Exam 1 Biological Diversity Study Guide
Class 1: Biodiversity
1 Define biodiversity.
Biodiversity- variety of life across all levels of biological organization
2 Levels of biodiversity? How do they interact?
3 Define keystone species.
Species that plays a role in its community that is much more important than its relative abundance may suggest
4 Define species richness and evenness.
Richness- number of different species in an area
Evenness- relative abundance of different species in an area
5 Define a hotspot of biodiversity.
An area very rich in biodiversity (species); also highly endangered Ex: rainforests 6 Give examples of ecosystem services.
-provisions: food, water, wood, fiber, fuel, medicine, etc.
-cultural: spiritual, aesthetic (national parks), educational, recreational, etc. -supporting: nutrients, soil formation, primary production, habitat provision, etc. -regulating: climate, flood, water, etc.
7 What may cause a loss of biodiversity? Understand biodiversity is changing over time. Biodiversity changes over time and increases after mass extinctions because resources become freed and new species can use those resources and adapt to that environment. Causes of diversity loos include: climate change, pollution, fragmentation, genetic drift, over exploitation, and invasive species.
Class 2: What is viruses and life.
1) Define life. What are some features that are present in most living organisms? Life- require energy, reproduce, grow/develop, respond to stimuli, evolve/adapt, homeostasis, and made of cells
2) Understand why viruses may or may not be considered alive.
Cannot reproduce on their own; need a “body” to reproduce
3) How do viruses differ from cells in structure?
4) List differences between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. We also discuss several other topics like What is transhumance migration?
-Has a nucleoid -has a membrane bound nucleus
5) Viruses have fast mutation rates.
6) Classify viruses.
7) Find the differences between vaccines and antibiotics. Which one/ones work on viruses/bacteria or not?
Vaccines Antibiotics We also discuss several other topics like What is the national government obligated to do for the states?
-build immune system against -fights bacteria
specific antigens (works for viruses)
8) Why is there a different flu vaccine every year?
-viruses mutate very easily
9) Why don’t vaccines kill our own (human) cells?
-targets specific antigens
10) Give an example of why viruses van be useful in terms of ecosystem services. -keeps harmful/ damaging organisms under control
Class 3: Classification of Life/ Bacteria
1) Define classification, taxonomy, and systematics
Classification- sorting into classes
Taxonomy-classification and naming of living things into taxa
Systematics-study of evolutionary relationships b/w living things
2) Name 8 taxonomic levels.
Domain; kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; genus; species
3) Know who started the beginning of taxonomy.
-Carl Linnaeus (1735)
4) Know differences between Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryota. Study chart on slides. 5) Understand the following processes: binary fission, conjugation, transformation, and transduction.
-binary fission: asexual reproduction (goes from one to two identical bacteria) -conjugation: a mobile plasmid is donated to another bacterium via the pilus -transformation: uptake DNA from the environment
-transduction: via a virus (bacteriophage)
6) What is a pilus? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the value of skepticism?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the main difference between terrestrial and non-terrestrial?
A part of a bacterium that aids in plasmid transfer
7) Differenciate between gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Gram-negative Gram-positive Don't forget about the age old question of What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and how to correctly “format” scientific genus and species names?
-further from surface layer -more towards surface layer If you want to learn more check out What are the themes of biology?
8) Role of peptidoglycan.
-limits osmosis (water entrance) because water wants to go inside of bacteria to balance the concentrations (bacteria wants to be salty)
9) What is penicillin? Understand its efficiency on gram-negative and/ positive bacteria. Penicillin-antibiotic preventing peptidoglycan repair
-Peptidoglycan is harder -peptidoglycan is easy to reach (penicillin is more to reach effective
10) What features are used to classify bacteria.
Sometimes Present Always Present
-plasmid -chromosome DNA
-capsule -cell wall and membrane
11) Name 3 different shapes of bacteria.
12) What are flagellum, slime layers, capsule, and spores? What are their functions? Flagellum-aids in movement (locomotion)
Slime layers-less defined and less resistant to washing off (attachment, protection from phagocytosis (macrophage), resistance to drying, reservoir for some nutrients) Capsule-well defined and resistant to washing off (…)
Spores-surviving a harsh environment
13) What is the role of spores in bacteria?
14) Define the differences among autotroph, heterotroph, photoautotroph, chemoautotroph, photoautotroph, and chemoheterotroph. (see chart on slides)
15) General understanding of:
-obligate aerobes (require oxygen), obligate anaerobes (can’t tolerate oxygen), facultative aerobes (can use oxygen or don’t have to), aerotolerant anaerobes (don’t use oxygen but aren’t poisoned by it).
-acidophiles (like acids pH<7), alkaliphiles (like alkali/base pH>7), neutralophiles (like neutral pH=7)
-psychrophiles (15-20 degrees C), mesophiles (20-40 degrees C), thermophiles (50-60 degrees C)
-halophiles (like salt)
16) What is a chemosynthetic-based ecosystem? A photosynthetic-based ecosystem? Give examples.
CB: deep-sea hydrothermal vent (no light; bacteria are the only autotrophs)
16) Define symbiosis. Give an example in which bacteria are in symbiosis with another organism.
18) What is a decomposer? Role of bacteria in the ecosystem.
Decomposer-break down dead material
19) Give at least 2 examples of the use of bacteria in the ecosystem services?
Class 4: Archaea
1) Know the differences between bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Be able to identify from which one of these domains an organism is coming from based on specific characteristics. (see chart on slides)
2) What makes the membrane lipids of Archaea different from the membrane of other domains? Role of the membrane in resisting extreme conditions.
-branched *limiting the permeability helps resisting to higher temp., -isoprene chain pH range (H+flux), salinity, pressure…
3) What are: glycocolyces and archaelleum? What are their roles? Differences with bacteria’s type IV pilus (what are type III and IV pili for in bacteria)
Glycocalyces-serves as protection and adhesion for archaea (less organized than capsule) Archaellum- looks like a type IV pilus (differs in structure)
Type IV pilus- for locomotion (extension/retraction)
Type III injection- injects pathogenic bacterium into animal cell via a “flagellum-like injectisome 4) What is a methanogenic archaea? What does the cell wall of a methanogenic Archaea typically has?
Methanogenic archaea- produce methane (CH4) from different substrates (CO2, acetic acid, methanol, and methylamine)
-cell wall is usually rigid due to pseudopeptidoglycan
5) Where can archaea be found? Give specific examples from extreme and non-extreme environments.
-brine pools beneath the ocean
-antarctic brine lakes
6) Give at least 2 examples of the role and/or use of archaea in ecosystem services? -rice paddies (carbon and nitrogen cycles)
Class 5: Evolution of Eukaryota; Protists (coccolithophore and dinoflagellates) 1) Origin of the membrane-bound nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum.
-there was an inward folding of the cell membrane surrounding the chromosomes 2) How did eukaryotes acquire organelles? Understand and describe the process. -organelles were once independent protists that entered the cell through endocytosis 3) Do all eukaryotes have a nucleus? A chloroplast? A mitochondria?
-all eukaryotes have a nucleus and mitochondria; not all eukaryotes have a chloroplast 4) What is mitosis, meiosis, binary fission? Differences/ similarities
Mitosis- a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
Meiosis- a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and prduces four gamete cells
5) Define a monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic taxon. Be able to identify using a phylogenetic tree.
Monophyletic-common ancestor + ALL the descendants
Paraphyletic-common ancestor + only SOME descendants
Polyphyletic- common ancestor NOT INCLUDED in the group (lack characteristics)
6) Are bacteria, archaea, eukaryota, fungi, plantae, Animalia, and protists mono/para/polyphyletic?
7) What is coccolithophore (and etymology)? What is their shell made of? Give two examples of why they’re important for ecosystem services.
Coccolithophore- unicellular, scales formed of calcite (CaCO3)
-major component of phytoplankton
-fixes carbon into coccolithophores (reduces CO2)
8) Why are they studied in relation to climate change?
When carbon is sequestered into their scale, the climate changes
9) What disease does Plasmodium falciparum give us?
10) Etymology of dinoflagellates.
11) What is a zooxanthellae and its relationship with cnidarians? What is a coral? Zooxanthellae-symbiotic relationship with reef-building cnidarians
12) What organisms are responsible for a red tide?
Class 6: Life cycle generalities; Protists 2
1) Be able to recognize diplontic/haplontic/haploid-diploid isomorphic and heteromorphic life cycles.
2) Etymology of Stramenopila. Shared ancestral trait among groups belonging to Stramenopila.
3) Brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and water molds belong to Stramenopila. Scientific names for these common-name groups.
Brown algae- Phaeophyta
Golden algae- Chrysophyta
Water molds- Oomycota
4) Morphological structure of seaweed. Role of each part in comparison to the structure of a land plant.
5) Photosynthetic pigment specific to the brown algae, golden algae, versus plant. -chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin
6) What is alternation of generations (or phases in a single generation)?
Alternation of generations- regular alternation between two distinct forms 7) Be able to recognize a life cycle that has or not alternation of generations. 8) Recognize a heteromorphic versus isomorphic life cycle
9) Be able to annotate a life cycle:
a. Ploidy (n,2n)
b. Meiosis, fertilization
c. Zygote, zoospores, gametes, sporophyte, gametophyte
d. Oogonium, antheridium
10) Examples of brown algae in ecosystem services?
-protection for many species
11) What is an invasive species?
-Not native to a specific location and has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage
12) Role of kelp forests in the ecosystem?
-protects species (like a nursery)
13) Why is Undaria pinnatifida an invasive species?
Alter habitat and ecosystems (space competition with shellfish)
14) What organisms are responsible for a golden tide?
15) How does a diatom look? What is their shell made of?
- “glass like” silica shell
16) Understand and be able to annotate the life cycle of a diatom.
17) Why are diatoms used as indicator species?
-to track back pH variation
Class 7: Oomycota, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta
1 Oomycota etymology.
2 Do water molds belong to fungus? Why?
-No, they are on different sides of the phylogenetic tree
3 Key characteristics of an Oomycota
-Look like fungi; have an egg nucleus
4 What is a mycelium? Be able to place it in a life cycle of water mold. Level of ploidy of a mycelium in water mold versus Fungi.
Mycelium-(2n) mass of hyphae
5 Give at least 1 example of a historic impact a water mold had on a human harvested food. -Importation of vines from N. Am. Resistant to aphids (plant lice)
-Accidentally introduced Plasmopara viticola and almost wiped out entire French wine industry 6 Understand the evolutionary relationship between Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, and plants. 7 What pigments give Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta their respective color? Rhodophyta- phycobilins (phycoerythrin)
Chlorophyta- chlorophylls a and b, carotene, xanthophyll
8 Key characteristics common between Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceans, Charophyceans) and plants. And what differentiates these taxa. (see chart on slides)
9 Understand how light influences the repartition of the different algae at different depths. 10 Be able to annotate a life cycle:
a) Ploidy (n,2n)
b) Meiosis, fertilization
c) Zygote, zoospores, gametes, sporophyte, gametophyte
d) Oogonium, antheridium
e) Carposporophyte, tetrasporophyte, carpospores, tetraspores (typical to Rhodophyta ????identify Rhodophyta based on these characteristics)
11 Be able to identify the parts of a life cycle that play a role in dispersal (gametes, spores, etc.)
12 What is a lichen?
Symbiosis between a fungal partner (mycobiont) and an algal partner (phycobiont) 13 Give examples of uses of Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta in ecosystem services. (see chart from slides)