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OLEMISS / OTHER / PSY 201 / Refers to with repeated use; you need to use more of that drug to get

Refers to with repeated use; you need to use more of that drug to get

Refers to with repeated use; you need to use more of that drug to get


School: University of Mississippi
Department: OTHER
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Tonya marie vandenbrink
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for Brain
Description: contains lecture 4 and 5
Uploaded: 09/09/2017
8 Pages 8 Views 6 Unlocks

Lecture 5

Refers to with repeated use; you need to use more of that drug to get the same effect.

∙ Actions and types of neurotransmitters

o Can be excitatory or inhibitory  

 Excitatory if increase chance the receiving  

neuron will fire an action (glutamate)

 Inhibitory if decrease that chance (GABA)

o Dopamine – involved in reward and movement  (low in Parkinson’s, high in schizophrenia)

 excitatory neurotransmitter

 something that is pleasure like sex

 if you don’t have enough have enough  

dopamine in the brain you will have problem  

with motor skills  

 schizophrenia – is a disorder where they lose  touch with reality. Hallucinate and become very delusional (seeing thing that are not there)

 food and sex is the most natural pleasure  

 glutamate – forming memories

∙ (too much result in stroke and problems)

How the brain Influences behavior?

∙ excitatory neurotransmitter  

∙ treat but not cure Alzheimers  

 serotonin – moods and sleep

∙ (low in depression)

∙ involved in more than just your mood

∙ side effects: low sex drive, insomnia, gain  


∙ Drugs and their effects

∙ Drugs and neurotransmitters

o Cocaine works by inhibiting the reuptake of  dopamine (amphetamine too) Don't forget about the age old question of ole miss political science

o CNS (Central Nervous System) Depressant (alcohol,  anxiolytics-benzo, sedative/hypnotics)

 Increase GABA  

 They slow down the nervous system and slow  down the brain and spinal cord

 That’s why it is dangerous to drink alcohol and  take medicine Don't forget about the age old question of jmu scom

o Narcotics (opiates)

 Stimulate endorphins (bind to opiate receptors  in brain), block sodium from entering neuron

 Painkillers  

o SSRIs and SNRIs

 SSRIs - selective serotonin reuptake inhibited

What is a crazy desire to use a substance ?

If you want to learn more check out ttu me

∙ They don’t work immediately. It takes a  

little while for the body to adjust to it

 SNSRIs – serotonin norepinephrine reuptake  inhibited

∙ Drug-related phenomena

o Tolerance

 Refers to with repeated use; you need to use  more of that drug to get the same effect  

 It’s not just a physiological thing.  

 Also have psychological effects.  

 Example:  


∙ If you use a given substance (alcohol) and  

get drunk all of the time (in your dorm  

room). What happens is your brain begins  

to associate with the place that you’re  

taking it in. You developed tolerance in  

that place you got drunk but now that  

you’re in a new place it takes a little less  

drug to get that same buzz.  

o Withdrawal

 Unpleasant feelings we experience when we  haven’t taken a drug in a while  

 Have to hospitalize to detoxify them because  withdrawal from something will kill them  

o Craving

 A crazy desire to use a substance  

 Not a random situation because the individual  are around environments and people that  

trigger that drug use craving  

 Example:

∙ When you’re drinking frequently around  

the same people, every time you’re  

around them you will crave a drink Don't forget about the age old question of Who is poseidon?

o Substance use disorder:

 2 or more of: large quantity, desire to cut  

down, lots of time spent obtaining/using

∙ Alcohol

o 3rd leading cause of preventable death

 1/3 of all traffic deaths

o 20% drink more than government recommendations o abstinence vs moderation


 10 to 20% of alcoholics stop drinking on their  own

 32% of alcoholics can stop with minimal help  abstinence – stops drinking all together  

 moderation – they don’t have to stop entirely  but individuals need to drink safely (like 1 or 2  drinks)

o Binged drinking

 5 sitting for men

 4 sitting for women

∙ Miscellaneous

o heritability

 twin studies vs adoption studies

o evolution

 natural selection

 genes and environment

 example:

∙ anxiety is half and half (half genetic and  

half environment)


Lecture 4

Chapter 3: Biological Psychology We also discuss several other topics like pcm 425 study guide

How the Brain Influences Behavior

Divisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous

System (CNS)






Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)




(fight or flight)

∙ Helps with some  sort of threat

o Heat  


o Big pupils

o Blood  



∙ Helps you  


∙ The forbrain

o 1. Cerebral cortex




(active at rest and digestion)

∙ Nervous system  that acts when  

you are at rest  

o Heart rate  


o Pupils  


o Blood  



 outermost covering, contains:

∙ neocortex – most recently developed


o absent in birds/reptiles

∙ corpus callosum – connects the two


 the site of most of the of the brains conscious functions

 largest part of the brain


 house the 4 lobe of the brain  

∙ The cortex have 4 lobes:

o 1. Frontal lobe

o 2. Parietal lobe

o 3. Occipital lobe

o 4. Temporal lobe

∙ Frontal lobe

o Motor cortex: send signals to muscles  We also discuss several other topics like gsu kinesiology

o Prefrontal cortex: executive functions, emotions and personality

 Injury:

∙ Broca’s area – formation of speech

(Broca’s aphasia: difficulty speaking


∙ Parietal Lobe

o Perception of space, object shapes and orientation, actions of others

 Integrates vision, touch, motor information

 Somatosensory cortex – pressure, pain (touch), temperature

 Injury

∙ Acalculia (math problems), contralateral


∙ Occipital lobe

o Vision

o Visual cortex

∙ Temporal lobe

o Hearing, language comprehension (when others talk and what we read), autobiographical memories (memories of things that happened to you)

o Auditory cortex

 Injury

∙ Wernicke’s aphasia

∙ The Brain and emotion: Limbic System


o 1. Hypothalamus – maintains internal bodily status by overseeing the endocrine and autonomic nervous system

 ex: releases hormone to influence hunger, sexual motivation, and temperature

o 2. Amygdala – excitement, arousal, fear, social signals related to emotions

o 3. Hippocampus – memory, fear conditioning  ∙ Neuron: the brain communicators  

o Neuron is a nerve cell

 160 trillion connections between neurons in your body

o cell body (soma) – makes proteins, replenishes molecules vital to cell function

o axon – long cord that sends messages  

 myelin: speeds conduction (MS = deterioration of myelin: poor sensation, vision loss, paralysis) o dendrites – receiving portion of neuron

o synapse – junction between neurons

∙ Electrical responses of neurons

o Resting potential – neurons are negatively charged at rest

 The inside of the sell is -70mV

o Action potential – electric impulse that travels down the axon (all-or-none)

 Sodium (Na+) rushes into axon and triggers actions potential, potassium (K+) flow out to stop action potential

∙ Neurons: the brains communicators

o Axon – sending portion of neurons

 Axon terminal or terminal button-end of axon that contains synaptic vessels


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