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UT / Geography / GEOG 101 / utk geography

utk geography

utk geography

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Geography
Course: World Geography
Professor: Tracey norrell
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: world
Cost: 50
Name: UTK World Geography Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover information from the lecture as well as from the textbook that will be on the first exam.
Uploaded: 09/10/2017
9 Pages 16 Views 16 Unlocks
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World Geography Exam 1 Study Guide  


who explained processes of the earth?



Introduction to World Geography

∙ Contributions of the Greeks/Romans

o Geo (the earth) graphos(to write about/describe)

o Herodotus: “father of geography” who explained the physical and  human geography of his day

o Aristotle: explained processes of the earth, influence of temperature,  wind, soil, and volcanism.  

o Eratosthenes: measured circumference of the earth from angle of the sun of two points, established cartography (map making)

o Ptolemy: Greek astronomer who designed early map of the world o Strabo

∙ Middle Ages

o Geography falls into disrepute in Middle Ages

o Golden Age of Islamic Civilization

o Arabs were outstanding geographers, continued tradition of map  making

o Ibn Batuta travels throughout Middle East, observations of peoples and lands

∙ Renaissance and Age of Discovery


who is the greek astronomer designed early map of the world?



o Resurgence of geography as a science

o Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal, new more accurate maps o Early explorers question old concepts in light of discovery

o Scientific travelers, Alexander von Humbolt’s (German) description of  Earth

o Karl Riffer: understanding of the human dimension of the world o Geography is respected branch of knowledge in European Universities,  particularly in Germany

o IMportance of the National Geographic Society in the US founded in  1888

o Chinese and Arabs play large part in contributions to geography  ∙ Different fields of Geography

o Physical Geography: study of the environment, location of terrain,  physical features of the land

o Human Geography: study of human occupation of the land

o Regional Geography: analysis of patterns in the region


what are the types of climate?



∙ Climate

o Climate differences are result of differences in the processes by which  Earth’s atmosphere is heated and cooled

o Radiation and absorption of heat energy determined climatic variations o Lower the latitude, the more solar energy is received We also discuss several other topics like econ2112

o Sun’s rays strike Earth at vertical angles in lower latitudes

o Heat dissipated by air currents and ocean currents

o The higher the elevation, the less dense the air is and the less air can  hold water vapor. Air temperatures decrease 3.6 degrees F per 1000 ft  of elevation

∙ Precipitaion

o Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air

o 3 types  

 Convectional precipitation: equatorial latitudes with land lass  warming, as hot air rises it precipitates.  We also discuss several other topics like psci 203 csusb

 Orthographic precipitation: air force up over mountains, cooling  rapidly and producing rain (causes rain shadows)

 Cyclonic/Frontal precipitaion: cold front pushes up under warm  air front or warm air rises over cold front

∙ Types of Climate

 o Type A (Humid Equatorial Climate) 

 High temperatures all year

 High precipitation

 Some Type A climates produce a dry season and a wet season  (monsoon), while others receive constant rainfall throughout the  year

 o Type B Climate (Dry Climate) 

 Lower and higher altitudes

 Poor and thin soils

 High range of temperatures (140-48 degrees F)

 Often the product of the rain shadow effect (the windward side  of a mountain range gets all of the rain, and the other side of  the mountain gets no rain)

 o Type C Climate (Moderate and Temperate Climates) 

 Found above and below the tropics of cancer and capricorn  This is the climate where we are currently located in Knoxville,  TN.  

 Most populated climate

 o Type D Climate (Cold or Continental Climates) 

 Great annual range of temperatures

 Very cold winters; cool summers

 Total precipitation not high, much snow

 Found in the interiors of North America and Eurasia We also discuss several other topics like general biology rutgers

 Best soils in the world with high levels of humans

 o Type E Climate (Polar or Extreme Climate) 

 Vary from true icecap conditions to tundra with 4 months per  year of temperatures above freezing

 High mountain areas

 Near arctic conditions with limited vegetation

 o Type H (Highland Climates) 

 Listed as a subcategory of type E climates

 Found where elevation differences are profound enough to  provide different climate zones

∙ Biomes

o Large regions of similar climates/physical conditions

∙ Human Cultural Hearths

o Most cultural hearths were established from 5000 BC to 1000 BC o Primary cultural hearths

 Middle East (Tigris, Euphrates and Nile rivers)Don't forget about the age old question of which of the following were consequences of mongol rule in china?
We also discuss several other topics like psyc 301
Don't forget about the age old question of susan anton nyu

 Indus Valley  

 China (Yellow River)

o Secondary cultural hearths

o Mesoamerican civilizations

o Bantu civilization in Africa

o European civilizations

∙ Economic indicators of modernization and Development

o Level of GNP (gross national product) per capita

o Per capita consumption of inanimate energy

o Percentage of labor force in agriculture

∙ Longitude and Latitude

o Longitude=long aka. Up and down

o Latitude=flatitude

o Prime meridian= 0 degree in longitude, runs through Greenwich,  England

o International Date line= opposite of Prime meridian, located at 180  degrees longitude

o Tropic of Cancer: 23.5 degrees north of the equator

o Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5 degrees south of equator

*Arizona Geographic Alliance (map resource)

∙ Information from the video #1

o Europe is the 2nd smallest continent with Australia being the smallest o Europe and Asia are separated by the Ural Mountains

o Europe is bordered by water and this is very important in figuring out  why so many European countries amassed such large empires in the  past

o Europe is highly urbanized

o Arable: good for farming

o The North Forest offers timber

o Europe’s longest river is the Volga in Russia

o The Southern climate is dryer and warmer

∙ Information from video #2

o Seas, peninsulas, islands

 Netherlands

∙ 25% lies below sea level

 Scandinavian Peninsula

∙ Fjord: good for shipping; where carved out by glaciers in  

the last ice age

 Iberian Peninsula

∙ Spain and Portugal

 Apennine Peninsula

∙ Italy

 Ben Nevis Mountains

∙ British Isles

 North European Plains

∙ Flattened by glaciers

∙ Ruhr: coal mining

o Marine west coast climate due to Gulf Stream

 Even though most of Europe falls north of the continental US,  Europe still experiences extremely mild climates due to the Gulf  Stream

 Interior Europe does not feel the effect of the Gulf Stream and  have winters just as cold as the northern US

∙ European Influences

o Heart for many contemporary global ides and practices

 Democracy

 Christianity

 Colonialism

 Imperialism

 The Enlightenment

 Nationalism

 Fascism

 Socialism

 Communism

 Genocide

∙ Natural Environment

o Climate

 Most of Europe has a Type C climate

o Geologic Variety

 Ancient shield areas around the Baltic Sea

 Uplands of Central Europe

∙ Iberian Meseta, Massif central, Brittany, Rhine highlands

 Young folded mountains

∙ Alps, Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Apennines, Carpathians  

 Extensive Plains

∙ North European Plain (very fertile)

o Long Coastlines and Navigable Rivers

 Peninsulas

∙ Scandinavian, Jutland, Brittany, Iberia, Italy, Greece

 Seas

∙ Baltic, North

 Major Rivers

∙ Rhine, Danube, Loire, Thames, Seine, Vistula

 Estuaries: where the river meets the sea

o Forests, Fertile Soils, and Marine Reservoirs

 Loess Soils

o Environmental Issues

 From forest to farms

 Impacts of Industrialization

 Acid rain and the Black Triangle

 Energy Sources

 Global environmental action

 Mediterranean Sea

o Black triangle

 Germany, Poland, Czech Republic

 Area that has many natural recourses

∙ Human Environment

o Diversity, Conflict, and Technological Innovation

 Migrations of People

∙ Early cultural groups: Greeks, Celts, Romans

∙ Other cultural groups: Germanic and Slavic peoples

 The Rise of European Global Power

∙ Capitalism, Colonization, and Imperialism

∙ Industrial Revolution

∙ Europe developed as such a powerful region largely by  

their access to water

 Nationalism and World War

∙ Genocide

o Armenian, Jewish

o 3 districts language groups

 Romance, Germanic, Slavic

o Religions

 Roman Catholic, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Islam

 Eastern Europe: Eastern orthodoxy

 Northern Europe: Protestantism

 Southern Europe: Roman Catholic

o Global changes and Local responses

 Europe after 1945

∙ Communism

∙ Democratic Centralism

∙ State Socialism

∙ Planned Economics

 NATO

 European Union

 Supranationalism: “bigger that nation” mentality

o Devolution within European Countries

 Devolution

∙ Local peoples desiring less rule from national  

governments

∙ Often ethnic minorities

 Euro regions

∙ Border areas of differing countries within European Union  

countries where the people within them work together to  

make trans-boundary movement easier

*devolution: Breakup of a country

∙ Northern Europe

o Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark

o Economy

 Northern European Countries have the highest standards of  living in Europe

 Large emphasis on Human Rights, Education, and Social  

Concerns

o Religion: Lutheran (Protestant)

∙ Eastern Europe

o Much political unrest in the past due to differences in religion,  language and ethnicity

o Carpathian Mountains: mountain range through Yugoslavia that acts as a natural border between these cultures

o Yugoslavia

 Created following WWI by US president but wasn’t a successful  plan

 Culture

∙ Slovenes + Croats: Roman Catholic

∙ Serbs, Macedonians, Bulgarians: Eastern Orthodox

∙ Bosnians: Muslim, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox

 Devolution in 1990

∙ Armed conflict involving Croats, Serbs, Bosnians

∙ Kosovo

∙ Borders now represent ethnic boundaries

 People: Ethnicity + Culture

∙ Peoples

o Western Slavs: Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs

o South Slavs: Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians,  

Macedonians

∙ Language

o Slavic Languages Dominate

 Romanian is Romance language (closest to  

Latin); Estonian is Finno-Ugric  

 Economic Development

∙ Region late to industrialize

o Prior to WWI, the region was dominated by empires

∙ Dominance of communism following WWII

∙ Collapse of Communism

o Reorientation towards Western Europe

 Most Successful: Poland, Czech Republic,  

Hungary, Slovenia, Baltic Counties

∙ Most of the area is now looking towards Western Europe  

as models of economic development

∙ Most have now joined the European Union

 ∙      Map quiz info 

o Rivers to know

 Thames

 Danube

 Seine

 Rhine

o Mountain Ranges to Know

 Alps

 Pyrenees  

 Carpathians

 Apennines

 Balkans

o Seas to Know

 Adriatic

 North Sea

 Baltic Sea

o Be able to identify the North European Plain  

o Be able to identify MAJOR cities and MOST European countries ∙ Former Soviet Union

o Twelve countries constituted the Commonwealth of Independent  States, a cooperative organization which primarily deals with economic policies among member states. Russia continues to be the dominant  country of the region  

∙ Countries with strong ties to Russia

o The Russian and Neighboring Countries region includes 12 of the 15  former republics of the USSR

 Slavic Countries: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus

∙ Ukraine is the world largest producer of wheat and has  

warm water ports so that is why Russia didn’t want to let  

go of the Ukraine

∙ Yugoslavia: land of Southern Slavs

 Southern Caucuses: Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan

 Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,  Uzbekistan

o Slavic Counties: are dominated by the Russian Federation These  countries share a similar history and culture and each continues to  struggle economically with the transition from Communism to  capitalism.

 Recourses: vast quantities of oil, gas and timber in eastern  Russia

o Southern Caucasus: has a complex ethnic and cultural geography.  Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, conflicts over secession and  borders have resulted in armed clashes in Georgia, Armenia,  Azerbaijan, and several Russian republics including Chechnya and  Dagestan

o Central Asia Countries: are all landlocked, arid or semiarid, and are  predominantly Muslim.

 Recourses: producer of oil, natural gas, and cotton

∙ Natural Environment

o Most of Russia’s population lives in the Europe part of the country or on the Western Russian plain

o The vast size and northerly location result in large expanses of mid latitude continental interior climates with particularly harsh winters o Plains interrupted by the Ural Mountains and the low hills, dominate  the western half of the region

∙ Russia Video

o Person on average makes less that $7,500 per year

o GDP: around $9,000

o Oil and natural gas are Russia’s biggest exports

o Warm water ports are very important in country development and only  one of Russia’s ports is a warm water port.  

o Trans-Siberian railroad takes 5 days

o Russia covers 11 time zones

∙ Russia’s Climate

o Mostly type E climate and a little type D climate

∙ Vegetation

o Vegetation and soil regions follow the pattern of climates with tundra  and coniferous forest (taiga) in the north

o Deciduous forest, steppe, and dessert in the south

o Steppe grasslands: The best agricultural conditions, where black earth  is found

∙ Environmental Problems

o Pollution is a problem in many parts of the region, particularly in areas  that experienced rapid industrialization during the Soviet Era o Contraction of the Aral Sea, the result of water diversion for agriculture in central Asia, continues to be one of the world’s greatest  

environmental disasters

o Oil pollution

o Pollution @ Norilsk: One of the ten most polluted cities in the world ∙ 1986 Chernobyl Reactor

o In former Soviet Union Ukraine. Russia didn’t want any nuclear reactors close to Moscow or St. Petersburg

∙ Major Historical Influences

o Christianity: penetrating the region from the southwest

o Islam: from the south

o Mongol Invasion: from the East

o Steppes allowed easy movement through the region

o Central Asia lay along the Great Sild Road

∙ Russia’s history

o Both the Russian empire as well as the Soviet Union were imperial  powers meaning that they ruled over many groups of different  ethnicities and religions.  

o The soviets organized the different cultural groups into different  regions of the country such as Uzbek SSR, Kazakh SSR, and many  others.  

 These organized groups strengthened some ethnic/national  identities but weakened others

o After the first world war, the Czar and his family were murdered and  the Communist Bolsheviks came into power

 The Bolshevik’s leader was Vladimir Lenin

 The capital was moved from St. Petersburg to Moscow

o The Soviet Union lasted from 1922 to 1991.  

 Josef Stalin took over as Soviet dictator when Lenin was  

incapacitated in 1922

o Josef Stalin

 Stalin pushed for industrialization  

 He is also have thought to have killed 30 million people  ∙ Many were starved to death in the Ukraine

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