts where women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between public and private spheres The family is where people first learn how to quotdo gender in conformity with social rules Marjorie Duvall 1991 Feeding the Family the family ties are constructed through women s acts of shopping preparing meals and serving them The Future of Marriage 1972 by Jessie Bernard the family is a battleground for the power to make collective decisions on everything from who does the laundry to what neighborhood to live in to what college fund to invest in Margaret Nelson The money women earn is quotfun money The most frequent form of family violence is sibling on sibling The strongest two predictors of sibling on sibling violence are dads with short tempers and moms who get physical when it comes to punishing the kids Broad social factors like poverty singleparent households and low levels of educational attainment are associated with higher levels of all types of domestic abuse IPV Intimate Partner Violence Women account for 85 of the victims of IPV In 2007 IPV resulted in 2340 deaths 70 women and 30 men Elder Abuse is a relatively new field of study that investigates physical verbal and financial abuse intentionally or unintentionally perpetrated against people usually family members who are least 57 years old Arlie Hochschild 1989 The Second Shift women s responsibility for housework and childcare everything from cooking diner to doing laundry bathing children reading bedtime stories and sewing Halloween costumes Valerie A Ramey and Neville Francis 2006 found that as of 2004 women spent roughly 9 hours more per week on what they termed quothome production housework along with child care and homework assistance Viviana Zelizer 2005 housework tasks are patterned around gender Ruth Schwartz Cowan More Work for Mother The ronies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave 1983 all those timesaving devices like the vacuum cleaner and the washing machine have paradoxically increased the amount of time women spend on housework Hochschild 1989 found that married women are more likely than men to think about divorce 30 of married women have considered divorce v 22 of men and wives contemplate divorce more often than husbands Barbara Risman 1998 quotfair families where husbands and wives equally split the roles of breadwinner and homemaker Dr Benjamin Spock Baby and Child Care has sold more than 50 million copies in seven editions since 1946 making it second in sales only to the bible Among Spock s child rearing tips was the suggestion that fathers should be involved parents The Negro Family The Case for Nation Action 1965 Daniel Patrick Moynihan found that 25 of black wives out earned their husbands v to only 18 of white wives Making Ends Meet How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and LowWage Work 1997 sociologists Kathryn Edin and Laura Lein find that all single mothers prefer selfreliance to welfare dependency Flat Broke with Children Women in the Age of Welfare Reform 2003 Sharon Hays shows that many of these women are forced to take lowpaying jobs with no future and little career stability In Haven in a Heartless World 1977 To Christopher Lasch the home really is a haven where workers seek refuge from the cold winds of a capitalist public sphere Civil Unions legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar stateprovided legal rights and benefits as marriage Domestic Partnerships legally recognized unions that guarantee only select rights to samesex couples Miscegenation the technical term for interracial marriage literally meaning quota mixing of kinds it is politically and historically charges sociologists generally prefer the term exogamy or out marriage Interracial marriage was never illegal from the federal level but from 1913 to 1948 30 states enforced antimiscegenation laws Loving v Virginia 1967 Religion Social Institutions involving beliefs and practices based upon a conception of the sacred The sacred aweinspiring or reverential and the profane everyday help us understand society Durkheim to understand any culture you have to recognize what they find sacred and profane Religion and the social world have a dialectical logical relationship how is faith influenced by society and how does faith shape over social world Sociology does not seek to pass judgement on any religion as right or wrong Rather sociology seeks to explore the role of religion in society and how religious beliefs and practices guide human behavior PreIndustrial societies animism elements of the natural world are conscious life forms today s Native American beliefs Belief evolved in divine power Deism or Theism various forms of polytheism multiple gods and ethicalism adhering to certain principles Industrial and Post Industrial societies science v religion monotheistic focusing on one god Also atheism the denial of existence of god or gods agnosticism skepticism where the existence of god or gods can be proved or disproved are creations of the Enlightenment Theoretical Analysis of Religion Durkheim elements of religious life Structural Functional people engage in religious life to celebrate the awesome power of society Belief is stronger amongst the less educated and poor yet higher education and more income spurs increased participation in religious organization Durkheim religion provides three main functions to society 0 Social Cohesion shared symbols values and norms of religion bring people together 0 Social control many cultural norms and values have religious justification Also religion is used to legitimize the political system 0 Providing meaning and purpose religious beliefs offer a comforting sense Major lifecourse transitions birth marriage death are usually marked by religious observances Social Conflict religion s support of the social hierarchy enforces inequality and stratifies society religious salience increases as income decreases and as people age and religious belief is stronger amongst racialethnic minorities and women Thus groups already marginalized in society the poor minorities women and the elderly are under the social control of religion Religion serves the ruling elites by legitimizing the status quo and diverting attention away from social inequality in three ways 0 Class diversion religion encourages people to look with hope to a quotbetter world to come thereby minimizing the social problems of this world Marx quotReligion is the opiate of the masses 0 Gender diversion virtually all the world s major religions reflect and encourage male dominance o Racial and Ethnic diversion MLK quotSunday at 1130am America is more segregated than at any other time of the week Symbolic Interaction Weber Protestantism and the spirit of capitalism religion dictated the economy religion is highly variable construct not a static concept but a dynamic concept To some God does not exist to others God definitely exists the quotreligious experience is real to the believer Besecke s quotreflexive spirituality suggest most believers look to religion for meaning wisdom or purpose but not for absolute or literal truths from sacred texts Literal interpretation fundamentalists Liberation Theology fuses Christian principles with political activism Though traditionally leftist in nature civil right movement coalesced in the church today s counter liberation theology is more conservative Christian coalition moral majority Types of Religion Organizations Type of religious organization is determined by degree with which each is integrated into society Church religious organizations well integrated into the larger society Ecclesia a church formally allied with the state Anglican Church in England Islam in Iran Pakistan and Denomination church independent of the state that accepts religious pluralism The Megachurch a church where more than 2000 people worship weekly n 19705 50 such churches existed today more than 1300 total membership over 4 million half are in the south One third are nondenominations 15 are Baptist the rest primarily protestant in nature Less rigid than traditional denominations More serviceoriented to members sometimes called quotCafeteria Christianity megachurches publish quotbiblezinesquot such as Revolve and Refuel market to 21st century teens articles quotAre you dating a Godly Guy or quotHow to attract a Godly Girl They use video games music glossy ads sports and sexuality to sell religion Sect religious organization that stands apart from the larger society Amish scientologists Krishna Jehovah s witnesses Sects are less formal than churches in terms of organization and can be breakaway groups from established churches Cult religious organization substantially outside the mainstream of society Cults typically form around charisma extraordinary personal qualities that can turn an audience into followers proselytizing to new members As many as 5000 cults operate at any given time The popular view of cults is deviant or even evil Heaven s Gate suicide cults quotcrazyquot Intrinsically there is nothing wrong with this type of religious organization All mainstream world religions began as cults by definition World Religions Christianity largest religion in the world more than 2 billion adherents or roughly 13 of the world s population Approximately 80 of those in US who are religious identify as Christians Islam second largest world religion 16 billion Adherents or about 20 of the US population fastest growing of the world s religions 26 million US 2011 Judaism 15 million followers worldwide 6 million in the US Three main denominations Orthodox Reform Conservative There are similarities amongst the three These quotwestern religions from congregations and focus on a clear monotheistic deity The quoteastern religions below see divine power in everything and express religion and spiritually outside rigid schedules Hinduism oldest of the world s religions 6500 years old Third largest religion in the world 2 million in the US Buddhism nearly 400 million adherents worldwide 2500 years old 12 million Buddhist in US 2011 Confucianism a strict code of moral conduct that adherents follow was ecclesia of China until 1949 Exact number of adherents today is unknown 100000 followers in the US Religious Pluralism in the US More than 280 denominations and 300000 congregation exist in the US not including sects andor new cults Protestant denominations now account for 32 of US 52 of churchgoers with the largest denomination Baptists 19 Methodists 6 Lutherans 4 Presbyterians 2 and Episcopalians 1 The largest denomination in the US is Catholicism 25 Fastest growing segments of Christianity are quotChristian Generic evangelicalborn again Pentecostal charismatic nondenominational Christian at 21 AtheistsAgnosticNo religion fastest growing segment of US population in 1990 82 claimed no belief In 2011 19 Agnostics 1 Atheist 2 No Preference 16 Social Prestige of Religion Episcopalians Presbyterians and Jews have high social standing Methodists and Catholics moderate social position and Baptists Lutherans and members of sects in lower standings Religion and Social Demography 0 Families very religious households have more children than nonreligious households also likely to resemble traditional patriarchal parenting styles domestic violence rates same as nonreligious households 0 Race religious salience is higher in minority communities than in the white community the church is a source of institutional change for AfricanAmericans civil rights than whites 0 Gender women are more active in religious organizations than men even though most mainstream religions regulate women to subordinate status very religious women are less likely to participate in labor force and quotsubmit to their husbands in terms of power and authority 0 Class religious belief is stronger in the lower classes yet volunteerism in religion is higher in the middle and upper classes upper classes more protestant than the rest of the country 0 Age both men and women tend to become more religious with age starting with having kids through your elderly years 0 Geography and Politics Catholics live disproportionately in the northeast and southeast Lutherans in Midwest Baptists in south Secularization historical decline in the importance of the sacred reliance on science v religious fundamentalism Conservative religious doctrines that opposes intellectualism in favor of strict interpretation of sacred texts The Electronic Church 10 million people watch religious programming daily while 40 million watch at least once a week Religion Book Notes Paradox the religions that demand the most from their members often grow the fastest but as religions become large and successful they tend to be less strict Civil religion a set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the national culture Religion a system of beliefs traditions and practices around sacred things a set of shared stories that guide belief and action Sacred holy things meant for special use and kept separate from the profane the sacred realm is unknowable and mystical so it inspires us with feelings of awe and wonder Profane the things of everyday mundane life Theism the worship of a god or gods Christianity Hindu Islam Ethicalism the adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life as in Buddhism and Taoism Animism the belief that spirits roam the natural world as in totemism Denominations big groups of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella Congregations groups of people who gather together especially for worship Order of world religions for biggest to smallest Christianity Islam Hinduism Non Practicing Buddhism Judaism Secularism a general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational scientific orientation a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state The sociology of religion looks beyond personal experiences of faith and seeks to uncover the ways that the personal is socially patterned by religion sometimes in powerful and consequential ways Daniel Chirot Geography makes certain parts of Europe more apt to nurture capitalist s enterprises than others Pluralism the presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society Durkheim religion perpetuates social solidarity by strengthening the collective conscious the shared beliefs and ideas ways of thinking and knowing quotCrisis of Credibility a loss of religious legitimacy and plausibility Sacred Canopy the entire set of religious norms symbols and beliefs which convey the feeling that life is worth living reality is meaningful and ordered and all is notjust random chaos The attempt to unite Christians has failed because people look for different things in religion and it s impossible to get everyone to agree on the same thing Evangelicals members of any denomination distinguished by four main beliefs the Bible is without error salvation comes only through the belief in Jesus Christ personal conversion is the only path to salvation and others must also be converted They proselytize by engaging with wider society Fundamentalists religious adherent who follow a scripture such as the bible or qur an using a literal interpretation of its meaning Finke and Stark 1992 religious participation has gone down since the 19605 although religious identification has steadied Social Desirability Bias when people report that they do something because the questions have a moral tone to them For example where asked how often they go to church people will over report their attendance Religious experience an individual s spiritual feelings acts and experiences Besecke 2007 Reflexive Spirituality a contemporary religious movement that encourages followers to look to religion for meaning wisdom and profound thought and feeling rather than for absolute truths on how the world works Lenski 1961 Types of Religious Involvement Associational Involvement the frequency of church attendance Communal Involvement how much of your primary group interactions are restricted to followers of your own faith how isolated or enmeshed you are in the religious community Associational and Communal involvement varies by faith For instance Jews have weak associational involvement but strong communal ties Catholics has strong associational involvement but weak communal ties Both are weak for white Protestants both are strong for black Protestants Supernatural compensators promises of future rewards such as salvation or eternity in heaven Lessons from American religious entrepreneurship 1 If you can t beat them join them appealing to the youths with clothes music apparel entertainment etc 2 Bigger is Better huge churches that can fit a ton of people 3 Speed Pleases many quick services in one day 4 Sex Sells The Biblezine Types of Evangelicals o Traditionalists make up 4050 0 Centrists 4050 0 Modernists 10 or less Why are conservative churches growing Because they re strict Education Education social institution which guides a society s transmission of knowledge basic facts job skills and cultural norms and values to its members Schooling formal instruction by which learning is transmitted Preindustrial societies rudimentary Formal education where it existed consisted largely of technical or trade schools members learned to participate in agrarianism High education literature the arts history science was for the elites Industrialism required a semiskilled semiliterate workforce Basic reading writing and arithmetic were necessary to function not only economically but also participate in political democracy Education in the US Inherently political from the beginning In 1850 states began passing mandatory education laws which required children to attend school until the age of 16 or the completion of the 8th grade By 1918 the last of the states passed mandatory education laws High School graduates or equivalent have increased dramatically from 13 of the adult population 25 and over in 1900 to 87 in 2012 Higher education is more attainable 3 of the adult population 25 with a four year degree in 1900 v 294 in 2012 Theoretical Analysis of Education StructuralFunctionalism formal education contributes to the operation of society in four distinct ways 0 Socialization schools transmit cultural values and norms as well as civics classes which instruct students in the political way of life In preindustrial societies ways of life were transmitted from parent to child in industrial societies schools emerge as a separate social institution to prepare children for adult roles in a technologically complex world 0 Cultural Innovation education transmits as well as creates culture Schools stimulate intellectual inquiry the development of new ideas and research 0 Social Integration schooling helps forge a culturallydiverse mass of people into a unified society It fosters social integration and teaches new immigrants the majority s way of life 0 Social placement education helps young people assume culturally approved statuses and preform roles that contribute to the ongoing life of society Teachers encourage the best and the brightest to pursue the most challenging and advanced studies while guiding students with more ordinary abilities into programs suited for them Schooling enhances meritocracy Latent unintended functions of schooling include child care adolescent care and networking Conflict Theory education and schools reproduce the class structure from one generation to the next by providing learning according to student s social background thereby perpetuating inequality Schooling reinforces the norms and values of the society s most elite members and gives the affluent more educational opportunity than the poor Six ways the education perpetuates inequality 1 Social Control via the Hidden Curriculum subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom education serves a form of social control reinforcing the acceptance of the status quo Things like compliance discipline punctuality and respect for authority prepare students to be docile and disciplined in the work force Bowles and Gintis mandatory education laws came about at the exact time capitalists were seeking a docile and disciplined workforce 2 Standardized testing inherently biased based on class race and ethnicity Questions reflect society s dominant culture and put minorities at a disadvantage Standardized tests measure nothing more than a student s test taking ability yet the drive for teacher accountability and the quotend of social promotion has led to an increasing reliance on standardized tests 0 quotNo Child Left Behind NCLB 2001 PassFail standardized tests after every grade 3rd through 8th schools get blacklisten for poor performance parents feel trapped failing test scores failing property values teachers are threatened with termination if students don t perform at certain levels quotteaching to the test becomes the norm critical thinking skills quotoutside the box are sacrificed 0 Standardized testing Industrial Complex a multimillion dollar a year industry test administration test preparation tutoring services foundations and businesses dictating reform Threats to the system result in stern action 0 Atlanta Public Schools cheating scandal in 20092010 led to 1A of the GBI s agents investigating quoterasure tampering now a state crime punishable by up to 10 years in prison April 2015 10 teachers sentenced to prison terms ranging from 28 years Similar investigations are prosecutions are taking place across the state and country mainly in low income innercity predominantly African American districts Testocracy a person s value and worth to society is determined by how well they take a standardized test School resegregation Jonathan Kozol America is practicing quoteducational apartheid Schools are more segregated today than in 1954 when Brown v BOE came down Schools with 9699 all black and or all white student populations are not diversified Standardized testing and the quotsociopathic emphasis on them is quotpure Skinnerian ratcontrol psychology Disadvantages lower class especially African American and Latino kids why is curriculum bilingual but standardized tests aren t Wealthy parents pull kids out of public schools lower classes quottrained to accept place in society Standardized testing quotterrorizes teachers and principals and humiliates students Scripted teaching teaching to the test has destroyed teaching as a profession Principals are quotunder the sword of highstakes testing driven to cheating themselves NCLB should be abolished quotIt is an unspeakable hypocrisy to hold a 7 of 8 year old accountable for her performance on a standardized test Solution quotInterdistrict Integration Poor kids who go to school with middle class kids do better housing vouchers rather than school vouchers Problem de facto segregation is now constitutional Parents Involved v Seattle School District 2007 Supreme Court ruled the use of race in drawing neighborhood districts to be unconstitutional ChiefJohn Roberts quotThe way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race 3 The Sorting Machine Tracking is the assignment of students to different types of educational programs Pro we can t teach every student the same thing at the same pace Tracking allows those with more aptitude to excel and offers programs for those less able to do well Teaching everyone the same thing at the same pace would hurt everyone Con tracking has more to do with social background than personal aptitude standardized tests are used to determine lock the track wealthieraffluent kids do better on standardized tests than those who are poor on minority tracking effectively segregates students academically and socially into different worlds Wealthy students attend collegeprep coursestracks poor and minority students attend general diploma coursestracks in high school schools reserve the best teachers for the higher tracked students rigid tracking has a detrimental impact on students learning and selfconcept self fulfilling prophecy 4 Inequality Between Schools because of the way schools are funded 5055 localproperty tax 3540 state funds less than 710 federal not all schools receive the same funding directly affects the quality of education received Between public and private 10 of school age children attend parochial denominational and nondenominational private schools as a whole private schools prepare their students academically socially and educationally to do better in life than those from public schools Between public and public those schools that are less wellfunded generally turn out students who do poorer on standardized tests attend less prestigious colleges where tuition can cost more than 40000 dollars annuaHy 5 HOPE Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally Originally HOPE was made available to graduating seniors with a B average or higher who were from lower to middle income families prevent quotbrain drain from Georgia The income cap in 1993 was 50000 100000 in 1994 and in 1995 the cap was eliminated entirely The number of HOPE recipients doubled following the elimination of the cap As a result competition at the state s more prestigious universities UGA increased UGA s admission standards soared from 31 GPA and 1050 average SAT in 1992 to 37 GPA and 1252 SAT average in 2009 98 of incoming 1st year students are HOPE recipients the percentage of our students fell from 20 in 1993 to less than 10 in 2008 However out of state students have been increasing the past few years due in part to the recession they pay full tuition hope recipients pay 10 Results an affluent student body more bars and restaurants high membership in Greek organizations local music replaced by clubsdjs businesses relying on college labor find employment pool scarce HOPE s Problems 0 140 of 1st year students will lose the scholarship by May 80 by their 3rd year grade inflation financial incentive local schools recive lottery proceeds based on number of HOPE scholars 0 Students entering college in 1969 v 2009 In 1969 24 of students entering colleges had a C or below average while 17 had A averages in 2009 the number of Cs had dwindled to 5 and the number of A s soared to 47 of entrants f most students are quotabove average what s average 0 2 In 2000 UGA ended use of the TS Total Student Index which allowed for preference on borderline students for admission based on race affirmative action class gender activities legacy Minority student populations and student from rural parts of the state declined dramatically with 60 female males seems to be disappearing as well 0 3 Research has shown working and poorer classes play the lottery at a far greater rate than the middle and upper classes do de facto the poor are paying for the rich and their children to attend coHege 6 Credentialsm Randall Collins calls us a credential society we evaluate a person s worth based on how many degrees her or she has turns cultural capital privilege into social capital personal merit Problems in the School Discipline and Violence Several thousand students and at least one thousand teachers are physically assaulted on school grounds each year students routinely arrested for behaviors fighting once routinely handled by schoolsparents the quotcriminalization of childhood bullying Student Passivity more than violence schools are plagued with boredom Emphasis on rigid uniformity numerical ratings SATs GPAs Standardized test scores etc and little individual responsibility keep students from learning on their own makes schools a recipe for boredom College The silent classroom Karp and Yoels The only voice you hear is the professors Students know instructors come to class with prepared lectures so are unwilling to participate o The number one reason why students do not talk in class quotI had not done the assigned reading 80 followed by quotI don t know enough of the material 79 quotthe class is too large 70 the chance I might appear unintelligent in the eyes of the professorstudents 46 o The quotTalkersquot are 35 students who can be counted on to respond to questions or comments by the professor They account for 50 of the classroom interaction 0 Students also learn to quotmaintain the social situation by showing quotcivil attention laughing at the appropriate junctures nodding their heads when necessary and showing enough interest without becoming too involved Enough interest without becoming too involved in the situation Professor interprets the quotshows of attention as real involvement 0 Students therefore know it s the rare instance when they will be called upon directly by name in a college classroom Professors are unwilling to call upon students by name believing that such tactics will be viewed as hostile by students 0 The end result most students feel quote safe in coming to class without having read the assignment and not having do so secure in the knowledge that they won t be called upon anyway 0 Dropping Out nationwide in HS 2012 25 of students 33 million dropped out before graduation in the largest 50 cities 47 of students did not graduate with their class dropouts those retained for failure students who may drop out and then return etc In Georgia 50 of its freshman do not graduate with their I class Among minority groups the poor innercity and rural residents dropout rates over 50 0 Academic standards overall SAT scores of college bound seniors have been declining since the 19605 from median scores of 516 in math and 543 in verbal 1968 to 514 in math 496 in reading and 488 in writing in 2012 The verbal scores represent an astonishing decline in reading comprehension leading to measures of functional illiteracy amongst adults 30 million 15 adults read at or below 8th grade level innumeracy insufficient math skills affects 22 0 Recent Issues School Choice vouchers Magnet Schools and Home Schooling 15000 in 1980 to 21 million in 2011 70 white 15 Hispanic 8 African American Also more than 75 million adults are enrolled in educational courses ForProfit Higher Education Helping the poor or subprime scam o Forprofit higher colleges and universities have increased enrollments 236 from 20002010 Stockholders are making huge returns on investments and extremely high tuitions o The six year graduation rate however is astonishingly low 927 for mean of 22 In comparison state colleges and universities graduate 60 of their students UGA 84 2011 while private universities graduate 80 the vy s 95 0 Median debt a student at for profit college leaves with is 31000 17000 debt for private university 8000 debt for public university graduates o ForProfits make up 12 of all college students today receive 24 of federal funding for higher education and produce 43 of federal loan defaults unforgivable even in bankruptcy Many forprofit graduates are not employable 0 According to critics the college industry continues to thrive Since most students at forprofit schools tend to be from the lower income strata the net result is the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer and father in debt Education Books Notes Paradox although school is supposed to be the institution in society that provides equal opportunity it ends up sorting and stratifying students by the backgrounds from which they come Hidden Curriculum the nonacademic and less overt socialization functions of schooling Peter Sorokin Power and Morality Schools are sorting machines The Coleman Report stated that school performance varied between segregated and nonsegregated school NOT because of resources but because of family background and the peer environment at the school Social Capital the information knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter gain power in or otherwise leverage social networks Tracking a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans Social Class or Socioeconomic State SES an individual s position in a stratified social order Cultural Capital symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations Stereotype Threat when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes Resource Dilution Model hypothesis stating that parental resources are finite and that each additional child dilutes them SelfFulfilling Prophecy student do as well as they are expected to by society If expectations are higher the student does better no matter the background Jonathon Kozol Savage Inequalities 1991 students are positioned by schools to join the class they are already a part of Ex Black students at a school Kozol observed were being taught vocational skills Health Medicine and Society Health physical mental and social wellbeing Medicine social institution that focuses on combating and improving health Society affects morbidity and mortality in four ways 1 Cultural patterns define health ideas about health amount to a form of social control which encourages conformity to cultural norms competition hard work are healthy Cooperation welfare are unhealthy 2 Cultural standards of health change over time 100 years ago women going to college was seen as a danger to their health 50 years ago smoking was a health risks sex today can kill 3 Technology affects health industrialization improved healthcare among infants and children post industrialization improved healthcare among the elderly Top 3 killers in 1900 InfluenzaPneumonia Tuberculosis and Stomach and Intestine Diseases Top 3 causes of death is 2012 Heart Disease Cancer and Stroke Average life span 76 years old 4 Inequality affects health lower SES persons have less access to healthcare and longevity decrease pre and postnatal care varies dramatically based on class the wealthy live better longer lives the poor live unhealthy shorter lives Social Epidemiology Health and Demography death is rare among the young with two exceptions accidents and aids Health and Gender The Morbidity Paradox Women outlive men 79 years vs 73 years and the gap is increasing Masculinity is associated with quotcoronaryprone behavior Type A personality aggressiveness competitiveness repressed emotions cigarette smoking drinking alcohol sexual promiscuity are seen as masculine and lead to shortened lives and increased rates of heart disease cancer and strokes among men Health and Class among the poor infant mortality rates are twice that of middle and upper class infants Cancer and heart disease rates increase in lower SES Rate of mental illness higher in lower classes consequence or cause Health and Race being disproportionately associated with poverty African Americans Latinos Native Americans suffer more health maladies than whites do in society Health Risks Cigarette Smoking In 1960 45 of the adult population smoked in the US In 2011 19 smoke 22 of men 16 of women Smoking is more common in the working and lower classes 30 below poverty line 19 above Varies by raceethnicity 31 of Native Americans smoke 21 of whites 19 African Americans 12 Hispanic 10 Asian While 60 smoke regularly 40 are quotsocial smokers who smoke intermittently or socially similar to quotsocial drinkers Smoking varies by education 45 High School dropouts 24 of High School grads 9 of college grads 5 of post grads 44 million Americans smoked in 2011 78 of whom 34 million smoked daily 22 quotoccasionallyquot While 10 of smokers will get lung cancer in real numbers that s 400000 adults who die prematurely each year as a direct result of cigarette smoking including emphysema Sharp declines among college students from 24 in 2005 to 15 in 2011 yet tobacco industry continues to be 89 billion industry Eating Disorders both intense diet and weight control overweight and obesity kill nearly as many in the US annually as cigarette smoking 61 of the US adult population is now overweight or obese 35 being overweight 27 obese Among children and adolescents the numbers are 18 and rising As with cigarettes obesity is correlated with lower SES Combined with physical inactivity and other unhealthy eating habits overweight and obesity contributes directly to cancer heart disease killing 350400000 adults annually Obesity is usually correlated to low economic status that has directly to do with diet Fast cheap foods are typically the worst foods nutritionally Undereating 35 of females suffer from undereating disorders including anorexia bulimia binging Roughly 90 of diagnosed anorexics are female with first symptoms usually surfacing between 1418 years of age most anorexics are in their teens and 20 s 10 of anorexics are male and increasing Anorexia is still most prevalent among white women from affluent families though rates of eating disorders are increasing in all groups College women 25 report having an eating disorder 45 of which report bulimia most collegeage women believe that quotguys like thin girls In extreme cases this can lead to death Undereating and overeating combined nearly 70 of adults and children in the US have some form of eating disorder affecting their health and quality of life Sin taxes can taxing socially undesirable behavior cigarettes alcohol tanning beds discourage behavior No and by placing high taxes on these items because the majority of people who consume these items are working class anyway so when you tax these items at a higher rate you re essentially making the poor poorer Sexually Transmitted Diseases There are more than 50 STDs one fifth of the US adult population 4550 million has an STD other than AIDs killing approximately 7000 annuaHy AIDs related deaths have dropped to roughly 15500 in 2012 in the US but almost 50000 new HIV cases are recorded annually bring the total to more than 11 million reported cases since the epidemic began 25 years ago Of those million cases roughly 565000 have died and nearly 15 of the infected don t know it Homosexual and bisexual men account for 48 of AIDs causes in the US 52 among heterosexual men women and children Globally HIV infects some 34 million people 60 of whom live in subSahara Africa more than half are young people under 25 and half are women In Africa there are more than 11 million aids orphans The epidemic has killed 25 million people around the world since 1981 Medicine in the US The US views doctors with tremendous prestige Physicians quotmanage the situation to display authority lab coats doctor salutation wait norms jargon We quotdefer to doctors in ways we do not defer to other people Yet much of medical diagnosis is guess work and fails to meet the basics of scientific inquiry The Biomedical Culture which vaunt physicians is new historically medicine was viewed as low ranking nonprestigious job in Rome doctors were slaves The profession originally evolved from barbers yet medicalization and the rise of institutionalized medicine from insurance and hospitals to Big Pharmaceuticals has allowed virtually any social problem or behavior to be seen in medical terms Ironically the US is the only industrialized societies to have no government operated program of care for everyone some programs such as Medicaid poor Medicare elderly prison health care do exists The US operates a directfee system in which patients pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals via insurance While the vast majority of Americans 84 have some type of medical coverage either private or public some 30 million people 12 of the population do not which include 7 million children under the age of 18 ACA Affordable Care Act or quotObamacarequot enrolled 164 million new customers with insurance from Sept 2013 to March 2015 Close to 6 million young adults 1826 stayed on their parent s insurance Theoretical Analysis of Medicine Functionalist people play roles necessary to keep society s members healthy The Sick Role patterns of behavior defined as appropriate for people who are ill and The Physician s Role behavior defined as appropriate for doctors all keep the emphasis on the individual Symbolic Interactionist medical care and health are subjective social constructions constantly changing ADHA quotfat pride Illness is socially defined and the quotSick Role is how we expect the afflicted to behave Conflict theorists medical care and health are forms of social control profit motive supersedes everything including access to healthcare insurance and the politics of medicine Medicine explains things in terms of the biological viruses and bacteria while ignoring the damaging effects of poverty and social class on health Hospitals doctors insurance companies kill 200000 patients each year Health Medicine and Society Book Notes Medicalization the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such Sick Role concept describing the social rights and obligations of a sick individual Morbidity illness in a general sense Mortality death What is the correlation between SES and health There are three main theories that attempt to explain this association 0 The Selection Theory the relationship between lower income and higher morbidity is false because other factors such as genetics and biology affect health and SES 0 The Drift Explanation The argument that good health helps a person achieve a high socioeconomic status If you don t have good health you may not be able to work so higher morbidity would result in lower SES 0 Social Determinants Theory Social status determines health 0 Explanations of social determinants theory 0 The psychosocial interpretation focuses on individuals social class status relative to that of those around them Feelings of inadequacy low worth and stigma cause people stress and wear down their bodies If you have taken out tons of loans and you roommate is independently wealth the persistent present of that inequality could affect your health directly by making you feel stressed depressed or angry o The Materialist Interpretation asserts that the differential access to a healthy life including all monetary psychological and environmental risk factorsis a result of socioeconomic factors 0 Fundamental Causes Interpretation The theory focuses on examining how social factors shape illness and health to understand the pervasive link between SES and health The crux of the argument is this quotBecause resources are differentially distributed across the socioeconomic hierarchy people of higher social position have more resources at their disposal than those below them and are therefore better able to maintain good health and avoid disability and death Sociology Test Three Study Guide Race and Ethnicity Race socially constructed category composed of people who share biological traits Ethnicity socially constructed category of people who share cultural heritage Symbolic ethnicity a nationality not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but of identifying with a past or future nationality For later generations of white ethnics something not constraining but easily expressed with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual Ethnocentrism the belief that one s own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to View all other cultures from the perspective of one s own Minority Group categories of people distinguished by physical or cultural traits which are socially disadvantaged must have distinctive identity and share a degree of subordination in society Dot not have to be numerically less in order to meet this definition Racial and Ethnic minorities African Americans Latinos AsianAmericans etc meet the definition as do women adolescents and the elderly Not all members are disadvantaged minority status often serves as a master status overshadowing personal accomplishments Racism the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another Scientific racism Spencer s survival of the fittest social Darwinism eugenics nativism often gave cover to overt racists Eugenics literally meaning well bornquot the theory of controlling the fertility of populations to in uence inheritable traits passed on from generation to generation Nativism movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the allegedly dangerous an polluting effects of new immigrants Miscegenation laws forbidding interracial or interethnic marriage and the one dropquot rule are modern relics from this pseudoscientific past ColorBlind Racism the unconscious bias the opinion that race differences are merely an illusion and that race is no longer relevant The Importance of Being White Whiteness is an invisible knapsack of privileges The foundation of white identity that there isn t any White people are just viewed as individuals Racialization the formation of a new racial identity in which ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people Theories of Prejudice Scapegoat Theory prejudice springs from frustration some groups usually minorities are blamed for the short comings of others TW Adorno Authoritarian Personality Theory Extreme Prejudice is a personality trait usually a product of socialization parents have authoritarian in exible personalities are passed on to their children Cultural Theory Prejudice is a product of culture everyone has some degree of prejudice because we live in a cultural of prejudicequot Con ict Theory Power elite use and fuel prejudice as a tool of oppression used to keep others in their place The wealthy stay above the fray using social institutions like the mass media to fuel prejudice amongst the masses to keep them from focusing on the bigger problem the power elite Shelby Steel RaceConsciousnessquot Theory minorities keep issues of race and ethnicity in the forefront to gain concessions from the majority Particularly effective on college campuses where the claim of black victimization is matched by widespread feeling of guilt among white studentsquot Obama was successful in his pursuit of the presidency because he was able to neutralize his racial identity He was running for president as a man who just happened to be black not a black man running for presidentquot Merton Four Distinct Ways Prejudice and Actions Intersect 0 Active Bigot a person who is prejudiced and actively discriminates Timid Bigot a person who is prejudiced but does not actively discriminate Fair Weather Liberal Discriminates when convenient but not prejudiced All Weather Liberal Is not prejudiced and does not discriminate Institutional v Industrial Discrimination 0 Institutional societies formal and social organizations 0 Individual few individuals 0 Con ict Theory We focus on the individual rather than the institutional even though the institutional is more frequent and more deadly Maj orityMinority Patterns of Interaction Pluralism state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social equality goal of multiculturalism US strives to be pluralistic Ontological equality the philosophical and religious notion that all people are created equal Before 2050 a majority of the population will be minority groups Whites will fall below 50 201 49 of all live births are minority population 49 of kids under five today are minorities Assimilation process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of dominant culture melting potquot or becoming whitequot Straight Line Assimilation Park s 1920s universal and linear model for how immigrants assimilate immigrants arrive settle in mimic the practices and behaviors of the folks who were already there and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogenous country Primordialism Clifford Geertz s term to explain the strength of ethnic ties because they are fixed in deeply felt or primordial ties to one s homeland culture Miscegenation laws racist laws forbidding the mixing of bloodquot reproduction amongst different racial categories interracial marriages Not unconstitutional until late 1960s Segregation physical and social separation of categories of people de jure by law segregation has been eliminated de facto socially segregation continues Residential Segregation Tauber 1965 developed a scale using census tracts which measured neighborhood composition 0 being a completely mixed neighborhood of races ethnic groups and 100 being completely segregated Calculated an overall US rate of 865 in the 1960s and a rate of 60 in 2012 While many cities are desegregated the best are Tucson 36 Las Vegas 37 Charleston 40 Extreme segregation still exists in certain cities in 2012 Milwaukee 82 Detroit 81 NYC 78 Chicago 76 Hypersegregation exists among 15 of the African Americans in inner cities Pre 1960s there were covenants policylaw that determines where people can and cannot live that contributed to hypersegregation Robert Staples The Urban Plantation Staples argues today s inner cities are nothing more than a modern version of plantation and slave life Key points 0 Slave quarters have been replaced by urban ghettos enslaving onefifth of the black population in a state of hypersegregationquot 0 Cities are nothing more than plantations controlled by whites who dictate orders to the black overseers black mayorsquot The dynamics of internal colonialism leave the economic power in the hands of the whitesquot 0 Schools have become holding prisons for black youthquot Those who rebel are cosigned to youth detention centers or eventually prison One third of black males between the ages of 2029 are either in prison jail on probation or on parole Infusion of alcohol drugs crack is common in inner city culture Stop Snitchingquot and a Code of the Streetsquot have real implications regarding crime and victimization In some inner city neighborhoods clearance rates for homicides which are 64 nationwide are in single digits Ex Cam ron interview rap music Black entertainment via hip hop and the adulation of professional athletes via hero worship contribute to the problem Innercity youth emulates rappers particularly the gangsta genre and athletes as being the ticket out we have commoditized violence and death Yet few will ever attain that goal By then education is discounted acting whitequot and the cycle of enslavement continues 90 of all homicides in areas where No snitch attitudequot is present go unsolved Collective resistance an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a lesspowerful group in a society Genocide systematic annihilation of one category of people by another Holocaust 1930s Cambodia 1970s Serbia Rwanda 1990s Sudan Darfur region 2000s Syria today All four patterns of interaction Segregation Assimilation Pluralism and Genocide have played out in the United States Genocides against native Americans segregation of African Americans Assimilation of European immigrants and the goal of pluralism with Latino and other immigrants today Race and Ethnicity in the US Native Americans Reservations serve as a form of banishment very high poverty rates 0 Population 28 million 1 o MFI 36640 0 Poverty 29 0 College Degree 13 African Americans 1960s civil rights laws marked unprecedented gains as did 1980s and 1990s economically and educationally 0 Population 39 million 13 o MFI 34500 0 Poverty 27 0 College 19 o Wealth dropped 53 in 0810 recession White German is the highest ethnicity claimed 22 Irish 15 WASPs 12 Italian 6 French 4 0 Population 200 million 63 o MFI 58270 0 Poverty 96 0 College 31 o Wealth dropped 16 in 0810 Recession AsianAmericans quotModelquot Minority 0 Population 14 million 5 o MFI 67025 0 Poverty 123 0 Degree 526 Hispanics Attain less college degrees because of a language barrier 0 Population 47 million 17 o MFI 40963 0 Poverty 235 0 College Degrees 12 o Wealth dropped 66 in 0810 recession Middle Eastern Americans Have faced discrimination post 911 0 Population 35 million 12 o MFI 58000 0 Poverty 13 0 College 45 Stratification and Class in the US Social Stratification system by which we rank categories of people in a hierarchal fashion based on race ethnicity social class and gender Caste System stratification based on ascribed status Class System stratification based on individual achievement Estate System stratification based on feudalism nobles owned the land which they leased to the peasants who worked and lived on it India once prided its rigid caste system the US prides itself on being a class system DavisMoore Thesis Functionalist take stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society By distributing societal resources unequally society motivates each person to work better longer and harder which results in a more productive society Those who show the most merit will move to the top Meritocracy a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes ability and achievement while those showing less merit will fit those jobs necessary to ensure society continues functioning smoothly Malthusian Poverty Trap reducing levels of inequality will result in the masses expounding increasing poverty Socioeconomic Status SES a composite measure of income education and occupational prestige Income wages salaries and earnings from investments MFI in 2013 51900 This is 8 lower than 2007 Wealth total value of money and assets minus outstanding debt The wealthiest top 5 of families control 60 of all private property in the US while the top 25 controls almost 90 of the total Another perspective 75 of the country fights over 10 of the wealth in the US Median Family Wealth In 2013 US median family wealth of 56000 a decline of almost 50 since the recession Nearly 37 of households have MFW of less than 10000 includes negative assets as well Racial disparities MFQ for whites closer to 100000 while black family MFW is 10000 In real numbers most people aren t worth much more than they bring home in paychecks Inequality while wealth has declined for all groups during the Great Recession the rebound has not been equal at all The wealth gap wealth distribution between social groups is worse today than it was 10 years ago In 2003 the top 5 held 13x the median wealth is the US In 2013 the top 5 hold 25x the median wealth Ontological equality the notion that everyone is created equal at birth in the eyes of god Equality of opportunity the idea that everyone has the same opportunity obtain social prestige wealth and power because the rules are the same for everyone Equality of condition the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point Equality of outcome a position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the game Free Rider Problem the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight Clear correlation between education income and occupational prestige When it comes to ancestry gender race and ethnicity the US is more of a caste system than a class system One can inherit wealth 50 of the wealthiest Americans inherited their fortunes and one can inherit poverty as well Women earn 77 cent for every dollar a man earns while African Americans and Hispanic families earned median incomes significantly lower than white nonHispanic MFI Social Class in the US Upper Class The power elite Mills Leaders of the economic political and military sects of the US 5 of the US population earns more than 200000 annually 0 UpperUpper class 1 of the pop often described as Blue Bloodsquot or Old Moneyquot Membership is by ascription only and by marriage occasionally most Upper Uppers intermarry clubs and associations are exclusive name and genealogy very important Vanderbilt Carnegie Kennedy etc families become upper uppers after wealth has been passed down three generations 0 Lower Upper Class 34 of the population Nouveau Richequot Working Richquot have earned their way into the upperclass lavish homes cars Veblen conspicuous consumption name not important Middle Class 4045 ofthe pop MFI 50000200000 0 Upper Middle Class 15 of pop incomes from 100000200000 23 of upper middle class children receive college degrees half of UGA s incoming freshman classes report household incomes of more than 100000 merit has become the new inherited privilege high prestige occupations 0 Lower Middle Class 3540 of the population Income from 50000100000 50 of lower middle class children will attend college middle prestige occupations lower prestige whitecollar skilled bluecollar work Working Class 30 ofthe population Median income range of 2500050000 Semiskilled blue collar and pink collarquot work only 33 of children will realize college degree little or no accumulated wealth Lower Class 20 of the population Income less than 25000 annually Includes poor and working poor In 2010 46 million people 15 living below the poverty line of 22314 MFI low prestige blue collar minimumwage Are we a middle class societyquot when 50 of the population is defined as working class or lower EliteMass Dichotomy System system of stratification that has a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold power in society Pareto argued that as long as the power elite are the most abled individuals and knew what they are doing the masses are better off C Wright Mills disagreed The Difference Class Makes Health those in the working and lower classes have less access to quality health care In 2014 42 million Americans 13 of the population were without health insurance Values and Politics Wealthier are more conservative fiscally lower classes are more liberal on social issues we find conservative values more among the working and middle classes the extremes of upper and lower classes tend to be more liberal on social issues Family In 2012 families earning more than 100000 annually will spend nearly 300000 raising a child born in 2010 to the age of 18 those making 55000 will spend nearly 200000 families earning less than 40000 will spend about 150000 family life reproduces the class structure from generation to generation Privilege begets privilege poverty begets poverty Social Mobility intragenerational change in social position within a lifetime Intergenerational mobility in relation to parents 0 Most social mobility in the US is intraclass as opposed to interclass yet the Horatio Algerquot rags to riches stories and TV shows like American Idolquot reaffirm the cultural myth making that anyone can make it Structural Mobility mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Exchange Mobility mobility in which if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs individuals trade jobs not onetoone but in a way that ultimately balances out StatusAttainment Model approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment and seeks to specify the attributes characteristics of people who end up in more desirable occupations Poverty in the US Relative Poverty deprivation in relation to those who have more Absolute Poverty life threatening Relative Poverty is more common in industrial countries but more than 1 billion people globally live in a state of absolute poverty killing more than 8 million people a year or 20000 people daily SubSaharan Africa and East Asia Poverty rates are uid and uctuate Chronic poverty 36 continuous months affects only 5 of the population Official Poverty Line is 24000 family of four 12000 annually for single persons in 2014 approximately 45 million men women and children or 145 of the population were living in poverty The culture of povertyquot the argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of middleclass mainstream society in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstances The burden of poverty falls most heavily on women and children The war on poverty began in the 1960s shifted the burden of poverty from the elderly 30 of whom were poor in 1960s vs 10 today to women and children The feminization of poverty is found in more than half of poor households being headed by single women 4 in 10 children will live below the poverty line Child poverty rate is 20 in 2013 Poverty is regional Poverty rates in Northeast 12 Midwest 13 West 14 South 16 By Residence city poverty rates 19 Suburbs 11 Rural Areas 16 The percentage of shared households by adults 2534 is important 25 of that age group lives either with parents 60 or with roommates 40 If this group was living alone poverty rates for 2534 year olds might reach 44 Blame the Poor v Blame Society Is society to blame structural theories liberal politics or are the poor themselves to blame culture of poverty conservative politics for their condition The politicization of poverty makes real solutions virtually impossible While welfare reform of the 1990s let states have more control over welfare discouraged out of wedlock births and encouraged two parent families the act itself disappeared thousands of former recipients from the welfare rolls many of whom ended up homeless When it comes to poverty the Fundamental Attribution Errorquot the overestimation that the individual is stronger than the social reigns supreme Quantifiable differences in normvalue sets amongst the poor may be a consequence rather than a cause of poverty Present Time Orientationquot in lower classes versus Future time orientationquot in middle or upper classes 0 Present Time Orientation not thinking about future worried about if their current basic needs are going to be met 0 Future Time Orientation Basic needs are met focused on goals for the future planning for the future Underclass the notion building on the culture of poverty argument that the poor not only are different from mainstream society has to offer but also are increasingly deviant and even dangerous to the rest of us Perverse Incentives structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior for example welfareto the extent that it discourages work efforts is argued to have perverse incentives Parenting Stress Hypothesis a paradigm in which low income unstable employment a lack of cultural resources and a feeling of inferiority from social class comparisons exacerbate household stress levels this stress in turn leads to detrimental parenting practices such as yelling and hitting which are not conducive to healthy child development Structurally the deck is stacked against the 50 of the US population that lives in the working and lower classes Sex and Gender Sex culturally designated distinctions between males and females biological Gender culturally assigned differences to the biological categories of males and females characteristics associated with each biological sex culturalpsychological Sex Primary Sex Characteristics genitals organs etc and secondary sex characteristics bodily development apart from genitals puberty help further distinguish between the binary biological categories Intersexual those who are born with some combo of male and female genitalia 12 in every 1000 live births Medical experts maintain a dimorphic or binary model of sex by tweaking babies who blur the boundaries through controversial corrective genital surgery Transgendered disregarding conventional ideas of how males or females should look or behave might include transsexuals and transvestites gender reassignment surgery Sexual Orientation an individual s preference in terms of sexual partners Four types of sexual orientation 0 Heterosexuality o Homosexuality o Bisexuality o Asexuality Little is known of asexuality and bisexuality is more common among teenagers and young adults on college campuses Is sexual orientation society or biology Is it something we choose or something we feel Sociology suggest sexual orientation is both biological and cultural both nature and nurture Attraction and behavior are two different concepts Sexual orientation is a cultural creation homosexuality was invented in the 19th century Orientation and attraction are something a person feels but we choose the people with whom we are more intimate Attitudes have become more tolerant concerning homosexuality 34 feel that gays and lesbians deserve equal workplace opportunities and a majority 56 now favor legalizing same sex marriage 2013 Yet there is still prejudice discrimination and intolerance toward homosexuals homophobia in the US Nearly 60 feel homosexuality is morally wrong wording is important in surveys When asked in a 2010 poll about military service 70 of respondents said they favored allowing gays and lesbians to serve in the military versus 59 favoring homosexuals to serve Supreme Court 2013 ruled federal ban on samesex marriage benefits was unconstitutional but did not apply ruling to states Obergefell v Hodges 2015 will decide if should apply to states argument April 25th decision by June 2015 This is important for the Gayby Boom Generation Kids adopted or raised by gay couples beginning in the late 1980s early 1990s More than 10 million kidsyoung adults have been raised in a house hold where one or both parents was lesbian bisexual or transgendered over the past 20 years Despite one Regenens study indicating anecdotal evidence that kids raised in samesex married households do worse most studies indict that these children are just as well adjusted Study has been questioned and attacked many times as untrue Attitudes about sex Sexual Revolution took place in the 1960s and 1970s If it feels good do itquot Pill is introduced in 1960 Followed by a sexual counterrevolution in the 80s and 90s Sex can killquot AIDS Premarital Sex 52 say sex before marriage is wrong or almost always wrongquot 46 of teens have premarital intercourse by their senior year in high school 56 have engaged in oral sex dispelling the oral sex and STD epidemicquot exaggerated in the media Sex among adults varies widely Despite the swinging singlesquot stereotype married people have more sex than single people Hooking Up Less Commitment More Virgins Hooking up is any physical encounter from kissing to intercourse usually under the in uence of alcohol with no commitment attachedquot 72 of college students say they have hooked up by their senior year mean 97 times men 74 times women When asked about the last hookup 35 reported kissing while 40 reported intercourse 25 indicted oral or manual stimulation Dates and Dating tend to happen after a physical relationship starts not before Yet percentages claiming to be quotvirginsquot are also rising In the 2024 year old demographic 12 of women say they are virgins 13 men Among college seniors 24 claim virginity some data suggests 4050 of college students are virgins Begs questions what is a virgin born again virginsquot Pursuing the Mrs Degreequot still a goal 63 of college women still hope to meet their husband on campus but with declining male female ratios on campus 79 100 UGA is 60 women More women settle for bad relationships or hookups Said one student If a guy says he wants to come over and hang out he s not taking you to dinner Friends with Benefits is all they wantquot Is this empowering for women Many favor hook ups because they don t have time for relationships Bogle 2009 argues hooking up thanks to social networking texting etc has spread to young adults out of college and on their own Tinder app etc While women strive to marry quotupquot marry men who make more are more educated etc men prefer to marry quotdownquot Men would rather marry secretaries or their children s nannies which has lead to an epidemic of professional women sans husbands and kids 55 of 35 year old career women did not have children compared to 19 of same age men quotMsquot Was to neutralize the stature of women so as not be defined by marital status but now young brides are more eager than ever to take their husbands last names In 1980 45 of college educated women kept their birth names after marriage vs 15 in 2014 Hyphenating surnames fell from 21 in 1980 to 6 in 2014 Gender what it is to be male and female is largely a creation of society The Israeli Kibbutzim offers evidence to support the idea Patriarchy social organization in which males dominate females Universal among world societies Matriarchy social organization where females dominate males rare beyond strictly tribal societies Sexism similar to racism the idea that one sex is innately or biologically inferior or superior to the other Institutional and individual sexism Con ict Theory we focus on the individual acts and largely ignore the costs and prevalence of institutional sexism in society Gender Socialization Gender identity traits not only do we distinguish between the sexes we define them in opposing terms Hegemonic Masculinity shapes the socialization experiences of boys and girls from birth Family Iessie Bernard Pink and Blue world of Babiesquot The female world revolves around passivity and emotion while the male world revolves around action and independence Peer Group Ianet Lever Playground Socialization Boys favored team sports aggression winning quotwarquot Girls did team sports too but also cooperative games jump rope Hopscotch house oddly girls are more welcome into the boy s world but boys are shunned from girl s worldquot Schooling Curricula encourage children to embrace gender appropriate classes topics college majors Males sciences and math Females humanities and the arts and careers Mass Media Goffman advertising promotes subtle biases against women Naomi Wolfe The Beauty Mythquot 1992 0 Society teaches women to measure themselves in terms of physical appearance yet the standards of beauty MTV Are you the one or Girl Code are unattainable for most women 0 Society teaches women to value relationships with men whom they attract with their beauty Beautyminded women avoid challenging male power 0 Society teaches men to possess beautiful women which objectify women and turns them into dolls rather than human beings 0 Summary Beauty is the key to personal happiness for women just as possessing a beautiful woman is key to a man s happiness Gender Stratification unequal distribution of wealth power privilege between men and women Women can earn 79 cents for every dollar a man earns 2013 Three main reasons why women earn less than men the kind of work they do the family and discrimination glass ceilingquot Sixty Percent of all women work 70 of whom work fulltime 60 of all married couples depend on two incomes Concerning married women 61 with children under the age of 6 work while 77 of married women with children 618 work 50 of working women hold two types of jobs Administrative Work employs 25 of all working women while 25 work in low end service work Together these types of work administrative and service makeup Pink Collarquot jobs Gender Stratification in Teaching Kindergarden Teachers 98 women Elementary 81 of women Secondary 55 of women College and University 45 of women College and University Presidents 21 of women Inverse relationship as pay and prestige increases the of women decreases in a profession which is seen largely as female dominated glass escalatorquot Men in female dominated jobs still do better Comparable Worth Are kindergarten or elementary school teachers less important than college professors By 1980 women earned the majority of bachelor s degrees In 1992 the majority of postgraduate degrees In 2014 women earned 59 of bachelor s degrees 61 of master s degrees and 51 of PHD s near majorities in IDs 49 MDs 49 MBA 44 DDS 45 Stratification at home Second Shiftquot Women are a minority and minority women suffer the double handicap of both race and gender Violence against women sexual harassment Quid Pro Quo obvious and direct vs Hostile environment subtle behaviors and messages Porn Prostitution and Sex Worker 10 billion year industry is seen by second wave feminism as exploitation patriarchal and discriminatory Third wave feminism views porn or nude dancing as empowering Theoretical Analysis of Gender Functionalists Persons Sex Role Theory Gender roles complement both men and women and allows the family unit to carry out various functions vital to the operation of society women take care of the family men connect the family to the outside world via labor force Con ict Capitalism turns women into economic property of men into consumers shopping in order to seek personal fulfillment and into domestic or lowwage slaves Feminism social equality for men and women in opposition to patriarchy violence and sexism 0 Liberal feminism Capitalism is culprit 0 Black Feminism Liberal Feminism largely white middle class women Post Modern Gender fragmented identity and playful blurring of gender boundaries eliminated quotgenderquot Test 4 Notes Capitalism and the Economy Economy is a social institution that organizes the production distribution and consumption of goods food clothing autos houses and services doctors lawyers software engineers Marx how and what we produce and how much and what we consume defines us as a society Economy in History Agricultural Revolution Primary sector economy generates raw materials directly from the natural environment 23 of most countries today function on agricultural economy In 1900 40 of US workers were farmers today less than 2 of the US workforce works in agriculture Today farming and agriculture is profitable because of corporate agriculture Industrial revolution Secondary Sector economy transforms raw materials into manufactured goods Less than 20 of US workforce in Secondary sector today Five major transformations took place as result of industrialism new forms of energy steam electricity centralization of work factories urbanism manufacturing and mass production raw materials into salable products specialization division of labor wage labor selling yourself for a wage not paid for direct service Simmel salary system where paid for sum total of services Adam Smith Wealth of Nationsquotbarter system should be replaced by money Capitalism Money was on agent of social change Labor unions sought to improve wages and working conditions through collective bargaining and strikes Max Weberbureaucratic inertiaIn 1950 a third of workers were in unions today less than 12 varies by sector 37 govt vs 70 private sector support for unions far surpasses govt or politicians Information revolution Tertiary sector of economy generates services rather than goods productive system based on service rather than goods productive system based on service work and extensive use of information More than 80 of US workforce today is in tertiary sector Providing service and not producing tangible product Three major transformations because of info revolution from tangible products to ideas from mechanical to literary skills reading and writing decentralization of work computers internet Secondary Labor Market jobs most service oriented work provides little income or benefits and often fewer rewards then factory work Includes selfemployment 7 of workforce women now own 30 of all businesses 40 of small businesses Contingent work Nearly 33 of US labor force participants in contingent work Day laborers parttime temp work Underemployment workers with low salaries fewer benefits disappearing retirement 13 in 2014 Primary labor market jobs Professions whitecollar highsalaries highbenefit work Charles Hardy The corporation 0 organization of tomorrow will be nothing more than a box of contractsquot The average young person today will change careers 3 times one of which haven t even been invented yet Politics in the US Liberal25 conservative35 moderate40 moderates are plentiful Party id is actually weak in the US more as independents than for either party More serviceoriented to members sometimes called Cafeteria Christianityquot megachurches publish Biblezines such as Revolve and Refuel market to 21St century teens articles Are you dating a godly guyquot They use video games music glossy ads sports and sexuality to sell religion Sect religious organization that stands apart from the larger society Amish Scientologists Krishnas Iehova s Witnesses Sects are less formal than churches in terms of organization and can be breakaway groups from established churches Cult religious organization substantially outside the mainstream of society Cults typically form around charisma extraordinary personal qualities that can turn an audience into followers proselytizing to new members As many as 5000 cults operate at any given time in the US The popular view of cults is deviant or even evil Heaven s Gate suicide cults crazy Intrinsically there is nothing wrong with this type of religious organization All mainstream world religions began as cults by definition World Religions Christianity largest religion in the world more than 2 billion adherents or roughly 13 of the world s population Approximately 80 of those in the US who are religious identify with Christianity Islam second largest world religion 16 billion adherents or about 20 of the world s population fastest growing of the world s religions 26 million in US Iudaism 15 million followers worldwide 6 million in US Three main denominations in Judaism are Orthodox Reform and Conservative There are similarities amongst the three These western religionsquot form congregations and focus on a clear monotheistic deity The eastern religionsquot below see divine power in everything and express religion and spirituality outside rigid schedules Hinduism oldest of world s religions 6500 years ago Hindus 870 million adherents worldwide Sometimes referred to as ethical religionquot spiritual progression via reincarnation 2 million US Buddhism nearly 400 million adherents worldwide 2500 years old 12 million Buddhists in US Confucianism a strict code of moral conduct that adherents follow was ecclesia of China until 1949 Exact number of adherents today is unknown 100000 US Religious Pluralism in the US More than 280 denominations and 300000 congregations exist in the US not including sects and or new cults Protestant denominations now account for 32 of US52 of churchgoers with the largest denomination Baptists 19 followed by Methodists 6 Lutherans 4 Presbyterians 2 and Episcopalians 1 The largest denomination in the US is Catholicism 25 Fastest growing segments of Christianity are Christian Genericquot evangelicalborn again Pentecostal charismatic nondenominational Christian at 21 AthiestsAgnosticsNo religion fastest growing segment of US population In 1990 82 claimed no belief In 2011 19 broken down Agnostics 1 Atheists 2 no religious preference 16 Social prestige of religion Episcopalians Presbyterians and Jews enjoy high social standing Methodists and Catholics moderate social position and Baptists Lutherans and members of sects in lower social standing Religion and Social Demography Families very religious households have more children than nonreligious households also likely to resemble traditional patriarchal parenting styles domestic violence rates same as nonreligious households Race religious salience is higher in minority communities than in the white community the church is a source of institutional change for blacks civil rights than whites Gender women are more active in religious organizations than men even though most mainstream religions relegate women to subordinate status very religious women are less likely to participate in labor force and submit to their husbandsquot in terms of power and authority Class religious belief is stronger in the lower classes yet volunteerism in religion is higher in the middle and upper classes upper classes more protestant than rest of country Age both men and women tend to become more religious with age starting with having kids through your elderly years Socialization schools transmit cultural values and norms as well as civics classes which instruct students in the political way of life In preIndustrial societies ways of life were transmitted from parent to child in Industrial societies schools emerge as a separate social institution to prepare children for adult roles in a technologically complex world Cultural innovation education transmits as well as creates culture Schools stimulate intellectual inquiry the development of new ideas and research to expand the knowledge base Social integration schooling helps forge a culturallydiverse mass of people into a unified society It fosters social integration and teaches new immigrants the majority s way of life Social Placement education helps young people assume culturally approved statuses and perform roles that contribute to the ongoing life of society Teachers encourage the best and brightest to pursue the most challenging and advanced studies while guiding students with more ordinary abilities into programs suited for them Schooling enhances meritocracy Latent Functions of schooling include child care adolescent care and networking Con ict theory education and schools reproduce the class structure from one generation to the next by providing learning according to student s social background thereby perpetuating inequality Schooling reinforces the norms and values of the society s most elite members and gives the af uent more educational opportunity than the poor Six distinct ways that education perpetuates inequality 1 Social Control via the Hidden Curriculum subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom education serves a form of social control reinforcing the acceptance of the status quo Things like compliance discipline punctuality respect for authority prepare students to be docile and disciplined in the workforce BOWLES and GINTIS mandatory education laws came about at the exact time capitalists were seeking docile and disciplined industrial workforce 2 Standardized testing inherently biased based on class race and ethnicity Questions re ect society s dominant culture and put minorities at a disadvantage Standardized tests measure nothing more than a student s test taking ability yet the drive for teacher accountability and the end of social promotionquot has led to an increasing reliance on standardized tests No Child Left Behindquot NCLB 2001 pass fail standardized tests after every grade 3rd through 8th schools get blacklisted for poor performance parents feel trapped failing test scores falling property values teachers are threatened with termination if students don t perform at certain levels teaching to the testquot becomes the norm critical thinking skills outside the boxquot are sacrificed Standardized testing Industrial complex a multimillion dollar a year industry test administration test preparation tutoring services Foundations and businesses dictating reform Threats to the system result in stern action Atlanta Public Schools cheating scandal in 2010 led to 11 of GBI agents investigating erasure tampering 10 teachers sentenced to prison time mostly from lowincome innercity predominantly black districts Testocracy a person s value and worth to society is determined by how well they take a standardized test School resegregation Ionathan Kozol America is practicing educational apartheidquot schools are more segregated today than in 1954 when Brown v BOE came down Standardized testing and the sociopathic emphasisquot on them is pure Skinnerian ratcontrol psychologyquot Disadvantages lower class black and Latino kids Wealthy parents pull kids out lower classes learn to accept place in society Standardized teaching terrorizes teachers and principals and humiliates students Scripted teaching to the test is destroying teaching as a profession Principals are driven to cheating themselves NCLB should be abolished for holding 7 to 8 year olds accountable for performance on a test Poor kids who go to school with middle class kids do better housing vouchers rather than school vouchers Problem de facto segregation is now constitutional Parents Involved v Seattle School District Supreme Court ruled the use of race in drawing neighborhood districts to be unconstitutional The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of racequot 3 The Sorting Machine Tracking is the assignment of students to different types of educational programs Pro we can t teach every student the same thing at the same pace Tracking allows those with more aptitude to excel 5 and offers programs for those less able to do well Teaching everyone the same thing at the same pace would hurt everyone Con tracking has more to do with social background than personal aptitude standardized tests are used to determine the track wealthier af uent kids do better on standardized tests than those who are poor or minority tracking effectively segregates students academically and socially into different worlds Wealthy students attend collegeprep courses tracks poor and minority students attend general diploma courses tracks in high school schools reserve the best teachers for the higher tracked students rigid tracking has a detrimental impact on student s learning and selfconcept Inequality between schools because of the way schools are funded 5055 localproperty tax 3540 state funds less than 710 federal not all schools receive the same funding directly affects the quality of education received Between public and private 10 of school age children attend parochial denominational and nondenominational private schools as a whole private schools prepare their students academically socially and educationally do better in life than those from public schools Between public and Public those schools that are less wellfunded generally turn out students who do poorer on standardized tests attend less prestigious colleges have lower gpa s than those in wellheeled schools Access to Higher Education inequality continues after secondary school when it comes to access to colleges and universities One must have means to send children to an Ivy League school where tuition can run more than 40000 annually HOPE Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally Originally HOPE was made available to graduating seniors with a B average or higher who were from lower to middle income families prevent the brain drainquot from Georgia The income cap in 1993 was 50k 100000 in 1994 and in 1995 was eliminated entirely The number of HOPE recipients doubled following the elimination of the cap As a result competition at the state s more prestigious universities UGA increased UGA s admission standards soared from 31 gpa and 1050 average SAT in 1992 to 37 gpa and 1252 SAT average in 2009 95 of incoming 1St year students are HOPE recipients the percentage of out of state students fell from 20 in 1993 to less than 10 in 2008 However out of state students have been increasing the past few years due in part to the recession they pay full tuition HOPE recipients pay 10 Result an af uent student body more bars and restaurants high membership in Greek organizations local music replaced by clubs djs businesses relying on college labor find employment pool scarce HOPE s Problems 40 of incoming 1St year students will lose the scholarship by May 80 by their 3rd year grade in ation financial incentive local schools receive lottery proceeds based on number of HOPE scholars Students entering college in 1969 v 2009 In 1969 24 of students entering colleges had a C or below average while 17 had A averages in 2009 the number of C s had dwindled to 5 and the number of A s soared to 47 of entrants If most students are above averagequot what s average In 2000 UGA ended use of the TSI Total Student Index which allowed for preferences on borderline students for admission based on race class gender activities legacy Minority student population and students from rural parts of the state declined dramatically Research has shown working and poor classes play the lottery at a far greater rate than the middle and upper classes do defacto the poor are paying for the rich and their children to attend college 6 Credentialism Randall Collins calls us a credential society we evaluate a person s worth based on how many degrees he or she has turns cultural capital privilege into social capital personal merit Problems in the School Discipline and Violence several thousand students and at least one thousand teachers are physically assaulted on school grounds each year students routinely arrested for behaviors once routinely handled by schools parents the criminalization of childhoodquot bullying Student Passivity more than violence schools are plagued with boredom Emphasis on rigid uniformity numerical ratings SAT s GPA s Standardized Test scores etc and little individual responsibility keeping students from learning on their own makes schools a recipe for boredom College The Silent Classroom Karp and Yoels The only voice you hear is the professor s Students know instructors come to class with prepared lectures so are unwilling to participate The number one reason why students do not talk in class I had not done the assigned readingquot 80 followed by I don t know enough about the subject matterquot 79 the class is too largequot 70 the chance I might appear unintelligent in the eyes of other students the professor 46 The quottalkersquot are 35 students who can be counted on to respond to questions or comments by the professor They account for 50 of the classroom interaction Students also learn to maintain the social situationquot by showing civil attentionquot laughing at the appropriate junctures nodding their heads when necessary and showing enough interest without becoming too involved in the situation Professors interpret these shows of attentionquot as indicating real involvement Students therefore know it s the rare instance where they will be called upon directly by name in a college classroom Professors are unwilling to call upon students by name believing that such tactics will be viewed as hostile by students The end result most students feel quite safe in coming to class without having read the assignment and not having done so secure in the knowledge that they won t be called upon anyway Dropping out nationwide in high school 25 of students 33 million dropped out before graduation in the largest 50 cities 47 of students did not graduate with their class dropouts those retained for failure students who may drop out and then return etc In Georgia 50 of high school freshmen do not graduate with their class Among minority groups the poor innercity and rural residents dropout rates over 50 Academic Standards overall SAT test scores of collegebound seniors have been declining since the 1960s The verbal scores represent an astonishing decline in reading comprehension leading to measures of functional illiteracy amonst adults 30 million 15 adults read at or below 8th grade level innumeracy insufficient math skills affects 22 Recent issues School choice vouchers Magnet Schools and Home Schooling 15000 in 1980 to 21 million in 2011 70 white 15 Hispanic 8 black Also more than 75 million adults are enrolled in educational courses ForProfit Higher Education Helping the poor or subprime scam ForProfit colleges and universities have increased enrollments 236 from 2000 2010 Stockholders are making huge returns on investments Tuitions are extremely high The 6year graduation rate however is astonishingly low 22 In comparison state colleges and universities graduate 60 of their students UGA 84 while private universities graduate 80 Ivy s 95 Median debt a student at forprofit college leaves with is 31000 17000 debt for private university students 8000 debt for public university graduates Forprofits make up 12 of all college students today receive 24 of federal funding for higher education and produce 43 of federal loan defaults unforgivable Many forprofit graduates are unemployable According to critics the college industry continues to thrive Since most students at forprofit schools tend to be from the lower income strata the net result is the rich get richer and the poor getting poorer and further in debt Health and Medicine in Society Health physical mental and social wellbeing Medicine social institution that focuses on combating and improving health Society affects morbidity and mortality in four ways Cultural patterns define health ideas about health amount to a form of social control which encourage conformity to cultural norms competition hard work are healthy cooperation welfare are unhealthy Cultural standards of health change over time 100 years ago women going to college was seen as a danger to their health 50 years ago smoking wasn t seen as health risk today sex can kill Technology affects health industrialization improved healthcare amongst infants and children postindustrialization improved healthcare amongst the elderly Top three killers in 1900 Flupneumonia TB and intestinal diseases Average life span 40 Top three causes of death in 2012 heart disease cancer stroke average life span76 Inequality affects health lower SES persons have less access to healthcare and longevity decreases pre and postnatal care varies dramatically based on class the wealthy live better longer lives the poor live unhealthy shorter lives Social Epidemiology Health and Demography death is rare amongst the young with two exceptions accidents and AIDS Health and Gender The Morbidity Paradox Women outlive men 79 years to 73 years and the gap is increasing Masculinity is associated with coronaryprone behavior TypeA personality aggressiveness competitiveness repressed emotions cigarette smoking drinking alcohol sexual promiscuity are seen as quotmasculinequot and lead to shortened lives and increased rates of heart disease cancer and strokes amongst men Health and Class among the poor infant mortality rates are twice that of middle and upper class infants Cancer and heart disease rates increase in lower SES Rates of mental illness higher in lower classes Health and Race being disproportionately associated with poverty blacks Latinos and Indians suffer more health maladies than whites in society
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