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WSU / Psychology / PSY 2110 / How are people interpreting the questions being asked?

How are people interpreting the questions being asked?

How are people interpreting the questions being asked?

Description

School: Wright State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexuality
Professor: Schiml
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide 1
Description: This is the updated version of the study guide!
Uploaded: 09/08/2017
16 Pages 56 Views 2 Unlocks
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Study Guide for Exam 1


How are people interpreting the questions being asked?



∙ Some things you need to be able to differentiate  and know the meaning of:

o Sexual Identity- this is anything that has to do with  the way you associate and identify with sex and sex related topics; physically, psychologically, traits of  our personalities

o Gender- the book refers to this as psychological  traits that differ between men and women

o Gender Identity- how one identifies whether it  match their sex assigned at birth or not

o Sexual orientation-a person’s sexual attraction, the  book’s definition simply lists heterosexual,  

homosexual (very outdated term) or bisexual when  in fact there is a broad spectrum beyond those  three

∙ Need to know why it is important to study sex and  sexuality: (pg 4)


Does the size of clitoris have to do with orgasmic satisfaction?



o Could help to improve satisfaction in relationships  and make healthy relationship choice

o Help you better understand the function of the  genitals to improve the pleasure given and received during sex

o Helps make you more understand of sexual  diversity

o To educate you on safer sex practices

∙ Methodologies in Research:

∙ Clinical Research:

o In- depth examination

 E.g. case studies: you can follow up, ask  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the weather forecasting called?
If you want to learn more check out What is required for a population to be regulated?

questions, follow their life

o Emphasis on pathological behavior

 Example, depression in childhood sex abuse  victim

 Childhood, pubertal changes, significant  

events, relationships, etc.


What is female ejaculation?



 Could generalize but typically lox

∙ Dependent on cultural definitions of what is categorized  as unhealthy

∙ Survey Research:

o Use questionnaires or interviews to gather  

information

 Have a larger sample size

 Maybe anonymous

 In-person or via internet/ computer

o But

 Accuracy of questions by certain definitions  and specificity

∙ How are people interpreting the questions  

being asked?

 Reveal embarrassing information: Are they  

willing to do so?

 Is their memory accurate?

o National Health and Social Life Survey, 1992, 2010  About risky behavior

∙ Observational Research

o Again, ethical considerations

 Direct observations, however, studies are  We also discuss several other topics like What is the distinction between a hierophany and a theophany?

affect by informed consent as to not violate  

your subjects

o Is the behavior affected by knowledge of  

observations?

 Could participants act more reserved or act out of how they normally would in private?

o Participant observation- ethnographic fieldwork  Used frequently by anthropologists

 Margaret Mead

o Three themes of 20th century sex research: We also discuss several other topics like What the study of history is as talked about by the book?

2

 Sexual expression is really important to the well­being of  someone, prior to this it used to not be important but rather  encouraged to be repressed

 The range of legitimate sexual expression was broadened,  like getting away from heteronormative behaviors, 

monogamy, marriage, recreational

 Female sexuality is normal and acceptable

o Richard von Krafft­Ebing (1840­1902)

 Psychopathia Sexualis (1886):

∙ Case histories, everyone read this super popular Don't forget about the age old question of What are some explanations of criminal behavior?

∙ First time a book was written about sexual behaviors 

that happened out of the norm at the time, out of the 

marital coitus

∙ Still attributed to mental illnesses “hereditary taint”, 

“moral degenerate”

∙ Sigmund Freud (1856­1939)

o Argued sexuality is present from birth and that sex instincts  develops as time goes on We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of a nutrient content claim?

 We all seek pleasure in different ways as time goes on

o The way he thought about sex changed the way we thought about ourselves

 Called the libido what we do to seek out pleasure or help  for our needs, erogenous zones are based on this and 

change at different ages

 5 stages including the phallic stage (ages 3­5)

∙ learning of sex differences

 The ultimate goal is to become invested in a hetero 

relationship, have babies, maintain that throughout your 

lifetime

∙ Havelock Ellis (1859­1939)

o Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897­1910)

 Sex values are relative to culture

 Referenced studies in animal behavior, anthropology, and  history

o Contributions

 Masturbation is normal

3

 Sexual desires among woman are normal

 Homosexuality (outdated term) is inborn

∙ Alfred Kinsey (1894­1956)

o 1937­ more liberal universities around the country started  considering teaching sex education, first course at the University  of Indiana

o he didn’t have anything practical so he started questioning what  people actually did

o by the time he passed he had conducted thousands of people  extensively

o The Kinsey Reports

 Statistical documentation about how people did thing

 The type of interviews he conducted would be several 

dozen pages long

 He would ask people specific questions such as what age  they first masturbate

∙ With fingers, objects

 Just very specific and did not stigmatize

 He noticed what people actually did veered severely from  the public standard such as same sex activity

 Extraordinary diversity although the attitude was very 

prude still

 Masturbation was quite common

 Same­sex was quite common and surprised him (50% men  and 28% of women)

∙ Important note because the attitude doesn’t match the

behavior making it a lie

 Kinsey’s Scale of 0­6

 Differences are a matter of degree, not absolute kind

 This is the leading advocate of toleration of sexual 

differences

 Criticisms of Kinsey:

∙ Unrepresentative sampling

∙ Did not get into the psychology of the behavior, just 

homed in on the quantification

4

∙ Not necessarily a diverse sample based on race and 

class

∙ Did not really compare data

∙ Rejection of the psychological dimension (reducing 

behavior to just the genital activity)

∙ Masters & Johnson

o William Masters struggled with treating ED, way before Viagra  or sex therapy

o Biomedical model

o Clinical observation and direct measurement; 100’s of objects  Plethysmographs, autonomic monitors

 All sorts of monitors and things hooked up to you while  you engaged in sexual activities

 Male and female sexual responses are very similar and 

occur in a cycle

∙ Changes in heart rate, blood flow, skin response

 Very mind blowing at the time

 Female orgasm via clitoral stimulation

 Legitimized female masturbation

∙ Primarily how woman could reach orgasm

o Sexual Response Cycle:

 Excitement: 

∙ notice sexual stimuli and pay attention to it, heart rate

goes up, get warmer

∙ Vasocongestion; changes in blood flow, get an 

erection

 Plateau

∙ Pronounced vasocongestion 

∙ Orgasm imminent

∙ Parasympathetic activity

 Orgasm

∙ Rhythmic muscular contractions

∙ Euphoria

 Resolution

∙ Gotta come back down

5

o Human Sexual Inadequacy (1970)

 Sexual problems come up from:

∙ Lack of info

∙ Poor communication

∙ Relationship issues

∙ NOT neuroses

 Used behavioral therapy to treat sexual problems

∙ Achieved astounding increase in rate of successful 

treatment

o Extensions of biomedical model:

 Role of hormones

 Drug treatment of sexual dysfunction

∙ Viagra, addyi

∙ Sexual compulsions

 Animal models

∙ Variation in sexual expression in animal kingdom

 Evolutionary psychology

 Psychiatry­ DSMV

∙ Sexual dysfunctions

∙ Role of Feminist Movement

o First Wave: contraception, right to vote

 Suffrage Movement 

o Second Wave: 1960s

 Female sexual empowerment

 Wage equality

 Reproductive rights

 Better variety of birth control was wanted

 Lesbian essentialists vs. lesbian­feminist

o Third Wave: equality regardless

o Female Sexuality= male sexuality

 Fought against the “Madonna whore” dichotomy

∙ More often applied to women

 Sexual double standard

∙ What is acceptable for men differs from women

o National Health and Social Life Survey 1994

6

 1980s AIDS­ how can we fight STI’s if we don’t know  what people do

∙ stereotypes about American sexuality

∙ 13 years after the study was launched

∙ major cities had huge numbers of the virus

∙ this survey interviewed several thousand people

o Americans were largely monogamous

o Sex on average once a week

o Cheating is rare

o We are traditional: Penile­vaginal intercourse is

favored

o Role of masturbation

∙ Orgasms appear to be the rule for men and the 

exception for women

o Married women more likely to report they 

usually or always have orgasms

∙ 3% of American adults claimed to never have had sex

∙ forced sex and misinterpretation of sexual 

willingness­problematic

∙ protection is most likely not an option

o Female Sex Organs

 All embryos begin as a female

∙ Genes and hormones change males

 Serves reproductive function

 Other functions:

∙ Bonding role

o Important to make sure babies survive from a 

scientific perspective

o Fulfilling

∙ Pleasure

 Questions:

∙ Does the size of clitoris have to do with orgasmic 

satisfaction?

∙ What is female ejaculation? Is it really real? 

7

∙ Still very ignorant to the innervation of the female 

pelvis

 The volva­ external part of the vagina

∙ Clitoral hood

∙ Clitoris

∙ Labia minora

∙ Labia majora

∙ Mons pubis

∙ Vaginal entrance

∙ Hymen

∙ Posterior fourchet

∙ Perineum

 Mons: a pad of fatty tissue above the pubic bone

∙ Pubic hair

 The clitoris­ center of sexual arousal; highly innervated ∙ Glans clitoris: shaft

∙ Clitoral hood: covers glans

o Structurally similar to the penis

 Erectile tissue is present

 But the main difference is no gamete 

expulsion

o Complex internal branches/musculature

o Internal Structures

 Vagina

∙ Introitus: the lower third of the vagina

o Penetration can be painful when there is not 

enough arousal

∙ Hymen: covers introitus prior to first intercourse

∙ Uterus: a hollow, thick walled muscular organ

o Endometrium

o Low oxytocin sensors unless pregnant

∙ Cervix

o Connects the vagina to the uterus

∙ G­spot (Grafenburg spot) ­ an area of tissue a third of

the way up into the vagina

8

o Erroticaly sensitive area on the front wall of the

vagina midway between the pubic bone and the

cervix

o Existence and function is controversial

o Intensity of orgasm in those women depends on

the angel and position and level of emotional 

connectedness

∙ Internal Structures

o Ovaries­gonads that produce gametes

 Oocytes

 Fallopian tubes: one extends toward 

ovary

o Urethra

o Urethral opening

o Perineum

o Pelvic floor

 Refers to several muscle groups

∙ The muscles that hold in the 

basement floor

 Kegel exercises

∙ Other structures

o Anus: opening of rectum

 Maybe erotically sensitive

 Fragile lining

o Breasts

 Nipple: erectile tissue, erotic pleasure 

when stimulated

 Areola

 Milk ducts and glands

o Female Sexual Physiology: Reproductive Hormones

 Hormones: chemical messenger

 Gonadotropins from the pituitary directly affect the 

gonads/ovaries

∙ Make ovary make eggs, estrogen

 Ovary­ Estrogens: affect how the organs mature, 

menstruation and pregnancy

9

 Progesterone: helps maintain the uterine lining

∙ If it fails women can miscarry

 Oxytocin from pituitary

∙ Suckling of infant­ milk ejection

∙ Orgasm­ smooth muscle contractions in genitals; pair

bonding

 Prolactin from pituitary

∙ Sexual arousal stimulates the release

∙ Lactation; milk production

o Female Physiology: The Ovarian Cycle

 Ovary:

∙ Chart on page

∙ Follicles secrete more estrogen the larger they get

∙ List cycle steps

 Cycle averages 28 days

 Range between 21&40 days

 One ovary ovulates per month

 The menstrual cycle consists of:

∙ Menstrual phase

∙ Preovulatory phase­ when estrogen levels peak, 

maturation of follicle containing the ova

 Ovulation

 Postovulatory phase­ or luteal phase­ progesterone is high  and estrogen is also; drop closer to ovulation

o Menstrual Effects:

 There are emotional, physical, or behavioral changes

∙ Week prior to menstruation, levels of estrogen and 

progesterone are LOW

∙ Majority of women have mild symptoms

o Pain relievers, exercise/healthy life style

∙ More severe symptoms: Perimenstrual Dysphoric 

Disorder

o It affects you on a day to day basis

o Antidepressants and hormonal therapy can help

o 3% of women experience this

10

o Menstrual Effects continued:

 Dysmenorrhea

∙ Very severe pelvic cramping and pain, could indicate 

a medical condition

∙ Prostaglandins, very high levels, cause sever 

cramping and inflammation

∙ Ibuprofen may alleviate

 Amenorrhea

∙ Absence of menstruation for reasons other than aging

∙ Poor health or too much activity, anorexia

∙ Risk of osteoporosis

 Menstrual synchrony

∙ When women sync up their cycles

∙ Cohabitation primarily is the correlation

o Female Sexual Response Models

 Masters and Johnson 4 Phase Model:

∙ Only recorded physical response:

o Excitement

o Plateau

o Orgasm

o Resolution

∙ People may argue this is over simplified

 Loulan’s Sexual Response Model:

∙ Only studied women

∙ Incorporates biological and affective dimensions

o Willingness

o Desire

o Excitement

o Engorgement

o Orgasm

o Pleasure­fundamental reason

∙ Could experience shutdown if something interrupts 

the cycle

o Such as bad memories

∙ Can exit the cycle at any stage and still feel pleasure

11

∙ Used to apply to lesbian couples

∙ Don’t know how much is applicable to men

o Desire: Mind or Matter?

 Desire is the psychological side to sexual arousal

∙ Desire appears to be separate from sexual arousal in 

women

o Thoughts and feelings

o Sensory stimulation

o Neural responses

o Hormonal reactions

o Excitement Phase

 Sweating: moistening of vaginal walls

 Sex flush­ body gets really red

 Tenting: inner 2/3 of vagina expands

 Labia may enlarge or flatten and separate

∙ Vestibule becomes visible

 Clitoris swells

 Breathing and heart rate increase

 Nipples become erect, breasts may enlarge

 Uterus elevates

o Plateau­orgasm:

 As excitement increases

∙ Clitoris retracts beneath clitoral hood

o More pressure tolerated after reaction

∙ Vaginal opening constricts at outer third

∙ Continued stimulation brings orgasm:

o Rhythmic contractions of the vagina, uterus and

pelvic muscles

o Intense euphoria

o Orgasm­Resolution

 Multiple orgasms: same pattern, vasocongestion less 

pronounced

 Resolution

∙ Calmness, euphoria­ endorphins (pleasure)

∙ Physiological changes may reside

12

o Female Ejaculation

 Myth or reality?

 Between 10­50% of women experience emission of fluid  during orgasm

∙ Not with every orgasm

∙ Source? Skene’s glands near urethra or urine

o Disorders

 PCOS­ polycystic ovarian syndrome

∙ Follicles develop, but don’t ovulate

∙ Could have an increase in body hair, acne, male 

pattern baldness

∙ High androgen levels

∙ Fertility problems due to lack of ovulation, can be 

treated and pregnancy is possible

 Endometriosis

∙ Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus

∙ A lot of pain

∙ Fertility may be impaired

∙ Hormonal therapy, surgery

o Male sex organs

 Reproductive functions

 Pleasure to self and others

 Bonding

 Myths about size and sexual abilities

∙ Size related to genetics

∙ Flaccid vs erect

o External Structure

 Shaft of penis

 Testes/scrotum

∙ Scrotum different skin

 Glans

 Opening of urethra

 Foreskin

o The penis

 urethra

13

 root (internal)

 shaft (external)

 three columns of erectile tissue

 Gland penis: head, most sensitive

 Corona

 Frenulum

∙ Most sensitive region

 Urethra

 Foreskin: sleeve­like covering of the glans

∙ Circumcision­foreskin removal

∙ Smegma­ Tyson’s glands, waxy secretions

o The Scrotum

 Scrotum: external pouch of skin that holds the two testis ∙ Heavily pigmented

∙ Sparse pubic hair

 Raphe­ kind of like a scar

 Constant temperature 93 degrees

o The Testes

 Sperm and hormone production

 Testosterone

 Pubertal changes

 Typically, asymmetrical

o Internal Structures

 Seminiferous tubules

∙ Production of sperm

o Initial development takes 64­72 days

 Epididymis

∙ Sperm maturation

∙ Takes 20 additional days

 Vas deferens

∙ Joins the ejaculatory duct within prostate gland

 Seminal vesicles

∙ 60% of semen

∙ may be erotically sensitive (anal sex play)

 Cowper’s (bulbourethral) glands

14

∙ Thick clear mucus

∙ Alters ph of urethra

∙ May contain sperm if ejaculation has occurred within

24 hours

o Male sexual physiology

 Testosterone

∙ 5­10 times higher than in women

∙ makes sperm viable

∙ sex drive

∙ secondary sex characteristics at puberty

∙ stops growth of bones at the end of puberty

∙ muscle mass

∙ personality and emotions

∙ other androgens: DHT, androstenedione

o Excitement

 Sex flush

 Erection

∙ Blood flow increases

∙ Urethra is physically blocked

 Desire­excitement occur together in men

 Cowper’s glands secretions

o Plateau­ orgasm

 Emission stage

∙ Sperm sent into vas deferens

∙ Pulsing or flowing sensation

∙ Sense of ejaculation

 Expulsion stage

∙ Rapid contractions

∙ Semen spurts

o Resolution

 Refractory period

∙ Erection difficult to impossible

∙ Increases with duration of age

∙ Semen becomes thinner after release

15

∙ Frees sperm up for increased motility

o Other phenomena

 Nocturnal emission

∙ 90% of men, 40% of women

∙ male: erection and ejaculation during REM sleep

∙ pubertal onset

o Take a look in the book for the pictures of the male and female  reproductive systems if you need a visual 

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