Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 08/23/15
The Scientific Attitude 0 Scientific approach that is skeptical and openminded 0 To shift away from illusions to reality one must use Smart thinking or critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept things but approaches with skepticism and examines the evidence carefully Ask how did they know on guts and instinct Are the evidence biased 0 However must remember to have humility as too extreme would be stubbornness The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense 0 Intuition often ends up nowhere 0 Tend to use a lot hindsight bias tendency to believe that one would have known it after the results are shown 0 Seems like common sense The answer was right there and look how obvious it was 0 Experience it usually when looking back on history eg Glen Clark and the fast ferries 0 Humans tend to be overconfident think we know more than we actually do probably result of selfserving bias 0 Hindsight causes us to be overconfident as we believe we would have picked the answer when the results are in front of us The Scientific Method 0 Scientific theory explanation using set of principles to organisepredict observations 0 No matter how good theory sounds must put it to test 0 Must imply testable prediction hypothesis 0 Beware of bias when testing Good experiment can be replicated the experiment can be repeated and would yield constant results done with a different group of people or by a different person ending with constant results Theory useful if 1 effectively organises range of observations 2 implies clear predictions Case study research method where one person is studied in depth to find universal principles things that apply to all Drawback is that the individual being studied could be atypical results not universally contained Survey research method to get the selfreported attitudesbehaviours of people Looks at cases less depth and wording of question affects the response given framingTend to hang around group similar to us so using them as study is wrong False consensus effect tendency to overestimate other s agreement with us eg Vegetarians believe larger amount of pop is vegetarian than meateaters Population all the cases in the group being studied To make a good sample use random sampling sample that gives each case a good chance of being studied to ensure results within range Naturalistic observation observing and recording behaviour in natural settings with any control on situation Like case study amp survey doesn t explain behaviour When finding a trait that accompanies another not resulting effect but correlation the way 2 factors vary together and how well one predicts the other Positive correlation direct relationship where factors increase or decrease together Negative correlation inverse relationship where one factor goes up while one goes down Does not explain cause simply show relationship between factors Illusory correlation perceiving correlation When none exist Notice random coincidences as not random rather as correlated Experiment To isolate cause amp effect conduct experiments Experimental condition condition that exposes subjects to treatment Control condition condition that serves as a comparison to see effects of treatment on experimental condition subjects Use random assignment assigning subjects to experimentalcontrol groups randomly to ensure no bias Independent variable experimental factor being manipulated and studied by itself alone no need to depend on something xaxis Dependent variable experimental factor that depends on independent variable and changes in response to it y axis Placebo an inert substancecondition that maybe administered instead of a presumed active agent Doubleblind procedure procedure in Which the experimenter and the subject noth don39t know Which treatment is given Chapter 02 Neuroscience Genetics and Behaviors Franz Gall developed the false theory called Phrenology Where bumps on the head dictate personality and intelligence But the theory did direct our attention to brain region and function Psychologists that study these connections between biology and behavior are called Biological Psychologists Neural Communication Our Neural System is basically made up of nerve cells or neurons Each neuron is composed of Dendrites message receiving fibers and Axons message sending fibers which are insulated by the Myelin Sheath fatty cells that help speed up impulses Impulses or Action Potential is a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon as it becomes Depolarized due to the movement of positively charged ions entering the axon After the transmission the axon becomes Polarized as positive ions are pumped out during the Refractory Period The intensity of a stimulus is called the Threshold A stimulus must exceed the threshold in order for a transmission to occur The neuron will either fire or it won t Much like a gun the neuron either fires or it doesn t there are no halffires This is called the allor noneresponse if a stimulus is really strong only the number of neurons firing will increase not their speed The axon terminal of the sending neuron is separated from the receiving neuron by a tiny gap called the Synapse or Synaptic Cleft Once the action potential reaches the synapse neurotransmitters or chemical messengers are released into the gap where it will bind onto specific receptor sites on the receiving neuron The most well know neurotransmitter is Acetylcholine ACh it causes muscles to contract in movement Endorphins are natural opiates produced in the body to control pain and induce pleasure quotMorphine withinquot Agonists are molecules which mimics the shape of natural neurotransmitters Morphine Antagonists are molecules which block neurotransmitters from binding on receptor sites The brain has a Bloodbrain barrier which filters out unwanted chemicals in blood stream Neural and Hormonal Systems The Nervous System is composed of the Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord and Peripheral Nervous System PNS links CNS to body s muscles and glands by means of nerves which are bundles of sensory and Motor Neurons they carry incoming and outgoing information respectively The Autonomic Nervous System under PNS has Sympathetic Nervous System arouses the body for defense increase heartbeat dilating pupils inhibit digestion etc and Parasympathetic Nervous System calms the body after stress A simple Re ex is an automatic response to stimuli like kneejerk involving messages from Sensory to Interneuron Spinal Cord to Motor Neuron 0 The Endocrine System slow hormone secreting system communicates by releasing Hormones chemical messengers into the bloodstream 0 In times of stress the ANS will signal Adrenal Glands above kidney to release epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones also called adrenaline and noradrenaline 0 Pituitary gland is the most powerful endocrine gland and under the in uence of hypothalamus in brain pituitary releases hormones that regulate glands and growth The Brain 0 Lesions remove brain tissue 0 Electroencephalogram EEG measures brain electric activity 0 Computed Tomograph CT or CAT Scan taking Xray photographs of brain 0 Positron emission tomograph PET Scan detects radioactive glucose consumption in brain 0 Magnetic Resonance imaging MRI generates brain images from magnetic activity 0 The brainstem oldest portion in brain forms into the Medulla Oblongata regulates involuntary processes like heartbeat and breathing 0 Within the brainstem lies the reticular formation looks like a fingershaped net which controls arousal when you wake or sleep 0 The Thalamus lies above brainstem and is shaped like two eggs Its function is to act as a sensory switchboard relaying incoming signals to appropriate brain regions But does not relay sensory signals dealing with smell 0 The Cerebellum stores partial memory and learning capacities But it mainly controls balance 0 Limbic System includes Amygdala in uence emotions fear anger and the Hippocampus process memory Removal of amygdala results in emotionless organisms upon arousal 0 The Hypothalamus maintains body homeostasis temperature hunger growth and governs pituitary 0 Glial cells guide and support nerve cells in the brain 0 The brain is divided into 4 regions 0 Frontal Lobe behind forehead has Motor Cortex located at the back of frontal lobe the cortex controls voluntary movement 0 Parietal Lobe top to back of head has Sensory Cortex located in the beginning of parietal lobe the cortex processes bodily senses 0 Occipital Lobe back of head regulates vision 0 Temporal Lobe above ears regulates hearing 0 of the brain is uncommitted to motor or sensory functions Theses brain regions are called Association Areas areas involved in thinking remembering and speaking The larger the association area the more intelligent the species for they are able to anticipate future events 0 The case with Phineas Gage showed researchers that damages in the frontal lobe could result in personality alterations because their normal quotrestraintsquot or inhibitions are erased This was due to a tamping rod that shot from his left cheek and out his head separating his internal motives and external judgement 0 Stages of Language 1 Visual Cortex occipital lobe back of head sees the visual stimulation words 2 Angular Gyrus midside of parietal lobe converts words into auditory code 3 Wernicke s Area between temporal and parietal lobe side of head derives meaning from auditory code 4 Broca s Area midbottom of frontal lobe controls motor cortex 5 Motor Cortex back of frontal lobe activates speech muscles to pronounce word 0 Damage to 1 cannot see 2 cannot read 3 cannot understand 4 and 5 cannot speak 0 Corpus Callosum joins the two hemispheres and is separated to cure epileptic seizures 0 People with separated corpus callosums are referred to as Spiltbrain patients They are unable to say what they see in their left visual field because speech is in left hemisphere and the hemispheres regulate opposite sides of body 0 When splitbrainers are asked to say what they saw the left hemisphere will say what is seen in right visual field when asked to point get or write what they saw the right hemisphere will dictate what is seen in the left visual field 0 Sign language is nevertheless language and is control by left hemisphere if deaf people get a stroke in left hemisphere signing will be disrupted 0 Left Hemisphere Mathematics language logical reasoning meaning 0 Right Hemisphere Perceptual tasks musical artistic emotion face recognition copying information Genetics and Behavior 0 Chromosomes contain Genes which are made up of DNA There are 23 chromosomes in human egg and sperm they are combined fertilized to make a 46 chromosome cell 0 Evolutionary Psychologists study the effects of evolution of behavior of organisms 0 Behavior Geneticists study genetic and environmental effects on behavior using Linkage Analysis 0 Psychologists study Identical Twins two babies within one egg and Fraternal Twins two babies in 2 separate eggs to contrast adoption studies 0 Identical twins have more similarities than fraternal twins 0 Hertitability tell us what percentage of traits are because of genetic factors Traits height intelligence eye color etc are either due to genetic or environment there are no half halves If heritability of intelligence is 70 that means 70 of the people will have inherited intelligence Chapter 03 The Developing Child Prenatal Development and the Newborn 0 At 8 weeks after conception babies are anatomically indistinguishable 45th month different 0 Sex determined by 23rd pair of chromosome 0 X chromosome comes from either mother or father females have two males have one 0 Y chromosome comes from father paired with x to form male 0 Y chromosome stimulates development of male sex organ by producing testosterone most important male sex hormone but females have it too 0 Gender biologically or socially in uenced characteristics which people define as malefemale 0 zygotes fertilized eggs less than half survive pass 2 weeks 0 after 10 days zygote attach to mother s uterine wall and forms placenta for nourishment zygote becomes embryo 0 developing human from 2 weeks to second month 0 after two months looks human called fetus developing human from 2 months to birth 0 fetus hears muf ed version of mother s voice and prefers it after birth 0 harm can come when placenta gets teratogens agents that can harm embryofetus during prenatal stage a mother who is a heroin addict will have a heroin addicted baby 0 newborns are equipped with re exes ideal to survival 0 rooting re ex re ex when touched on cheek to open mouth and find nipple 0 perceptual abilities continue to develop during first month can distinguish mother s odour Infancy and Childhood 0 maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly change in behaviour could be in uenced by experiences 0 maturation sets the basic course of development and experience adjust it lack of neuron connections reason why earliest memories rarely earlier than third birthday experiences help develop neural connections Rosenzweig and Krech reared some young rats in solitary confinement and others in playground found those in playground develop thicker and heavier brain cortex For optimum development early years critical use it or lose it but development exists through life as neural tissues changes experiences nurture nature plasticity brain ability to reoganize pathways to compensate damage if laser damaged spot in cat s eye brain area receiving input from spot will start responding to stimulation from nearby areas in eye brain hardware changes with time can rewired with new synapses children brains most plastic surplus of neurons when neurons are destroyed nearby ones may partly compensate by making new connections experience in uences motor behaviour experiencenurture before biological developmentnature has limited effect Cognitive Development Cognition mental activities associated with knowing thinking amp remembering Piaget believed child s mind develops through series of stages Piaget believed children built schemas concept or framework that organises and interprets info mental molds into which we pour our experience assimilate interpreting new experience in terms of existing schemas given schema for dog child may call 4legged animals doggies to fit new experiences we accommodate adapting one s schemas to incorporate new info child realises doggies schemas too broad and refines category Piaget s 4 stages of Cognitive Development 1 Sensorimotor Stage Birth 2 years old 0 Infants know world in terms of sensory impressions and motor activities 0 Lack objective permanence awareness that things continue to exist when not perceived Baby believes toy only exists when it is starring at it 2 Preoperational Stage preschool 67 years old 0 Child learns to use language but aren t able to comprehend mental operations of concrete logic lacks conservation principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape water from tall thin glass poured into wide at glass would be the same 0 Children are egocentric inability to see another s point of view 3 Concrete Operational Stage 67 11 years old 0 Children gain mental operations that enable logical thinking about concrete events understands conservation and mathematical transformation reversing arithmetic operations 4 Formal Operational Stage 12 years life 0 Reasoning expands from concrete involving actual experiences to abstract thinking involving imagined realities and symbols 0 Children able to solve hypothetical situations and its consequences 0 researchers believe development more continuous than did Piaget Social Development 0 infants develop intense bond with those who care for them prefers familiar faces and voices 0 after object permanence develop stranger anxiety fear of strangers commonly displayed after 8 months of age 0 attachment emotional tie with another person shown by child seeking closeness to caregiver those who are comfortable familiar and responsive to needs and distress when seperated 0 psychologists use to believe attachment through need for nourishment but now consider wrong Harlow s Monkey Studies Harry Harlow bred monkeys of which he separates from mothers shortly after birth in cages were a cheesecloth baby blanket baby monkeys formed intense attachment to blanket distressed when taken away later Harlow created 2 artificial mothers Harlow s Mothers one bare wire cylinder with wooden head other a cylinder wrapped with terry cloth when reared with nourishing wire mother and nonnourishing cloth mother monkeys preferred cloth mother concluded body contact more important than nourishment Critical period an optimal period shortly after birth when organism s exposure to certain stimuliexperience produces proper development first moving object a duckling sees is mother then follows only it Developmental psychologists believe humans don t have precise critical period Imprinting process by which certain animals form attachment during critical period humans don t imprint but becomes attached to known Temperament person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity temperaments endure ex easygoing quiet placid Heredity predispose human differences anxious infants have high heart rates and reactive nervous system identical twins more likely to have similar temperaments than nonidentical Sensitive responsive mothers have infants who are securely attached while the opposite attend only when felt like doing and ignores at other times have infants who are insecurely attached Anxiety over separation from parents peak at 13 months and gradually declines after Erik Erikson claims securely attached children approach life with sense of basic trust sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy Deprivation of attachment causes withdraw fear and other negative consequences most abusive parents have been neglectedbattered as children Many developmentalists believe quality infant day care doesn t hinder secure attachement Divorces place children at increased risk for developing social psychological behavioral and academic problems By age 12 most children develop self concept sense of one s identity and personal worth 0 Children s views of themselves affect actions positive selfconcept produces confidence independence optimism ChildRearing Practices 0 Authoritarian parents imposes rules and expect obedience Why Because I said so 0 Authoritative parents demanding yet responsive exert control by both setting rules and explaining reasons encourages open discussion and allowing exceptions when making rules 0 Permissive parents submit to children s desires make few demands and use little punishment 0 Rej ectingneglecting parents disengaged expect little and invest little 0 Children of authoritative parents have the highest selfesteem selfreliance and social competence 0 Authoritative parenting seems to give children greatest sense of control which yields motivation and selfconfidence Gender 0 Gender identity one s sense of being male or female 0 Gendertyping acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role 0 Social learning theory theory that one learns social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewardedpunished Mother tells daughter that she is being a good mommy to her doll 0 Gender schema theory theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what a malefemale is and adjust their behavior accordingly 0 Genes and experiences intertwine we are the product of interactions between our genetic predispositions and our surrounding environments Chapter 04 Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescence 0 Adolescence transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence 0 Due to improved nutrition sexual maturation occurs earlier nowadays 0 Psychologists note that adolescence is often marked by mood swings 0 Begins with puberty period of sexual maturation during which one first becomes capable of reproducing 2year period of rapid development usually beginning in girls at age 11 and in boys at age 13 0 Primary sex characteristics body structures ovaries testes and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible 0 Secondary sex characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics female breasts and hips male voice quality and body hair 0 Landmarks of puberty for boys are first ejaculation at about 14 and first menstrual period for girls at about 13 0 Menarche first menstrual period 0 Although variation in the timing of growth spurt has little effect in height there are psychological consequences 0 Early maturation is good for boys stronger more athletic and tend to be more popular selfassured and independent 0 Early maturation for girls is stressful but later when peers catch up helps enjoy greater prestige and selfconfidence 0 Reasoning is often selffocused may believe private experiences are unique and no one understands the feelings Kohlberg s Moral Ladder 1 Preconventional morality before age 9 0 Obey to either avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards If you don t feed the dog he will die If you do the dishes you can have desert 2 Conventional morality by early adolescence 0 Morality evolves to a more conventional level that upholds laws simply because they are laws and rules since able to see others perspectives follow actions that gain social approval or maintain social order if you steal everyone would think you are a thief 3 Postconventional morality 0 Those who develop abstract reasoning of formal operational thought follow what affirms people s rights or what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles if you steal the drugs you would not have lived up to your own ideal Robin Hood is a hero because he stole from the rich for the poor 0 As our thinking matures our behavior becomes less selfish and more caring 0 To refine sense of identity adolescents in western cultures try out different selves 0 Different selves gradually reshape to form identity one s sense of self according to Erikson the adolescent s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles 0 Identity searching continues past teen years as it becomes clearer selfesteem increases 0 Erikson contended that after identity stage is developing capacity for intimacy ability to form close loving relationships primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood 0 As identity is formed separation from parents occur Adulthood 0 Physical abilities peak in early adulthood worldclass sprinters and swimmers peak in their teens or early twenties but decline of abilities not noticed till later in life 0 Women because of early maturation peak earlier than men 0 Foremost biological sign of aging in women is menopause time of natural cessation of menstruation refers to biological changes a women experiences as ability to reproduce declines 0 Menopause does not usually create psychological problems for women Women s expectations and attitudes regarding menopause in uence its emotional impact Men experience decline in sperm count testosterone level and speed of erection and ejaculation With age eye s pupil shrinks and lens becomes less transparent reducing light reaching retina Diseasefighting immune system weakens more susceptible to lifethreatening disease but due to lifetime collection of antibodies less suffering of shortterm ailments Since early adulthood small gradual loss of brain cells but can be compensated by active growth of neural connections in people who remain active Some do suffer brain ailment such as Alzheimer s disease progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory reasoning language and physical functions deterioration of neurons that produce neurotransmitter acetylcholine Hard for older people to recall meaningless info but if it is meaningful their rich web of existing knowledge helps them catch it Crosssectional study study in which people of different ages are compared with one another cross the age groups Show that younger people do better than older ones Longitudinal study research in which same people are restudied and retested over long period a group of people for a long time Show that until late in life intelligence remains stable Found that because crosssectional use people of different eras other variables may skew the results but longitudinal may be at fault as those who survive the end of test may be the healthiest smartest Conclude that whether intelligence increasesdecreases depends on type of intellectual preformance measured Crystallized intelligence one s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills tends to increase with age As time passes hardens stronger increases with time Fluid Intelligence one s ability to reason speedily and abstractly tends to decrease with age 0 Types of intelligence explain why mathematicians and scientists produce creative work in early adulthood while those in literature produce best work in late adulthood 0 Social clock culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage parenthood and retirement 0 2 basic aspects of lives dominate adulthood intimacy forming close relationships and generativity being productive and supporting future generations 0 Children are the most enduring of life changes 0 When children leave home the empty nest is for most people a happy place and they report greater happiness and enjoyment of marriage 0 People of all ages report similar levels of happiness and satisfaction with life teenagers have quick changing range of moods while adults have less extreme but more enduring moods Death and Dying 0 Elisabeth KublerRoss proposed that terminally ill pass through 5 stages Dabda 0 Denial unacceptance of ill 0 Anger or resentment Why me 0 Bargaining with God 0 Depression loss of everything and everyone 0 Acceptance peaceful accepting one s fate Chapter 05 Sensation Sensation is referred to as being bottomup processing detecting environmental stimuli from senses up to the brain Sensing the World Some Basic Principles 0 An Absolute Threshold is the lowest amount of stimulus needed to notice it 50 of the time For example you turn down the radio to a point where you only hear the faint sound half the time Then that loudness decibel is your absolute threshold for sound 0 But your detection of a stimulus also depends on your state of arousal expectations experiences and motivation This is described by the Signal Detection Theory predicting when we will notice a weak stimulus signal 0 A stimulus is Subliminal if it is below your absolute threshold you detect it less than 50 of the time For instance a microscopic cell is subliminal to you because you cannot see it with your naked eye 0 Subliminal advertisements Drink Coke eat popcorn etc does have an affect on you but do not persuade you 0 The Difference Threshold just noticeable difference or jnd is the lowest difference you can detect between 2 stimuli 50 of the time For example you are just able to notice the difference between 1kg and 102kg half the time 0 Weber s Law states that two stimuli must differ in percentages or ratios not amount for a person to detect it jnd 0 Sensory Adaptation lowered sensitivity due to constant exposure from a stimulus For example when you go into someone s house you notice an odor but this only lasts for a little while because sensory adaptation allows you to focus your attention on changing environment it is irritating to be constantly reminded that your foot is in contact with the oor Vision 0 Transduction refers to Sensory energy being convert transformed into Neural energyimpulses 0 Light is composed of electromagnetic waves with Wavelengths distance from one peak to another peak on a wave and Amplitudes height of the wave 0 WAVELENGTH determines HUE Color ie Red Blue Green and PITCHFREQUENCY in sound 0 AMPLITUDE determines INTENSITY Brightness ie Bright red dark red and LOUDNESS in sound 0 External Light entering the eye first travels through the Cornea protective layer Pupil an adjustable opening control by Iris muscle around the pupil Lens an oval transparency that changes shape to focus light by a process called Accommodation light is then focused onto the back of the eye called Retina multineuron surface 0 There are 3 basic types of Acuity how sharpclear vision is normal nearsightedness only see near things clearly and farsightedness only see far things clearly 0 The Retina has 2 types of receptor cells Rods detect brightness of light sensitive in dark Cones detect color and detail sensitive in daylight Cells connecting these detectors form the Optic Nerve that sends the impulses to brain 0 Everyone has a Blind Spot a small region in the visual field where nothing could be seen This is because there are no receptor cells where the optic nerve leaves the eye in the retina Normally we don t witness this effect because we have two eyes that compensate for each other s blind spot and the fact that our eyes are constantly moving 0 Fovea is the region in the retina where light is centrally focused The fovea has no rods only cones 0 Nobel prize winners Hubel and Wiesel discovered Feature Detectors in the brain cortex that are sensitive to specific features in what we see ie shape color depth movement form and even postures arm angle gaze 0 Parallel Processing Our brain Processes lots of information simultaneously For example looking at an orange the brain processes the orange color the round shape and the bumpy texture all at the same time 0 People who cannot consciously perceive can still remarkably locate objects but are consciously unaware of how they knew Such a phenomenon is called Blind Sight 0 Color processing is described in 2 stages 1 YoungHelmholtz trichromatic three color theory Light is detected by 3 types of cones each specifically sensitive to Red Blue or Green Combinations of them produce intermediate colors yellow cyan purple 2 OpponentProcess theory Color is then processed by their opponent colors red green blueyellow blackwhite Some cells are excited by blue and inhibited by yellow vice versa Thus you cannot see a bluishyellow 0 Color constancy refers to the importance of surrounding background effects on perceived color Color constancy states that colors don t look different even in different illumination ie sunlight or dark roomGreen leaves will still be green whether on a clear or cloudy day Hearing 0 Frequency Pitch is the number of waves travelling through a point in one second relates to how fast a wave travels 0 Audition or hearing requires sounds waves converted into neural impulses and this is done in the ear 0 Sound travels through the 3 sections of the ear to the brain 0 OUTER EAR Auditory Canal 0 MIDDLE EAR Ear drum tight membrane Hammer Anvil Stirrup 3 small bones connected to ear drum that vibrates when sound waves hit ear drum 0 INNER EAR Cochlea coiled uidfilled tube that contains the Basilar Membrane which is lined with hair cells that vibrates to excite nerve fibers The fibers form the Auditory Canal connecting to the brain 0 Place theory says that we hear different pitches because specific places in the cochlea are stimulated 0 Frequency theory says that we hear different pitches because the speed of neural impulses travelling to the brain matches the speed of the sound waves frequency 0 We can tell which direction a sound is coming from because if it is closer to our right ear the right ear will receive the sound slightly faster than left ear and the brain calculates this difference Consequently if the sound is directly 0 behind or in front where the distance between 2 ears is the same then it is difficult to differentiate 0 Conduction Deafness loss of hearing due to damage of eardrum andor the tiny bones in middle ear Could be fixed by hearing aid 0 Nerve Deafness loss of hearing due to damage to cochlea basilar membrane andor hair cells in the inner ear Could be fixed by a bionic ear implanting a cochlea The Other Senses 0 Touch is composed of 4 senses Warmth Pain Cold and Pressure the only sense with identifiable receptors The other three don t have specific receptors 0 Combinations of these create amazing feelings Ie Warmth and Cold HOT 0 Pressure and Cold WET 0 Pressure and Pain TICKLING ITCH Phantom Limb Sensations occur when pain is felt in a nonexistent limb Even though the leg is not present the recepting neurons previously connected to them are still there And they will fire resulting in pain sensations The GateControl Theory states that the spinal cord has gates that openscloses to transmit pain impulses Small fibers open Gate pain Large fibers close Gate no pain Pain is merely a physical and psychological interpretation Distraction methods where attention is focused elsewhere can ease the felt pain Acupuncturemay affect gate control electrical stimulation exercise can also relieve pain Taste is a Chemical Sense composed of 4 basic senses Sweet Sour Salty and Bitter Taste receptors taste buds regenerate every 1 or 2 weeks but age smoking and alcohol will lower taste bud number and sensitivity Sensory Interaction is when one sense affects another sense thus interacting For example tasting apples and potatoes seem the same if we cannot see it or smell it Smell or Olfaction is also a Chemical Sense that directly transmits information from nose to the temporal lobe The only sense that doesn t first relay impulses to the Thalamus Kinesthesis using sensors in muscles tendons and joints while Vastibular sense using uids in semicircular canal cochlea and vestibular sacs in inner ear both senses our position movement and balance Sensory Restriction Psychologists use REST Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy where you are put into a warm bath with eyes closed or in a totally dark room to lower stimulation and reduce stress or unwanted behaviors ie drinking Chapter 06 Perception Selective Attention Selective attention focusing only on one thing at a time focused awareness only on limited aspect of all that is capable of experiencing you aren t aware of nose in line of vision Cocktail Party Effect example of selective attention ability to focus only on one voice in a huge crowd 0 Unnoticed stimuli has effect women who had listened to tunes previously played to them while unnoticed preferred it later on Perceptual Illusions 0 Visual capture phenomenon when a con ict occurs between vision and another sense vision dominates vision captures other senses overrides 0 in theaters sound comes from behind projector yet perceive as from screen 0 Perceiving voice coming from ventriloquist s dummy Perceptual Organization 0 Humans organize clusters of sensation into gestalt organized whole human tendency to order pieces of info into a meaning picture 0 First perceptual task to perceive figure object as distinct from ground background 0 Figureground organization of visual field into the figures that stand out from the ground 0 Next organize figure into meaningful form color movement likedark contrast 0 To process forms use grouping rules mind follows to organize stimuli into logical groups 0 Grouped into Proximity Similarity Continuity Closure Connectedness visuals on page 185 figure 65 and definition on page 186 of 5 edition 0 Depth perception ability to see objects in 3D even though image sensed by retina are 2D allows distance judgment 0 partly innate born with 0 Gibson and Walker placed 614 months old infants on edge of a visual cliff table half glass half wood making the appearance of a dropoff Mothers then tries to convince infant to crawl pass the normal part of the table onto glass most refused indicating perception of depth 0 Visual cliff laboratory device for testing depth perception in infantsanimals 0 Binocular cues depth cues that depend on both eyes Eyes apart slightly different images brain sees difference retinal disparity bi cue in which the greater the difference between images the closer the object Convergence bi cue in which the more the eyes turns inward the closer the object Monocular cues distance cue that are available to either eye Examples relative size interposition relative clarity texture gradient relative height relative motion linear perspective relative brightness definitions on pages 188189 of 5 edition Brain computes motion base partly on assumption that objects moving away is shrinking amp vise versa Brain reads rapid series of slightly different images as movement phenomenon called stroboscopic movement Another illusion of movement is phi phenomenon perception of movement when lights blink one after the other the lighted arrow signs on the back of parked construction trucks Perceptual constancy perception that objects are not changing even under different lighting allowing identification regardless of angle of view a door is a door even at 45 degree shape constancy angle or 20 feet awaysize constancy Even at same size linear perspective causes one to see one object bigger page 191 figure 613a Interpretation Formerly blind patients often can t recognize objects familiar by touch Sensory restriction like allowing only diffuse unpattemed light does no damage is occurring later in life affect only at infancy suggesting critical period for development Perceptual adaptation ability for our vision to adjust to artificial displacement chicks do not possess this given goggles that shift vision 30 degrees to left humans learn to adjust actions 30 degrees to left Roger Sperry surgically turned eyes of animals found out Fish Frogs Salamanders Note reptiles CAN T ADJUST while Kittens Monkeys Humans Note mammals ADAPTED ESP Expereinces assumptions and expectations give us Perceptual set mental set up to perceive one thing and not another ufolooking objects that are really clouds because can t resist finding a pattern on unpatterned stimuli Much of our perception comes not just from world out there but also from behind the eyes and between the ears 50 of americans believe in extrasensory perception ESP claim perception occurring without sensory input Parapsychology study of paranormal phenomena profession called Parapsychologists Three varieties of ESP Telepathy sending or reading thoughts Clairvoyance perceiving an event unfolding Precognition seeing future Vague predictions can later be interpreted to match events Nostradamus claimed his prophecies could not be interpreted till after the event After many experiments never had a reproducible ESP phenomenon or individual who can convincingly demonstrate psychic ability Chapter 07 States of Consciousness During the midcentury the study of consciousness in psychology ceased But by 1960 new advances in neuroscience permitted the study of mental states again Consciousness is a vague concept that is usually defined by psychologists as the awareness of our environment and ourselves Subconscious processing processes different information simultaneously Parallel Processing Conscious processing processes different information sequentially Serial Processing much like passing stages in law making thus making Conscious processing slow Everyone fantasizes Fantasizing day dreaming may help reduce stress increase creativity and even prepare for future events 0 But some 4 of the population fantasize so vividly that they have a Fantasyprone personality As adults they spend more than half their time fantasizing which eventually leads to difficulties sorting fantasy from reality Sleep and Dreams 0 Facts Everyone dreams the difference lies in whether they remembered it or not Sleepwalkers are not acting out their dreams Sleeplessness have little affect on motivating tasks Circadian rhythm is our Biological clock that runs on a 24hour day cycle But isolated individuals without clocks or daylight usually adopt a 25hour day cycle And if we experience jet lag from travelling our biological clock will reset to adapt After about 15 hours of sleep our eyes start to move rapidly and jerky accompanied by increased brain activity This is called REM sleep Rapid Eye Movement The only time you dream is if you re in REM sleep but you can be in REM sleep and not dream Stages of Sleep Firstly before you sleep you lie in a relaxed state with slow alpha waves showing on the EEG 1 STAGE 1 2 minutes You experience hallucinations experiences without real stimuli such as hyponogoic sensations oating weightlessly knee jerks etc 2 STAGE 2 20 minutes You are now actually asleep Your brain shows periodic bursts of activity called Sleep Spindles and sleep talking could start now or any stage after this 3 STAGE 3 15 minutes Your brain starts showing large and slow delta waves at which you are hard to wake 4 STAGE 4 15 minutes You are now in deep sleep and the brain shows even more delta waves Bedwetting and sleep walking can occur 0 After stage 4 your brain goes back to stage 3 then stage 2 then you enter into an excited state REM sleep 0 paradoxical sleep After REM your sleep goes back to stage 2 and the cycle starts again Except that REM periods get longer over the night and stage 4 and 3 don t happen in the couple of hours before you wake 0 Sleepdeprived effects include suppressed immune systems decreased creativity slight hand tremors slow performance and misperceptions on monotonous tasks BUT a sleep deprived person does as well as anyone on highly motivating tasks running arcade games boxing 0 Sleep helps us regenerate our tissues are restored energy is conserved and growth hormones are released from pituitary Sleep Disorders 0 Insomnia Difficulty falling or staying asleep REM sleep deprived one day makes REM sleep longer on the next REM Rebound Narcolepsy Suddenly falling asleep very dangerous especially when driving Sleep Apnea Suddenly stopped breathing when asleep mostly overweight men that would automatically wake you Night Terrors This is not nightmare when one experience night terrors terrified appearances are observed and only happens during 2 or 3 hours of sleep in stage 4 The next morning the person hardly remembers what happened In contrast nightmares happen in REM Sleep near the morning Dreams 0 Using Freudian terms depicted by Sigmund Freud Manifest content what we remembered the dream to be This is only the cover up underlying every dream is its true meaning called Latent content our unaccepting subconscious thoughts and drives 0 One explanation for dreaming is because dreams organize our thoughts and facilitates memory at the same time dreaming provides constant neural stimulation that preservers our neural pathways 0 Seligman and Yellen 1987 proposed another theory that says dreams are random bursts of activity from the brainstem and the brain tries to make sense of it thus hallucination images are produced in dreams 0 When we dream the amygdala in the limbic system of the brain is most active producing emotions Hypnosis 0 Hypnosis is a state in which you are under the in uence of the hypnotist Heshe may suggest to you that certain behaviors will automatically happen and you under hisher in uence depending on your degree of susceptibility will do exactly what is said 0 Hypnosis could be so powerful that the hypnotist can induce Posthypnotic amnesia temporary not remembering what happened during the hypnosis as well as Posthypnotic suggestion told during the hypnotic session the suggestion is to be carried out when you are not hypnotized For example After the count of three you are to awaken and from now on approach every situation with a positive attitude 0 Hypnosis can relieve pain and heal soars but it cannot give you superhuman abilities what you can do in hypnosis you can also do in normal conscious states with a little positive encouragement 0 Hypnosis relieves pain with a dissociation method divided consciousness theory that involves a split dissociate between levels of consciousness Such as splitting the sensation of pain from emotional pain so your skin might register the pain but you won t feel the suffering 0 Another method is described by the Social in uence theory where the subject of hypnosis is merely caught up in playing hisher role so that heshe could ignore the pain 0 Since hypnotized people report less pain when their arms are placed in ice water Ernest Hilgard decided to test if a part of them realizes the pain So when he asked them to press a key if some part of them felt pain they press the key So there must be a hidden observer a split consciousness that involuntarily knows what is happening Drugs and Consciousness 0 Psychoactive drugs chemicals that change how you think and feel and usually produces a tolerance using larger and larger doses to experience the same effect If this happens quitting will be very difficult because of unpleasant withdrawal effects that indicate a physical dependence and a psychological dependence on the drug 0 FACTS Using drugs medically more often don t cause addiction addiction is not like a disease and can be overcome voluntarily without therapy being addicted to something is not an excuse to be sympathized you are responsible for your actions 0 Depressants drugs that slow and calm neural activity 1 Alcohol Impairs judgement and inhibitions and prevents recent events to go into longterm memory Also people who are made to believe they are drinking alcohol exhibited less sexual restraints Barbiturates tranquilizers This drug is similar to alcohol because it lowers activity in Sympathetic nervous system Large doses of barbiturates can cause death Opiates Morphine and Heroin Opium derivatives that depress brain activity and brings pleasure with addiction ultimately leading to death The pain of withdrawal is accompanied with these drugs because the brain stops producing its own endorphins and becomes dependent on it 0 Stimulants drugs that speed up and excite body activity Caffeine nicotine Cocaine and amphetamines Increasing heart and breathing rates that boost mood or athletic performances After the drug wears off the user will experience a crash that involves headaches tiredness grouchiness and even depression Of them Cocaine is the most powerful stimulant in that it blocks reuptake of dopamine neurotransmitters Thus dopamine remains in the synapse to intensify moods 0 Hallucinogens Drugs that create distorted perceptions and thoughts without real stimuli l LSD PCP acid that makes you see shapes colors and even outof body experiences accompanied by various emotions Marijuana Drug containing an organic compound called THC that can cause relaxation euphoric high and increases sensitivity to colors tastes and sounds Adverse effects however include impaired judgement lung damage disrupted memory decreasing reaction time and lowering sex hormones 0 Contrary to popular belief African American high school seniors report the lowest rates of use for all drugs Johnston amp others 1994 1996 0 Neardeath experience is a state of consciousness reported after being close to death These same experiences such as seeing bright tunnels are often experienced from LSD drug hallucination or oxygen deprivation 0 Dualism presumes that the mind and body are two distinct parts that usually separate after death Monism however presumes that the mind and body are just different aspects of the same thing and that we cannot exist without our bodies Chapter 08 Learning One of our most enduring abilities that have ensured our survival is adaptivity which in turn is crafted by Learning an enduring change in behavior and knowledge due to experience Organisms learn by forming associations between cause and effect or two events In other words they are exhibiting associative learning People associate the sight of lightning with thunder so next time they see lightning they anticipate thunder Behaviorism developed by Behaviorist John Watson is the view that psychology should be and objective science Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning developed by Ivan Pavlov the type of learning in which stimuli is associated with an Involuntary Response Pavlov was famous for his dog salvation experiment in which he accustomed dogs to salivate at the tone of ringing Respondent Behavior An automatic response to a certain stimuli responding behaviors Unconditioned Response UCR The normal response that is generated unlearned Ie In Pavlov s experiment the normal response a dog has when presented with food is salivation Unconditioned Stimulus UCS The stimulus that triggers a normal response UCR Ie The food is the UCS in Pavlov s experiment Conditioned Response CR The response that is learned conditioned Ie Pavlov s dogs learned to salivate upon the presence of a ringing tone Conditioned Stimulus CS A neutral stimulus that triggers a learned response Ie The ringing is a CS because the dogs learned to salivate at the presence of a ringing tone as opposed to food This kind of association is possible because Pavlov presented a ringing tone every time before food is given to the dog Eventually the dog learned to anticipate food at the sound of ringing so they salivate There are 5 major processes with Classical Conditioning 1 Acquisition The initial formation of the association between CS and CR This works well when the CS is presented half a second before UCS is presented 2 Extinction If the UCS is not presented after CS for a couple of times the organism will lose receptivity to the CS Ie If after the ringing tone no food arrives the dog stops to salivate at the presence of just a tone 3 Spontaneous Recovery However if the UCS is again presented after the CS extinction ceases and the organism again begins to respond to the CS Ie the food is again presented after ringing dog sa1ivates 4 Generalization The tendency for organisms to respond similarly to similar generalization stimuli as the CS Ie Pavlov s dog salivating to the sound of beeping that is similar to ringing This is good because if you teach children to watch out for cars they will also watch out for similar objects like trucks and vans 5 Discrimination The ability to distinguish discriminate between different stimuli so you don t react the same way to everything 0 Two contradicting facts Rats will learn to avoid food that made them ill even if the illness happens hours after eating it Second Rats will dislike the taste that made them ill but not the sight of the food 0 Pavlov s Classical Conditioning has led to a variety of practical uses like helping drug addicts increasing the immune system efficiency and treating emotional disorders Operant Conditioning 0 Operant Conditioning developed by BF Skinner is a type of learning where organisms learn to Voluntarily respond a certain way depending on the consequences like reward or punishment 0 Operant Behavior The learned behavior that acts upon the situation and this behavior produces consequences Ie If you learned that eating on the bed makes your parents mad at you your eating behavior will change depending on what kind of responses you want the situation parents yelling or not to have 0 Law of Effect Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to occur again 0 Skinner Box The box Skinner used to research on animal behavior The box has a barbutton that the animal can push to obtain rewards food The rate of pushing is recorded 0 Shaping Gradually rewarding the organism as it approaches the desired behavior Ie If you want a bird to peck on a bar you would feed it every time it got closer and closer to the bar but ignoring every other behavior it does Thus you are shaping the behavior with successive approximations Reinforcers anything that increases the chances of the behavior happening again Positive Reinforcement Rewards like appraisal money food Negative Reinforcement Removing of aversive events Ie freeing from jail stopping someone crying eating medicine that rids a cold and drinking cold water to cool you down Taking away bad things Primary Reinforcers Things that satisfies Inborn biological needs Ie Food water warmth etc Secondary Reinforcers Learned things that are strengthened by primary reinforcers Ie Money which can buy food primary reinforcer praises high grades smiles which are all associated with basic needs of happiness Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing the behavior every time it occurs This method of learning is quick But when reinforcement stops extinction can happen very quickly Partial Reinforcement Reinforcing a behavior parts of the time Acquisitionleaming is slow but more resistant to extinction Four schedules of Partial reinforcement 1 FixedRatio Reinforcement after fixed number of responses Ie Getting candy after washing the oor every 3 times 2 VariableRatio Reinforcement after an unpredictable number of responses Ie Getting candy after washing the oor 2 times then getting candy after washing 5 times then 3 times 3 FixedInterval Reinforcement after a fixed amount of time Ie Getting Candy 3 hours after every time the oor is washed 4 VariableInterval Reinforcement after an unpredictable amount of time Ie Getting Candy 2 hours after the oor is washed then getting candy 5 hours after washing then 3 hours Punishment Opposite of reinforcement punishment decreases the chances of a behavior reoccurring Although punishment can successfully stop the undesired behavior it also has drawbacks Punished behaviors are not forgotten just suppressed until appropriate situations punishment increases aggressiveness and attributes them to the punisher Cognitive Map Mental images of ones surroundings Ie Mice develop cognitive maps that represent a maze they just ran through Latent Learning Demonstration of acquired knowledge only when it is needed Ie Mice who explored a maze only demonstrate that they know the maze well by directly going to the food placed the previous time Overjustification Effect Giving a reward for something the organism already likes to do This is unfavorable because the organism will lose the intrinsic interest and rely on rewards for they behavior Ie Being paid to put together your favorite puzzle Skinner s Operant Conditioning has many useful applications like increasing student performance in uencing productivity in jobs and helping shape children behaviors Learning by Observation Observational learning Researched by Albert Bandura in the 1960 s this is a type of learning that is accomplished by Modeling watching specific behaviors of others and imitating them Prosocial Behavior Actions that are constructive beneficial and nonviolent These behaviors can prompt similar ones in others Thus Prosocial Experiments show that children do exactly what their models parents do Hypocritical parents say one thing and do another their children will say what they say and do what they do Chapter 09 Memory Memory persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of info Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event San Francisco residence recalling 1989 Earthquake Human memory like a computer 1 Get info into our brain encoding processing of info into memory system 2 Retain info storage retention of encoded info over time 3 Get it back later retrieval process of getting into out of memory storage Humans store vast amounts of info in longterm memory relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system 0 Shortterm memory activated memory that holds few items brie y phone number just dial Encoding Getting Information In 0 Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental info occurs with little or no effort without our awareness and without interfering with our thinking of other things space time frequency welllearned info 0 Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort memorizing these notes for the AP Psychology exam 0 After practice effort processing becomes more automatic reading from right to left for students of Hebrew 0 Can boost memory through rehearsal conscious repetition of info either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage 0 Nextinline effect when people go around circle saying nameswords poorest memories are for nameword person before them said 0 Info received before sleep is hardly ever remembered are consciousness fade before processing able 0 Retain info better when rehearsal distributed over time phenomenon called spacing effect tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better longterm retention than is achieved through cramming 0 When given a list of items and ask to recall people often demonstrate serial position effect tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list 0 Rehearsal will not encode all info equally well because processing of info is in 3 ways 1 Semantic encoding encoding of meaning including the meaning of words 2 Acoustic encoding encoding of sound especially the sound of words 3 Visual encoding encoding of picture images 0 Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving ashed a word to people asking question that required processing either visually acoustically or semantically semantic encoding was found to yield much better memory 0 Imagery mental pictures powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with semantic encoding 0 can easily picture where we were yesterday where we sat and what we wore 0 Mnemonic memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices 0 Chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically Able remember info best when able to organize it into personal meaningful arrangements Forgetting as Encoding Failure 0 Failure to encode info never entered memory system 0 Much of what we sense we never notice 0 Raymond Nickerson and Marilyn Adams discover most people cannot pick the real American penny from different ones See pg 280 Storage Retaining Information 0 Sensory memory immediate initial recording of sensory info in memory system 0 we have short temporary photographic memory called iconic memory momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli photographicpictureimage memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a sec visual eye which sounds like I in iconic also eeting memory for auditory sensory images called echoic memory momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 sec auditory ear which starts with e like echoic 0 ShortTerm Memory 0 without active processing shortterm memories have limited life 0 shortterm memory limited in capacity about 7 chunks of info at any given moment can consciously process only very limited amount of info 0 LongTerm Memory 0 capacity for storing longterm memories is practically limitless though forgetting occurs as new experiences interfere with retrieval and as physical memory trace gradually decays Karl Lashley removed pieces of rat s cortex as it ran through maze found that no matter what part removed partial memory of solving maze stayed concluded memories don t reside in single specific spot Psychologists then focus on neurons Longterm potential LTP increase in a synapse s firing potential after brief rapid stimulation believed to be neural basis for learning and memory After longterm potential occurs passing electric current through brain won t disrupt old memories but wipe up recent experiences football player with blow to head won t recall name of play before the blow Drugs that block neurotransmitters also disrupt info storage drunk people hardly remembers previous evening Stimulating hormones affect memory as more glucose available to fuel brain activity indicating important event sears events onto brain remembering first kiss earthquake Amnesia loss of memory Found that people who don t have memories can still learn indicating 2 memory systems operating in order Implicit memory retention without conscious recollection of skills and dispositions how to do something Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare remember it was done before Through scans found that Hippocampus neural center located in limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage Damage to left side of hippocampus produce difficulty in remembering verbal info but no trouble recalling visual designs and locations Damage to right side produce difficulty in remembering visual designs and locations but no trouble recalling verbal info When hippocampus removed from monkeys lose recent memories but old memories intact suggesting hippocampus not permanent storage Longterm memories scattered across various parts of frontal and temporal lobes Retrieval Getting Information Out Recall measure of memory in Which the person must retrieve information learned earlier fillintheblank test Once learned and forgotten relearning something becomes quicker than When originally first learned Recognition measure of memory in Which the person need only identify items previously learned multiplechoice test Relearning memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved When relearning previously learned info Through tests on recognition and relearning found one remember more than can recall To retrieve specific memory need to identify one of the strands that leads to it process called priming activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory Retrieval cues reminders of info such as photographs often prime one s memories for earlier experiences Best retrieval cues comes from associations formed at time When one encodes memory By being in similar context surrounding can cause ood of retrieval cues and memories Being in similar context as before may trigger experience deja vu eerie sense that I ve experienced this before Cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience Things we learn in one state joyful sad drunk sober etc are more easily recalled When in same state phenomenon called statedependent memory Moods also associated With memory easily recall memory When mood of that incident same as present Moodcongruent memory tendency to recall experiences that are consistent With one s current good or bad mood Forgetting as Retrieval Failure Learning some items may interfere with retrieving others Proactive interference forwardacting disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info old combination lock numbers may interfere with recalling of new numbers pro after new interference interference on new info Retroactive interference backwardacting disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info teachers who just learn students names from present class have trouble recalling previous class students names retro before old interference interference on old info Repression in psychoanalytic theory the basic defence mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories from consciousness Increasing memory researchers think repression occurs rarely Memory Construction Misinformation effect incorporating misleading info into one s memory of an event miscalling a stop sign when asked about car crash Source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced heard about read about or imagined Chapter 10 Thinking and Language Thinking Cognition mental activity associated with processing understanding and communicating info To think about so many things we group them into concepts mental grouping of similar objects events or people Prototype The best representation of a concept Ie A dog maybe a good example of the concept of four legged animals Algorithm A logical procedure guaranteed to solve a problem This method is slow but less likely to make mistakes Ie unscramble the letters in SOSIA to find the word An Algorithmic approach would be to try all the possible combinations of letters Heuristic Using ruleof thumb strategies to solve problems and make judgements efficiently This method is faster but more likely to make mistakes Ie Unscramble SOSIA A Heuristic approach would not try combinations with 2 88 s together Insight A sudden ash of inspiration and the solution to problem comes to you This contrasts with strategic problem solving methods Confirmation Bias You tend to look for answers that confirm your own expectations guesses Fixation Inability to look at a problem from a different perspective Mental Set A type of fixation that works on previous solutions that are successful It is like your mind is set on your mental set Functional Fixedness You tend to think of things in their usual functions Ie Inability to see that a paperclip could also be used as a hook instead of clipping papers Representative Heuristics The tendency to judge things according to how well they match a prototype Thinking in terms on well something represents another Ie if I say a person is strong muscular and fast you might think the person is some sort of athlete because those qualities best represent an athlete However the person could very well be a fit professor Availability Heuristics The tendency to base the likelihood of events on how vivid you remembered them How available the instance is in your memory Ie If your printer broke down once and took you forever to fix it so that you remember the instance greatly the next time you advise someone about a printer you ll most likely say printers break down easily Overconfidence Overestimating the accuracy of your judgements Same as being Overconfident Framing The way information is shown or setup Just like how something is framed as in framing of a picture If the picture is of fruits and the frame looks like an interwoven wooden thread then the picture looks very natural If the picture is placed around a frame that is grey and metalliclike the effect is very different Just like ifI frame the statement there is a 70 chance of winning as opposed to 30 chance of losing Belief bias The tendency to perceive what is con icting with our beliefs to be illogical Belief Perseverance Tendency for your beliefs to remain or preserve even if where you formulated the belief is a wrong source Ie if Jim tells you that dogs can run faster than cats and you believe it then even If you find out that Jim is a mental patient your belief that dogs are faster than cats still remain 0 Artificial Intelligence AI Computerized systems that mimic human thinking abilities 0 Neural Networks Computer circuitry that resemble the real neural networks of interconnected neurons in the brain Language 0 Language The combination of gestured spoken andor written words to communicate meaning 0 Phoneme The smallest sound unit Ie In fish there are 3 phonemes f i sh 0 Morpheme The smallest meaningful unit this includes presuffices Ie I a dog ed un me are all morphemes 0 Grammar Rules in a language that allows us to properly understand it 0 Semantics How we get meaning from morphemes words and sentences 0 Syntax How to combine words into meaningful sentences 0 Babbling Stage 34 months after birth A stage in speech development where the infant utters sounds unlike the family language 0 Oneword stage 12 years old A stage in speech development where the infant speaks single words 0 Twoword stage 2 years old Infants speak in twoword phrases that resemble Telegraphic speech speech like a telegram Ie Want candy me play no eat etc 0 A child can learn any language and will spontaneously invent meaningful words to convey their wishes However after age 7 the ability to master a new language greatly declines 0 Animals also communicate whether by means of sound or behavior just as bees dictate the location of nectar with an elaborate dance 0 Allen Gardner and Beatrice Gardner researchers of University of Nevada successfully taught a chimpanzee to perform sign language as means of communication Thinking and Language Linguistic Benjamin Lee Whorf s Linguistic Relativity states language determines how we think This is most evident in polylinguals speaking 2 or more languages Ie Someone who speaks English and Chinese will feel differently depending on which language they are using English has many words describing personal emotions and Chinese has many words describing interpersonal emotions However Thinking could occur without language This is evident in pianists and artists where mental images nourish the mind Therefore thinking and language affect each other in an enduring cycle Chapter 11 Intelligence We use intelligence tests to give a numerical value to ones mental abilities by comparing them to others The Origins of Intelligence Testing Francis Galton 18221911 had great enthusiasm in measuring human traits that lead to the eugenics movement His goal was to quantify human superiority by means of tests on strength reaction time sensory precision and even head size Despite his efforts no correlation whatsoever was found between general mental abilities and the traits Alfred Binet founder of modern intelligence testing sought methods to identify students who would have difficulties in regular classes by measuring ones Mental Age if you perform the way atypical 10 year old would then your mental age is 10 years old regardless of your real age This lead to labelling problems 16 people saw your level of intelligence and not really who you are Lewis Truman developed the current StanfordBinet intelligence test The test measures IQ Intelligence Quotient mental age divided by chronological agereal age times 100 If you are 12 years oldchronological age and your mental abilities are the same as those who are 12 years old mental age Then your IQ is 1212 X 100 100 the average IQ The stanfordBinet test became applied to many people of differing races The result Truman realized the reason why nonAnglo Saxons did worst is because the test measures not only their innate abilities but also education and cultural distinctiveness What is Intelligence 0 We define Intelligence as the abilitycapacity to be goal oriented and exhibit adaptive behavior 0 IQ is not a fixed thing one has it is merely a score one obtains from a test 0 Know that intelligence is always expressed in a context Ie in the context of warriors musicians engineers artists different intelligence levels will be expressed in different areas by one individual 0 To determine if many factors undermine ones general mental ability psychologists make use of factor analysis a statistical method that identifies a variety of related factors in a test 0 Charles Spearman believed that there is a general intelligence factor or g factor undermining each abilityfactor Ie those who excelled in reasoning also did quite well in all other areas such as spatial ability verbal memory and word uency 0 People with Savant syndrome excel exceptionally in one abilityskill but has limited mental abilities Ie a 12 year old who has difficulty speaking and walking but can compute numbers as fast as a calculator Thus contrary to the g factor Howard Gardner believes we have multiple intelligences that are independent of each other 0 Also supporting the multiple intelligence theory is the existance of emotional intelligence the ability to manage express understand and perceive emotions People with high emotional intelligence do better in social situations and thus are more successful in careers marriages and parenting This E1 is independent if not negatively correlated with academic intelligence 0 With modern brain imaging techniques researchers still fail as did with Galton to find significant correlation between head size and intelligence 0 Brains of people with high performances are less active intake less glucose quick and registers information with more complexity One explanation for this could be that people with faster cognitive processes acquire more information Assessing Intelligence 0 Aptitude tests predict your future performance or ability to learn new skill Ie college entrance examdesigned to test your ability to do college work intelligence tests physical examinations 0 Achievement tests assesses your current knowledge or what you know Ie final course examinations designed to test the knowledge you already obtained during the course and chapter tests 0 Currently the most widely used intelligence test is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS it has 11 subtests and gives a verbal score a performance score and an overall score Large differences between the verbal and nonverbal scores indicate possible learning difficulties 0 Psychological tests must meet all 3 of the following criteria in order to be widely accepted 1 Standardization To standardize a test it must first be given to a large representative sample of people in which their scores will be set as the standard for comparison 0 Normal curve a bell shaped curve of scores formed by standardized test results The majority 68 of people fall within the center or average of the curve 2 Reliability To be reliable a test must yield consistent results This is done by comparing scores on two halves of a test or by retesting 3 Validity The degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure 0 Content validity corresponds to achievements tests The extent to which a test measures it s intended behavior 0 Predictive validity or criterionrelated validity corresponds to aptitude tests The success the test has in predicting intended behavior 0 Criterion The behavior being tested 0 Flynn Effect Intelligence tests worldwide show an increase in scores since 1960 s BUT aptitude test scores are decreasing Possible explanations Greater academic diversity better education andor improved nutrition The Dynamics of Intelligence 0 Before age 3 except for extremely impaired children casual observations and intelligence tests predict future aptitudes minimally but by age 3 performances on intelligence tests begin to predict adolescent and adult scores 0 By age 7 intelligence tests become more stable and increases in stability with age of child 0 Mental retardation condition of limited mental ability as indicated by an intelligence score of below 70 and produces difficulty in adapting to demands of life varies from mild to profound ONLY one percent of population meets criteria and males outnumber females by 50 percent 0 One cause of mental retardation is Down syndrome physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one s genetic makeup 0 Creativity ability to produce novel and valuable ideas 0 Discovered that certain level of aptitude is necessary but not sufficient for creativity correlates but only to certain level score of about 120 0 Those who are freed from concern of social approval demonstrate better creativity Genetic and Environmental In uences on Intelligence 0 IQ scores of identical twins are virtually the same as though one person taking test twice whereas IQ scores of fraternal twins are less similar 0 Evidence of environmental in uence fratemal twins who are no more genetically alike than any other sibling but are treated more alike tend to score high than other siblings 0 Adopted children score more similar to their biological parents than their adopted parents 0 Heritability proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes heritability of trait may vary depending on range of populations and environments studied 0 Environment that siblings share in uences their aptitudes marginally but significantly in uences scholastic achievements 0 Psychologist J McVicker Hunt tested the benefits of responsive caregiving trained caregivers to play vocal games with infants in which first they imitated babies babbling then led babies in vocal followtheleader shifting from one familiar sound to another and finally begin to teach them sounds from Persian language results were all 11 infants could name more than 50 objects and body parts by 22 months Hunt s experiment shows importance of environment on children s intelligence 0 Racial groups differ in average scores on intelligence tests Difference not mostly based on genetics unlike individual performance differences because heritability within groups would not eliminate the possibility of strong environmental impact on the group differences Example IQ performances of today s betterfed and bettereducated population exceeds those from 1930s population by the same amount as average white today exceed average africanamerican Girls are better spellers and are equal or surpasses average boy in math grades but boys tend to score better in math problem solving David Geary and Irwin Silverman speculate that skills came from evolutionary perspective where males tend to be stronger in skills that their ancestral fathers needed such as tracking prey and navigating way home whereas females were enhanced in keen memory for location of edible planes by their ancestral mothers Researchers discovered that some people are better emotional detectors than others while women are better at it than men Some speculate that through evolution where ancestral mother learned to read emotions of infant and may have further being fueled by cultural tendencies to encourage empathic skills Chapter 12 Motivation Motivation Motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Instinct complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unleamed DriveReduction Theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Homeostasis 1 tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state 2 regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level Incentives a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 0 Selfactualization needs Need to live up one s fullest and unique potential 1 Esteem needs Need for selfesteem achievement competence and independence need for recognition and respect from others 2 Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved to belong and be accepted need to avoid loneliness and alienation 3 Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable need to feel safe secure and stable 4 Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst 0 begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied 0 the higherlevel safety needs become active 0 then psychological needs become active MotivationHunger 0 Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger 0 Glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood 0 provides the major source of energy for body tissues 0 when its level is low we feel hunger 0 Set Point 0 the point at which an individual s weight thermostat is supposedly set 0 when the body falls below this weight an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight 0 Metabolic Rate body s base rate of energy expenditure 0 The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions Eating Disorders 0 Anorexia Nervosa 0 When a normalweight person diets and becomes significantly underweight yet still feeling fat continues to starve 0 Usually and adolescent female 0 When a person weighs less than 85 of their normal body weight 0 95 of sufferers are female 0 most are between the ages of 1830 0 30 of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa die 0 Bulimia Nervosa 0 Disorder characterized by private bingepurge episodes of overeating usually of high caloric foods followed by vomiting or laxative use Sexual Motivation 0 Sex is a physiologically based motive like hunger but it is more affected by learning and values 0 Sexual Response Cycle 0 The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson 1 Excitement 2 Plateau 9 Orgasm 4 Resolution 0 Refractory Period resting period after orgasm during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm 0 Estrogen a sex hormone secreted in greater amounts by females than by males 0 Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation 0 Imaginative stimuli 0 External stimuli 0 Physiological readiness 0 Sexual Disorders problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning 0 In Men 1 Premature ej aculation ejaculation before they or their partners Wish 2 Impotence inability to have or maintain erection 0 In Women 1 Orgasmic disorder infrequent or absent orgasms 2 Sexual Orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of Wither one s own gender homosexual orientation or the other gender heterosexual orientation Motivation 0 Achievement Motivation a desire for significant accomplishment 0 For mastery of things people or ideas 0 For attaining a high standard 0 McClelland and Atkinson believed fantasies would re ect achievement concerns 0 Intrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective Extrinsic Motivation desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment Rewards Affect Motivation 1 Controlling reward Mom I ll give you 500 for every A 2 Extrinsic Motivation Child As long as she pays I ll study 3 Informative reward Mom Your grades were great Let s celebrate by going out for dinner 4 Intrinsic Motivation Child I love doing well IndustrialOrganizational IO Psychology subfield of psychology that studies and advises on workplace behavior IO Psychologists help organizations select and train employees boost morale and productivity and design products and assess responses to them Task Leadership goaloriented leadership that sets standards organizes work and focuses attention on goals Social Leadership grouporiented leadership that builds teamwork mediates con ict and offers support Theory X Assumes that workers are basically lazy errorprone and extrinsically motivated by money Should be directed from above Theory Y Assumes that given challenge and freedom workers are motivated to achieve self esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity Chapter 13 Emotion Emotion a response of the whole organism Physiological arousal 0 Expressive behaviors 0 Conscious experience Emotional Arousal 0 Autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal 0 Arousal and Performance Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks and at higher levels for easy or welllearned tasks EmotionLie Detectors 0 Polygraph machine that is commonly used in attempt to detect lies measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion ie perspiration heart rate blood pressure breathing changes0 0 Control Question 0 Up to age 18 did you ever physically harm anyone 0 Relevant Question 0 Did the deceased threaten to harm you in any way 0 RELEVANT gt CONTROL LIE 0 Is 70 accuracy good 0 Assume 5 of 1000 employees actually guilty after testing all employees 285 will be wrongly accused 0 What about 95 accuracy 0 Assume that 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty after testing all employees 50 are wrongly declared guilty and 1 of 51 testing positive are guilty 2 Experiencing Emotion 0 The amygdala is a neural key to fear learning 0 Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis quotreleasingquot aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges 0 Feelgood dogood phenomenon people39s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood 0 Subjective WellBeing self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life used along with measures of objective wellbeing physical and economic indicators to evaluate people s quality of life 0 AdaptationLevel Phenomenon tendency to from judgements relative to a neutral level ie brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience 0 Relative Deprivation perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself Theories of Emotion 0 Does you heart pound because you are afraid or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding 0 J amesLange Theory of Emotion Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli 0 CannonB ard Theory of Emotion Emotionarousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion 0 Schachter s Two Factor Theory of Emotion To experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal 0 Emotion and cognition feed on each other Chapter 14 Personality Personality An individual s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting Four basic perspectives Psychoanalytic Trait Humanistic Socialcognitive From Freud s theory Which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations in uence personality The Psychoanalytic Perspective Psychoanalysis Technique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Freud s psychoanalytic theory of personality sought to explain What he observed during psychoanalysis Free Association Method of exploring the unconscious Person relaxes and says Whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Unconscious Freuda reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts Wishes Feelings and memories Contemporaryinformation processing of Which we are unaware Preconscious information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness Personality Structure ID A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy Strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives Operates on the pleasure principle Demanding immediate gratification SUPEREGO The part of personality that presents internalized ideals Provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations EGO The largely conscious executive part of personality Mediates among the demands of the id superego and ego Operates on the reality principle satisfying the id s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain Personality Development STAGE Psychosexual Stages the childhood stages of development during which the pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Oedipus Complex a boy s sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father Freud s Psychosexual Stages FOCUS Oral 018 months Anal 1836 months Pleasure centers on the mouthsucking biting chewing Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination coping with demands for control Phallic 36 years Latency 6 to puberty Genital puberty on Pleasure zone in genitals coping with incestuous sexual feeling Dormant sexual feelings Maturation of sexual interests Personality Development Identification the process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos Gender Identity one s sense of being male or female Fixation a lingering focus of pleasureseeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage where con icts were unresolved Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms the ego s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts feelings and memories from consciousness Regression defense mechanism in which an individual retreats when faced with anxiety to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated Reaction Formation defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites People may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxietyarousing unconscious feelings Projection defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Rationalization defense mechanism that offers selfjustifying explanations in place of the real more threatening unconscious reasons for one s actions 0 Displacement defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person as When redirecting anger towards a safer outlet NeoFreudians 0 Alfred Adler importance of childhood social tension 0 Karen Horney sought to balance Freud s masculine biases 0 Carl Jung emphasizes collective unconscious concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history Assessing The Unconscious 0 Projective Test a personality rest such as the Rorschach or TAT that provided ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one s inner dynamics 0 Thematic Apperception Test TAT a projective test in Which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes 0 Rorschach Inkblot Test the most Widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots designed by 0 Hermann Rorschach to identify people s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots The Trait Perspective 0 Trait a characteristic pattern of behavior a disposition to feel and act as assessed by selfreport inventories and peer reports 0 Personality Inventory a questionnaire often With truefalse or agreedisagree items on Which people respond to items designed to gauge a Wide range of feelings and behaviors used to assess selected personality traits 0 The Big Five personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Selfsatisfied versus selfpitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Funloving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Extraversion Softhearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI 0 The most Widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests 0 Originally developed to identify emotional disorders still considered its most appropriate use 0 Now used for many other screening purposes 0 Empirically Derived Test a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups similar to MMPI Evaulating The Trait Perspective 0 Situational in uences on behavior are important to consider 0 People can fake desirable responses on selfreport measures of personality Averaging behavior across situations seems to indicate that people do have distinct personality traits Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow l908l970 studied selfactualization processes of productive and healthy people SelfActualization the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and selfesteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one s potential Carl Rogers 19021987 focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals Requires three conditions 1 Genuineness 2 Acceptance unconditional positive regard 3 Empathy Unconditional Positive Regard an attitude of total acceptance toward another person SelfConcept all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in an answer to the question Who am 1 SelfEsteem one s feelings of high or low selfworth SelfServing Bias a readiness to perceive oneself favorably Individualism giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications Collectivism giving priority to the goals of one s group often one s extended family or work group and defining one s identity accordingly Evaluating The Humanistic Perspective Concepts like selfactualization are vague Emphasis on self may promote selfindulgence and lack of concern for others Theory does not address reality of human capacity for evil Theory has impacted popular ideas on child rearing education management etc SocialCognitive Perspecitve Reciprocal Determinism the interacting in uences between personality and environmental factors Personal Control our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless External Locus of Control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one s personal control determine one s fate Internal Locus of Control the perception that one controls one s own fate Learned Helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns When unable to avoid repeated aversive events Built from research on learning and cognition Fails to consider unconscious motives and individual disposition Today cognitivebehavioral theory is perhaps predominant psychological approach to explaining human behavior Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorder a condition in which behavior is judged Atypicalnot enough in itself Disturbing varied With time and culture Maladaptive harmful Unjustifiable sometimes there39s a good reason Historical Perspective Perceived Causes movements of sun or moon eVil spirits Ancient Treatments exorcism caged like animals beaten burned castrated mutilated blood replaced With animals blood Psychological Disorders Medical Model Concept that diseases have physical causes Can be diagnosed treated and in most cases cured Assumes that these quotmentalquot illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy in a psychiatric hospital Biopsychosocial Perspective assumes that biological sociocultural and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders Etiology DSMIV American Psychiatric Association39s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders A Widely used system for classifying psychological disorders Neurotic disorder Usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing With anxiety Psychotic disorder Person loses contact With reality Experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder client is tense apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal Phobia persistent irrational fear of a specific object or situation ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder characterizes by unwanted repetitive thoughts obsessions andor actions compulsions Panic Disorder marked by a minuteslong episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain choking or other frightening sensation Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders conscious awareness becomes separated dissociated from previous memories thoughts and feelings Dissociative Amnesia selective memory loss often brought on by extreme stress Dissociative Fugue ight from one39s home and identity accompanies amnesia Dissociative Identity Disorder rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities also known as multiple personality disorder Mood Disorders Mood Disorders characterized by emotional extremes Major Depressive Disorder a mood disorder in which a person for no apparent reason experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods feelings of worthlessness and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities Mania a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive wildly optimistic state Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternated between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania formerly called manicdepressive disorder Schizophrenia Schizophrenia 0 Literal translation quotsplit mindquot 0 A group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by 0 Disorganized and delusional thinking 0 Disturbed perceptions 0 Inappropriate emotions and actions 0 Delusions false beliefs often on persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders 0 Hallucinations false sensory experiences such as seeing something Without any external visual stimulus Subtypes of Schizophrenia 0 Paranoid Preoccupation With delusions or hallucinations 0 Disorganizes Disorganized speech or behavior or at or inappropriate emotion 0 Catatonic Immobility or excessive purposeless movement extreme negativism andor parrotlike repeating of another39s speech or movements 0 Undifferentiated or residual Schizophrenia symptoms Without fitting one of the above types Personality Disorders 0 Personality Disorders 0 Disorders characterized by in exible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning 0 Usually Without anxiety depression or delusions 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder disorder in Which the person usually male exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward friends and family members may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist Chapter 16 Therapy Therapy Psychotherapy an emotionally charges confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties Eclectic Approach an approach to psychotherapy that depending on the client s problems uses or integrates techniques from various forms of therapy also know as psychotherapy integration Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis Freud believed the patient s free associations resistances dreams and transferences and the therapist s interpretations of them released previously repressed feelings allowing the patient to gain selfinsight Resistance blocking from consciousness of anxietyladen material Interpretation that analyst s noting supposed dream meanings resistances and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight Transference the patient s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships Humanist Therapy PersonCentered Therapy humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine accepting Empathic environment to facilitate clients growth Active Listening empathic listening in which the listener echoes restates and clarifies Gestalt Therapy Developed by Fritz Perls Combines the psychoanalytic emphasis on bringing unconscious feelings to awareness and the humanistic emphasis on getting in touch with oneself 0 Aims to help people become more aware and able to express their feeling and to take responsibility for their feelings and actions Behavior Therapy 0 Behavior Therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors 0 Counterconditioning 0 Procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors 0 Based on classical conditioning 0 Includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning 0 Sytematic Desensitization 0 Type of counterconditioning 0 Associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli 0 Commonly used to treat phobias 0 Aversive Conditioning 0 Type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior 0 NauseaIAlcohol 0 Token Economy 0 An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior 0 Patient exchanges a token of some sort earned for exhibiting the desired behavior for various priVileges or treats Cognitive Therapy 0 Cognitive Therapy 0 Teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking and acting 0 Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions 0 RationalEmotive Therapy 0 Confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis 0 Vigorously challenges people s illogical selfdefeating attitudes and assumptions 0 Also called rationalemotive behavior therapy by Ellis emphasizing a behavioral homework component Group Therapies 0 Family Therapy 0 Treats the family as a system 0 Views an individual s unwanted behaviors as in uenced by or directed at other family members 0 Encourages family members toward positive relationships and improved communication Types of Therapists TYPE DESCRIPTION Psychiatrist Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders Not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy but as MD s they can prescribe medications Thus they tend to see those with the most serious problems Many have private practices Clinical Psychologists Most are psychologists with a PhD and expertise in research assessment and therapy supplemented by a supervised internship About half work in agencies and institutions half in private practices Clinical or psychiatric Social workers A twoyear Master of Social Work graduate program plus postgraduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems About half have earned the National Association of Social Workers designation of clinical social work Counselors Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations Pastoral counselors provide counseling to countless people Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims Biomedical Therapies 0 Psychopharmacology study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior 0 Lithium chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders 0 Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient 0 Psychosurgery surgery that removes of destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior 0 Lobotomy nowrare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients Chapter 17 Stress and Health Stress and Health 0 Behavioral Medicine interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease 0 Health Psychology subfield of psychology that provides psychology39s contribution to behavioral medicine What is Stress 0 Stress the process by which we perceive and respond to events called stressors that we appraise as threatening or challenging 0 General Adaptation Syndrome Selye39s concept of the body39s adaptive response to stress as composed of three stages 0 Phase lAlarm reaction 0 Phase 2Resistance 0 Phase 3Exhaustion Stressful Life Events 0 Catastrophic Events earthquakes combat stress oods 0 Life Changes death of a loved one divorce loss of a job promotion 0 Daily Hassles rush hour traffic long lines job stress burnout 0 Perceived Control loss of control can increase stress hormones What is Stress Part 2 0 Burnout physical emotional and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent jobrelated stress 0 Coronary Hear Disease clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle leading cause of death in the US Stress and Coronary Heart Disease 0 Type A Friedman and Rosenman39s term for people Who are competitive harddriving impatient verbally aggressive angerprone 0 Type B Friedman and Rosenman39s term for easygoing relaxed people Stress and Disease 0 Psychomatic Disease psychologically caused physical symptoms 0 Psychophysiological Illness 0 quotmindbodyquot illness 0 any stressrelated physical illness distinct from hypochondriasis misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease Lymphocytes two types of white blood cells that are part of the body39s immune system B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections T lymphocytes from the thymus and among other duties attack the cancer cells Viruses and foreign substances Promoting Health Aerobic Exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness may also alleViate depression and anxiety Biofeedback system for electronically recording amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state Blood pressure Muscle tension Prevention 14 of US Gross Domestic Product is spent on health care 23 of organizations with less than 50 employees have health promoting programs health assessments fitness training smoking cessation stress management Smoking Some estimations show smoking kills about 20 loaded jumbo jets per day Smoking is a pediatric disease 0 Rebellious youth 0 Modeling behavior social rewards 0 Targeted ad campaigns 0 Why not quit Nicotine delivery system How to Quit 0 Education 0 Eliminate the social reinforcement 0 Increase social support for quitting 0 Cost 0 Tax it to shorten the time between behavior and punishment 0 Reduces smoking by 4 for every 10 increase cost 0 Nicotine Replacement Patch and Gum 0 Reduce pharmacological addiction 0 Then treat psychological addiction Chapter 18 Social Psychology The goal of social psychologists is to study how we feel about relate and in uence each other Social Thinking 0 Fritz Heider s Attribution Theory states that people attribute link others behaviors with their internal disposition or external situations Ie A person that always smiles at a party might give the impression to others that he is a happy guy dispositional attribution or the party is making him happy situational attribution 0 Fundamental Attribution Error When someone attributes others behavior as a re ection of their real internal disposition not considering situational effects That is one makes the mistake of underestimating situational in uence and overestimating personality in uence Ie Observing a police officer at work will make you think that they are forceful nontolerating and even aggressive overestimating personality in uence but this is so because their job demands such actions underestimating situation in uence However catch them off duty in a pet shop and you might see how caring and sincere they are Attitudes Your feelings and beliefs that direct the way you respond to your surroundings In turn your actions can also dictate your attitudes so attitudes and actions exist in an enduring cycle Footinthedoorphenomenon Tendency for people who have agreed on a small request to comply later to a larger one Ie you are likely to agree to a small questionnaire from a salesman at first and then also to agree to larger request say purchasing what he has to offer Role Expectations on how one should behave in a certain social position Ie Adults should be responsible professors should be intellectual soldiers should be brave etc In Philip Zimbardo s 1972 prison study students were randomly assigned to act as prisoners or guards In less than a week the students became so absorbed into their role playing that the roles they played actually became themselves The guards adopted abusive attitudes and the prisoners became discouraged and even rebellious After the study the students quickly grew back into their normal roles Cognitive Dissonance Theory States that if what we believe and what we do are inconsistent we will feel cognitive dissonance discomforting tension and we will reduce this tension by altering our attitudes Ie If you were made to write about the advantages of a topic you disagree on say more homework you ll feel uneasy and start believing your words to comfort yourself Social In uence Conformity often due to group pressure is the adjustment of your behavior or thinking to coincide with others Examples of conformity include laughing when others are laughing going to a stand in the mall crowded with people giving more to charity baskets because there s lots of money inside Norms Expected or proper behavior in a social context Normative Social In uence Person conforms because they want to gain social approvalacceptance NORMative following the social norm Informative Social In uence Person conforms because they accept others judgment on reality INFOrmative accepting infofacts about reality Stanley Milgrim s Obedience Study Participants act as teachers who deliver electrical shocks to examinee s that answer incorrectly The magnitude of voltages increase as the number of questions answered incorrectly increase Even though screaming sounds of pain were heard from the examinee 63 of the participants delivered right up to the last 450volts The experiment showed that obedience was highest when the order giver has high authority the victim was far away or unseen no one was seen disobeying Social Facilitation Improved performance on well learned tasks in the presence of others audience Social Loafing Diminished effort when working in a group towards a common goal slacking off others Deindividuation The loss of self restraint when one is part of a large group Group Polarization PreeXisting attitudes become enhanced when discussed with in a group Ie When abusive parents talk together they feel their actions are more justified and become even more abusive Group Think Where people in group discussions tend to agree with whatever is being proposed in order to maintain hormony Alternative views are suppressed even though they are better than the presented one Culture Passed on behaviors ideas and attitudes shared by a many people The minority can pursuade the majority if they are consistent and committed Ie Mahatma Gandhi s fight for independence Personal Space The zone we like to maintain around our bodies This is culture dependent Western cultures have a relatively small personal space because of the hugs and kisses Eastern cultures however like to maintain a relatively open personal space Gender Roles Expected behaviors from males and females in a culture Social Relations 0 Prejudice Often negative beliefs emotions and actions towards a group and its individual members These attitudes are based on Stereotypes overgeneralizations about a group of people These unjustified thoughts bring about discrimination and social inequalities Ie Negro s are perceived as violent as they push people the same way a Caucasian would 0 Ingroup Bias Favoring of your own group This kind of thinking promotes separations among the human race as people are classified as ingroup and outgroup 0 Scapegoat Theory Justification of one s prejudiceanger is sought in blaming someone target In order to boost one s selfesteem they will resort to degrading others 0 Justworld phenomenon Belief that the world is just the way it is Ie people get what they deserve and deserve what they get promotes blame and lowers the tendency to help others 0 Aggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy others People who are aggressionprone are more likely to drink and become violent 0 Frustrationaggression principle Frustration creates Aggression 0 Repeated exposure to violent shows diminishes ones selfinhibition just as watching pornography makes one s partner seem less attractive 0 Con ict Inconsistencies of actions goals andor ideas 0 Social Traps A situation in which both parties are aiming for selfinterest only and therefore gets tied in a mutually destructive situation Ie When fishing companies anticipate that other companies will fish just as much or more as themselves so they continue to rigoriously fish Eventually this situation results in a depletion of fish because none of the companies would lower their fishing amount 0 Mereexposure effect Increased liking of a stimulus due to repeated exposure to it Ie The more you look at a picture the more you like it 0 You will become friends with those geographically close to you proximity Also you are likely to marry someone who has the same level of physical attractiveness as you Passionate Love Usually present at the beginning of a relationship this is state of intense HOT intimate love Companionate Love The affectionate attachment that replaces passionate love and persists in marriage Equity The constant sharing between partners You freely get What you freely give Equity increases chances of sustained companionate love Selfdisclosure Telling your most intimate aspects fears Wishes dreams to another Disclosing yourself Altruism Unselfishness being nice unconditional help to others This positive social interaction dictates the very quality of a hero Bystander Effect Diminished possibility of giving aid When other bystanders are present Or failure to take responsibility of the situation When others are around In order for a bystander to give aid to someone in need 3 steps must be achieved 1 The incident is noticed 2 The incident is acknowledged as an emergency 3 Responsibility of the incident is achieved Social exchange theory reciprocity norm social interactions are regarded as an exchange process Where the goal is to maximize benefits and minimize costs Superordinate Goals Common goals that overlook individual differences and acquired through total cooperation GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReduction Strategy for reduction of international tensions through WinWin attitudes and communication Chapter 19 Statistics Percentile Rank A percentage that describes your rank among those also being evaluated Ie if your percentile rank on a test is 90 then your score is higher than 90 of the class It is impossible to get 100 percentile rank because you cannot get higher than everyone in the class including yourself Mean The average score Add all the numbers up and divide by number of terms The mean of 2231098 is 23 0 Median The middle point of all the terms such that half is above the number and half is below the number 50th percentile Arrange the number from highest to lowest or vice versa and find the number in the middle The median of 2231096 is 3 0 Mole The number that occurs the most Count to see which number appears the most The mode of the 2231098 is 2 0 Range The range of the scores is the difference between the highest number and the lowest number The range of GPA score is from 00 to 40 0 Standard Deviation A measurement of how far scores differdeviate from the mean The standard deviation of 5 65 6675 4 is very low because terms hardly deviate from the mean of 55 Whereas the standard deviation of 51081865722 is high 1 Find the Standard Deviation of 2334 2 Find the mean 23344 3 3 Subtract the mean from each term and square it 2321 3320 3 320 4321 4 Find the average of the deviations from the mean 10014 05 5 Square root the average and that s the standard deviation 05quot12 07071 6 Normally this number should be rounded to the same decimal place as the data But 07071 is shown for better understanding 07071 1 0 Normal curve or more commonly known as the bell curve is a distribution graph that dictates 68 of the scores should circa the mean More specifically 68 of the scores should fall within 1 standard deviation and 95 should fall within 2 standard deviations from the mean 0 Scatterplot A graphical representation of data by usage of dots The degree of cluster or formation of a slope can dictate the correlation between the two variables 0 Correlation The relationship between 2 events Ie Traffic accidents increase with increasing temperatures businesses drop as Christmas ends Correlation Coef cient A proportional number that measures correlation how strongly two events vary together Positive Correlation The two events increase andor decrease together For example increasing study time positively correlates with increasing grades or decreased food consumption positively correlates with decreased excitability Positive correlation coefficients are positive numbers ranging from 000 no correlation to 100 perfect correlation In a scatterplot graph a positive correlation exists if a positive slope is seen Negative Correlation One event increases and the other decreases or vice versa For example decreasing number of hours of sleep negatively correlates with increases traffic accidents or increasing alcohol consumption decreases alertness Negative correlation coefficients are negative numbers ranging from 100 perfect correlation to 000 no correlation In a scatterplot negative a correlation exists if a negative slope is seen Be sure to remember that CORRELATIONS DO NOT NECESSARILY MEAN CAUSATION If car accidents increase with increasing temperatures it does not necessarily mean that hot temperatures cause more traffic accidents Be aware of ILLUSORY CORRELATION seeing relationships between something when there is none If you believe that blackcolored dogs are more aggressive than whitecolored dogs then you will be more likely to notice and recall events where black colored dogs show aggressiveness to confirm your belief also know as self serving bias Regression toward the mean Tendency for extreme values to go back regress to the average value mean Ie If you normally get 80 on your tests and suddenly you got an extreme unusual score of 50 then on your next test you are likely to get around 80 again Statistical Significance A measure of how likely an event is due to chance alone Ie If average marks concerning two classes are statistically significant then the marks are actually different not due to random chance or sampling errors Statistical significance is usually determined by mathematical analysis of the samples
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