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AU / History / HIST 1010 / What is a territorial nation?

What is a territorial nation?

What is a territorial nation?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History I
Professor: Donna bohanan
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: HIST1010, Giblinhistory, Giblin, auburn history, world, history, and World History
Cost: 25
Name: HIST1010, Chapter 3 notes
Description: summarises all of chapter 3 and some lecture notes
Uploaded: 09/10/2017
6 Pages 61 Views 10 Unlocks
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Chapter 3  


What is a territorial nation?



Nomads, Chariots, Territorial States, and Micro societies (2000- 1200 BCE)

 Old Kingdom Egypt fell because of climate changes

o Massive warming and drying trend

Nomadic Movement & The Emergence of Territorial States: 

- Pastoral nomads and Transhumant herders adjusted to dry conditions,  prompting the rise of new territorial states.  

o Chariots- horse drawn vehicles for warfare emerged

Nomadic and Transhumant Migrations: 

- Migrated to highland plateaus

- Horse and Chariots:  

o Invented by nomads

o Created a lighter chariot made of bronze and iron

o Faster travel time

o Warfare- driver and archer, long blade on each wheel  


What is transhumance migration?



The Emergence of Territorial States: 

- New rulers of territorial states devised rituals for passing the torch of  command to the next generation.

- New territorial states based authority on monarchs, legal codes,  definable borders, expansion, bureaucracies etc.

- Amorites (Syrian desert) and Hittites (Anatolia) now held power to  conquer and expand.

The Rise of Territorial States in Egypt and SW Asia: 

- 1st phase: small kingdoms, organized by territorial and ethnic  identities, landscape from Aegean Sea through Mesopotamia and Iran - 2nd phase: wave of nomadic migrants and turmoil

- after turmoil power shifted and new expansionist states emerged o New Kingdom Egypt, Hittites, Babylonian Amorites and Kassites  of Mesopotamia.


What region did the hyksos come from before they invaded ancient egypt?



 Hittie- skilled charioteers, strong and fast horses  

- International diplomacy kept the peace

Egypt: 

- Pharaohs of Middle and New Kingdom reunified the river valley - Middle Kingdom Egypt- crops began to grow again We also discuss several other topics like What is a group of states governed by one government?

o 2 rulers @ Thebes, both named “Mentuhope” began state building activity

o Amenemnet I:

 Elevated god, Amun “hidden”

 Amun unified the disparate parts of the kingdom

 Eclipsed all other gods of Thebes

 Pharaoh’s began to portray as stewards of their people  instead of shepherds (old kingdom)

- Middle class tombs embodied goods for the afterlife, meaning it was no longer reserved for only royalty (like the old kingdom).

- Extended trade routes south through the Red Sea colonized Nubia to  broaden trade and secure the gold they were trading.

Hyksos invaders and new foundations: 

- Egypt was open to migration (and invaders)

- Western people called Hyksos “rulers of foreign land”, overthrew the  13th dynasty

- After successful invasion, Hyksos people brought in their skilled  chariots and ruled over their victor land-> ruled 15th dynasty - Ahmosis used Hyksos weaponry against themselves and became  pharaoh after successful defeat.  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the value of skepticism?

o Wake up call to build better military  

o Built an extended military frontier

New Kingdom Egypt:  

- Woman ruler, Hatshepsut, served for son, Thutmosis III

- Trade contacts flourished

- Thutmosis III launched expansion phase collided with Mitanni and  Hittie Kingdoms We also discuss several other topics like What are crops?

o Battle of Megiddo- first chariot battle

o Thutmosis III won and established presence in Palestine - Ramses II- fought to control the fertile crescent in the greatest chariot  battle  

Anatolia and The Rise of the Hittites:

- Anatolia became home to numerous polities  

- competing clans fought for regional supremacy

- Old and New Hittie kingdoms: Chariot warrior groups

o Hittites became unified under Hattusilis I

 Defeated northern Syria kingdom

 Sacked Babylon  

o Suppilulimua I – restored Hittite glory

Mesopotamia: 

- Suffered invasions

- Salt water contaminated fresh water

- Loss of fertile lands

- Nomadic and Transhumant migration to Mesopotamia cities: o Conquerors of Mesopotamian cities = Amorites (who were hated) o Transhumant herders provided goods to Mesopotamia in return,  

purchased Agriculture and crafted goods. Along with paying  taxes, being warriors and laborers (They were hated but aren’t  doing anything to be hated)

- Amorites joined allies with Iran to bring down the 3rd dynasty of UR  (controlled by Mesopotamia and SW Iran)

- Pastoral folk found old Babylonian dynasty

o Expanded trade, territorial states and defined frontiers

- Showed mobile communities settling societies We also discuss several other topics like What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and how to correctly “format” scientific genus and species names?

Restored order and culture: 

- Expansion of literary culture

- Heroic narratives, based on traditional stories of the ancient rulers of  Uruk, served to legitimize the new rulers.  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the themes of biology?

Trade and the rise of a private economy: 

- Designated private entrepreneurs to collect taxes

- Paid taxes in form of commodities in exchange for silver o Silver is then passed onto the states after commoner takes some of it. If you want to learn more check out What refers to the total amount of energy expended?

- Crossroads for caravans- trading flourished  

- Trade was profitable but risky

o If harvests were poor, people couldn’t meet tax obligations and  went into debt  

o Hostile trade routes-> made commercial routes for insurance Mesopotamian kingdoms: 

- Amorites gave up nomadic ways and settled in cities  

- Evolution of new territorial states: 

o First: Chieftains became kings

o Second: New kings turned their authority into an alliance with  wealthy merchants in exchange for revenue and political support. o Third: Royal status became hereditary (replaced tribal system) - Kings could not rule without support

- Kings subdued weaker neighbors, forcing them to become vassal  states

o Vassal states- allies who had to pay tribute in luxury goods,  materials and manpower as part of a broad confederation under  king’s protection

- Hammurabi- strongest Mesopotamian ruler, created a new system to  secure his power.

o Legal code called Hammurabi’s code

o Compilation of 300+ ethics addressing punishment for crime - Divided Babylonian people 3 classes:

o Free person (awilum)

o Dependent (mushkenum)  

o Slave (wardum)  

- Babylon fell to the Hittite king Hattusilis I

Kassite Rule: 

- From Zagros Mnt.-> integrated themselves into Babylonia society - Filled power after Hittites destroyed 1st dynasty

o Re-established order- created great territorial states within an  emerging network of states.

o Golden age: based on trade  

 Horses, chariots etc. in exchange for gold, wood, ivory etc. - Strove to preserve the past of Mesopotamia

The community of major powers:

- Leaders settled differences through international diplomacy (treaties  and negotiations).

- Winning loyalty of small kingdoms was crucial

- Wars ended and treaties replaced them

- Commoners paid taxes, labor for public works and foot soldiers - The collapse: workers couldn’t pay taxes or they fled communities  rather than fight in armies.

Nomads & The Indus River Valley: 

- Aryans “respected ones”-> Indus River basin

o Practiced sacrifice  

o Language= Sanskirt

- Nomads brought domesticated animals, chariots and skilled metallurgy - Vedic peoples were very religious-> supernatural deities (believed in  sky god and horse god)

o Migration involved violence  

- Picked up native people’s techniques

o New homes

o New farming  

- Slower political integration process

Rise of the Shang State: 

- Tang (first Shang ruler) defeated Xia dynasty and offered to sacrifice  himself to end the drought

- unestablished boarders

- Zhong Shang- heartland (moved as frontier expanded)

State formation: 

- The Shang, built on the Agricultural culture of Langshan peoples. - As populations grew, village conflicts grew

- Shang culture built on 4 elements:

o 1. Metal industry

o 2. Pottery

o 3. Walled towns

o 4. Divination using animal bones

- 2 key elements to Shang success 

o 1. Written records- oversee expanding populations  

o 2. New advantages in metallurgy- access to copper and tin->  produced bronze

- Shang kings controlled access to tin and copper

- Chariots used for hunting and marker of high status-> buried with  owners

- Army consisted of foot soldiers with axes and spears

o Unable to resist invasion (The Zhou)

- Traded with fang (label for those who lived in non-Shang areas) Agriculture & Tribute: 

- Increased food production

- Tracked growing season-> developed 12 months, 360-day calendar

- Commoners sent tributes to elites to get harvest predictions and fiefs  (grants usually of land)

Shang Society and Beliefs: 

- Male elders took precedence  

- Women honored for birthing son

- Believed in afterlife  

- Theocracy 

- Ancestral worship- rituals by offering food and drink to dead ancestors - Divination- applying heat to bones and analyzing the cracks to see  what the ancestors are saying

- No dependent priesthood

- Di- high god- founding ancestor to Shang royal family

o Gods unite the world of living with the world of the dead  The South Pacific: 

- Negritos- migrated south during ice age  

- Early Austronesians colonized key islands in pacific  

- Better seafaring skills  

Environment and Culture: 

- Tropical climate, fertile soil, dry land crops, tree crops

- Island hopping- fishing and new food sources  

- Polynesian and Austronesians- shared culture, language, technology  and animals/plants

- Crop surpluses, ceremonial buildings, defense forts  

- Hawaii and Easter Island were migrated into later on

- Micro societies- dispersed a crossed ocean towards isolation Micro societies in the Aegean World: 

- Present day Greece  

- Lack Centralization  

- Population movements from Danube & C. Europe into Greece->  Mycenaean’s

Seaborne Trade and Communication: 

- Mediterranean islands linked W. Asia and Europe to islanders - Cyprus- focal point of trade

- Crete- palace centers emerged

o Built by Minoans

o Colonizing Aegean islands

Minoan Culture:

- Worship focused on the female deity “lady”

- Thera- trading city north of Crete  

- No fortifications and no natural defense

Mycenaean Culture: 

- Migrated- brought their language, chariots and metal working skills - War oriented  

- Palaces  

- Series of invasions ended the micro societies

o New social order emerged

Europe- The Northern Frontier: 

- First agriculture communities were frontier settlements  o Hard to trade

o Harsh environments  

o Not fertile grounds

- Wild frontier  

- 2 changes: domestication of horses and wheeled chariots and wagons o instruments of war  

o brought new frontiers  

- pastoral nomads sought agriculture lands in C. Europe which brought  hostility between them

- Scythian peoples: forged bonds of blood brotherhood and heightened  aggressive behavior waging war

- Too dispersed to develop integrated kingdoms 

Early States in the Americas: 

- Hunting and gathering was still being practiced

- Traded only luxuries (feathers, shells, gems etc.)

- Ecological diversity promoted trade in sub regions

- warfare

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