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Test 2 Study Guide

by: Jakeya Flood

Test 2 Study Guide PSYC 1101-004

Jakeya Flood
GPA 3.0
Albert A. Maisto

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About this Document

This file is all you need for PSYCH 1101's Test 2. It's everything that will be covered on the test, including key words and definitions.
Albert A. Maisto
Study Guide
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jakeya Flood on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101-004 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Albert A. Maisto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views.


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Date Created: 08/23/15
Psychology 1101 Exam 2 Study Guide 102413 1031 AM Chapter 5 Learning 0 A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience Classical Conditioning or Pavlovian Conditioning 0 Discovered by Ivan Pavlov A form of learning in which a response elicited by a stimulus becomes elicited by a preciously neutral stimulus almost by accident 0 He studied this by measuring how much saliva dogs get when receiving food Unconditioned Stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR o Is an event that automatically elicits a certain reflex reaction which is the Unconditioned Response UR In Pavlov s studies food in the mouth was the US and salivation to it was the UR Conditioned Stimulus CS Conditioned Response CR 0 Conditioned Stimulus is an even that is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus Pavlov used a bell for CS 0 At first the CS does not elicit the desired response But eventually after repeatedly being paired with the US the CS alone comes to trigger a reaction to the unconditioned response The learned reaction is the Conditioned Response CR 0 The more trials there are the stronger the conditioned response becomes Generaly autonomic reflexive involuntary and emotional in character Intermittent Pairing o Is the pairing of the CS and US only once in a while reduces both the rate of learning and the final strength of the learned response Desensitization Therapy 0 A conditioning designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation EX Kid with white rat and candy Instrumental Conditioning or Operant Conditioning o The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to earn rewards or avoid punishment 0 Essential element is emitted behavior and consequence o This is one way in which operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning Generally skeletal voluntary nonreflexive and goal oriented Edward Lee Thorndike 18741949 0 Put a hungry cat in a puzzle box or a simple wooden cage He would put food outside and give the cat a lever and see how long it would take the cat to pull on the lever and open the cage 0 He was a pioneer in studying the kind of learning that involves making a certain response due to the consequence it brings Operant Behaviors o Are behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant Reinforcers and Punishers Reinforcers Stimuli that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated Punishers Stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated 0 Positive reinforcers Events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will occur 0 Negative reinforcers Events whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur Law of Effect Principle of Reinforcement Thorndike s theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be stamped inquot as learned behavior and behavior that brings about discomfort will be stamped outquot 0 Behavior that brings about a satisfying effect reinforcement is likely to be preformed again whereas behavior that brings about a negative effect punishment is likely to be suppressed Skinner Box 0 Named after BF Skinner Is a small box with small walls that is relatively empty except for a food cup and an activating device such as a bar or button Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior Punishment 0 Any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur Three drawbacks to punishment 0 Punishment cannot unteach unwanted behaviors It only suppresses the undesired behavior it doesn t prompt someone to unlearn the behavior and it doesn t teach a more desirable one If the threat of punishment is removed the negative behavior is likely to recur EX Speeders slow down when they see a cop car and quickly speed back up when they are gone Punishment rarely works when long termterm changes in behavior are wanted 0 Punishment can backfire Punishment often stirs up negative feelings frustration resentment selfdoubt which can impede the learning of new more desirable behaviors EX When a child is learning to read and is scolded for every mispronounced word the child may become very frustrated and hesitant Over time the negative feelings that punishment has caused can become so unpleasant that the child may avoid reading altogether o Punishment can teach aggression When it is harsh is the unintended lesson that it teaches Harsh punishment may encourage the learner to copy the that same harsh and aggressive behavior toward other people Extinction also partial reinforcement 0 When a CS and a US are never paired again or if a consequence never follows a learned behavior the learned association will begin to fade until eventually the effects of prior learning are no longer seen 0 This is called the extinction of a conditioned response Imitation Learning Bandura started this 0 It studied kids and why they exhibit aggressive behavior social cognitive theory Higher Order Conditioning Classical Conditioning Escape Learning Seligman and Learned Helplessness Seligman s Research 0 Learned helplessness Dog on shuttle with shock experiment with stepping over the barrier Memorization vs rationalism children in school ABCs example 0 Resistance to learned helplessness Put the dog in a box with the high barrier and kept them in there with the shock for days When he would lower the barrier the dog would stay put 0 Application to depression Relationship to experiment Example of dumped girl not wanting to go out not wanting to get over it Avoidance Learning 0 Learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant such as punishment Bandura s research with Primates o Gives them a cue a shock is coming then they learn very quickly to hit the bar to counter act the shock they ll never get shocked again 0 General resistance to extinction for behaviors established by avoidance learning Girl doesn t want to be alone so bad that she gets a boyfriend that abuses her and she takes it because its better than being alone Relationships should not be to avoid the unknown they should live in the positives Primary Reinforcement 0 Sex Food VVater Secondary Reinforcement Money grades etc Biofeedback Involves the instrumental conditioning of traditionally classical conditioned behavior The early work of Miller Applications 0 Exercising increased control over autonomic behaviors 0 Medical uses Chapter 6 Memory The ability to remember things that we have experienced imagined and learned Definitions InformationProcessing Model 0 A computerlike model used to describe the way humans encode store and retrieve information Sensorv Registers 0 Entry points for raw information from the senses Attention o The selection of some incoming information for further processing Inattentional Blindness 0 Failure to notice or be aware of something that is in plain sight Mnemonists 0 People with highly developed memory skills Flashbulb Memorv o A vivid memory of a certain event and the incidents surrounding it even after a long time has passed Childhood Amnesia or Infantile Amnesia o The difficulty adults have remembering experiences from the first two years of life Eidetic Imagerv o The ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of something one has seen Very Short Term Memory or Sensory Memory Learning Shortterm Memorv STM 0 Working memorv briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers 0 Has two primary tasks To store new information and to work on that and other information Iconic visual Echoic auditory Short term memory can handle only so much information at a given moment Research suggest that STM can hold about as much information as can be repeated or rehearsed in 15 to 2 seconds STM can easily handle five unrelated letters or words at once but five unrelated sentences are much harder to remember 0 m The grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short term memory 0 Rote Rehearsal AKA maintenance rehearsal Retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over You can hold information in STM for longer periods of time with this method Long Term Memory LTM The portion of memory that is more or less permanent corresponding to everything we know EX The words to a popular song the meaning ofjustice how to roller skate or draw a face etc LTM can store a vast amount of information for many years In one study adults who graduated from high school more than 40 years earlier were able to recognize the name of 75 of their classmates More information in LTM seems to be encoded in terms of meaning Rote rehearsal is the principal tool for holding information in STM it is also useful for holding information in LTM It is probably the standard method for storing conceptually meaningless material o EX phone numbers Social Security numbers security codes computer passwords birth dates and people s name Elaborate Rehearsal The linking of new information in shortterm memory to familiar material stored in long term memory 0 Is an even more effective than Rote Rehearsal Mnemonics o Is a technique that makes material easier to remember 0 These are rhymes and jingles that we often use to remember dates and other facts 0 Schemata o A set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience Types of LTM Episodic Memories Personal Memories 0 The portion of long term memory that stores personally experienced events Episodic memory is like a diary that lets you go back in time and space to relive a personal experience 0 In addition to permitting us to relive past experiences episodic memory also plays a crucial role in our ability to anticipate and envision the future 0 Semantic Memories 0 Are facts and concepts not linked to a particular time o This is the portion of LTM that stores general facts and information 0 Procedural memories 0 The portion of LTM that stores information relating to skills habits and other perceptualmotor tasks They are NOT memories about skills and habits they are the skills and habits EX how to ride a bicycle once learned they are rarely completely forgotten Emotional Memories o Are learned emotional responses to various stimuli all of our loves and hates our rational and irrational fears our feelings of disgust and anxiety Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit Memorv 0 Memory for information that we can readily express in words and are aware of having these memories can be intentionally retrieved from memory Brenda Milner studied the now famous case of patient H Mquot Henry Molaison A young man who had severe uncontrollable epileptic seizures It became so life threatening that they had to cut out the part of brain but this caused Henry to no longer be able to form new memories He could remember things before the operation Priming Research on a phenomenon called priming also demonstrates the distinction between explicit and implicit memory In priming a person is exposed to stimulus usually a word or picture Later the person is shown a fragment of the stimulus and is asked to complete it The typical result is that people are more likely to complete fragments with items seen earlier than they are with other equally plausible items The TipoftheTongue Phenomenon When you know a word but you are not quite able to recall it The Biology of Memory 0 Main question is How and where are memories stored 0 Current research indicates that memories consist of changes in the synaptic connections among neurons 0 When we learn new things new connections are formed in the brain when we review or practice previously learned things old connections are strengthened o LonqTerm Potentiation LTP A longlasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of neural transmission and is thought to be related to how information is stored by neurons Where Are Memories Stored Memories are not all stored in one place Instead our brain appears to depend on large number or neural networks distributed throughout the brain working in concert to form and store memories The Brain 0 Motor Cortex o The motor cortex is involved in storing procedural memories Frontal Lobe o The frontal lobe stores semantic and episodic memories Prefrontal Cortex o Is involved in the storage of shortterm memories 0 Temporal Lobe o The temporal lobe is involved in the formation and storage of longterm semantic and episodic memories and contributes to the processing of new material in shortterm memory Amygdala o The amygdala is vital to the formation of new emotional memories Hippocampus o The hippocampus plays a pivotal role in the formation of new longterm semantic and episodic memories 0 Cerebellum o The cerebellum plays an important role in the storage of procedural memories Chapter 7 Definitions 0 Cognition o the ability to gain and use knowledge 0 Language 0 a flexible system of communication that uses rules gestures or symbols to convey information Phonemes o the basic sounds that make up any language Morphemes o the smallest meaningful units of speech such as simple words prefixes and suffixes Grammar o the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language Image 0 a mental representation of a sensory experience Concepts 0 mental categories for classifying objects people or expe ences Prototype or model 0 according to Rosch a mental model containing the most typical features of a concept Ex When we think about birds most of us have a picture in mind such as a robin or sparrow that captures the essence of bird When we encounter new objects we compare them with this prototype to determine if they are in fact birds Linguistic relativity hypothesis 0 Whorf s idea that patterns of thinking and certain views are determined by the specific language one speaks Linguistic determinism o the belief that thought and experience are determined by language 0 These two definitions intermingle Signs 0 stereotyped communications about an animal s current state Problem representation 0 the first step in solving a problem it involves interpreting or defining the problem 0 Thinking that meets the criteria of originality inventiveness and flexibility Convergent thinking o thinking that is directed toward one correct solution to a problem Algorithm 0 a stepbystep method of problem solving that guarantees a correct solution Heuristics 0 rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solving problems although they do not guarantee a correct solution Hill climbing o a heuristic problemsolving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal Subgoals 0 intermediate more manageable goals used in one heuristic strategy to make it easier to reach the final goal Meansend analysis 0 a heuristic strategy that aims to reduce the discrepancy between the current situation and the desired goal at a number of intermediate points Working backward o a heuristic strategy in which one works backward from the desired goal to the given conditions Mental set 0 the tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways FuncUonal xedness o the tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object thus interfering with the process of problem solving Brainstorming o a problemsolving strategy in which an individual or a group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been collected Compensatory model 0 a rational decisionmaking model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria Representativeness o a heuristic by which a new situation is judged on the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model Availability 0 a heuristic by which a judgment or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory Conformation bias 0 the tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief Framing o the perspective from which we interpret information before making a decision Hindsight bias 0 the tendency to see outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome Counterfactual thinking 0 thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened Intelligence 0 a general term referring to the ability or abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior Triarchic theory of intelligence 0 Sternberg s theory that intelligence involves mental skills insight and creative adaptability and environmental responsiveness Theory of multiple intelligence 0 Howard Gardner s theory that there is not one intelligence but rather many intelligences each of which is relatively independent of the others Emotional intelligence 0 according to Goleman a form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own emotions and the emotions of others and can regulate and manage their emotional behavior Intelligence quotient IQ o a numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test on the basis of a score of 100 for average intelligence Wechsler intelligence scaleadult 0 an individual intelligence test developed especially for adults measures both verbal and performance abilities Wechsler intelligence scalechildren 0 an individual intelligence test developed especially for school ages children measures verbal and performance abilities and also yields an overall IQ score Group tests 0 written intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time Performance tests 0 intelligence tests that minimize the use of language Culturefair tests 0 intelligence tests designed to eliminate cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another ReHathy o ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores Splithalf reliability 0 a method of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two parts and checking the agreement of scores on both parts Correlation coefficients 0 statistical measures of the degree of association between two variables Validity o ability of a test to measure what it has been designed to measure Content validity 0 refers to a test s having an adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure Criterionrelated validity o validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the test score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure 0 Mental retardation 0 condition of significantly subaverage intelligence combined with deficiencies in adaptive behavior Giftedness 0 refers to superior IQ combined with demonstrated or potential ability in such areas as academic aptitude creativity and leadership 0 Creativity o the ability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects Language in nonhumans Animals communicate in signs But fixed stereotyped signs don t constitute a language 0 The difference between signs and language are meaningfulness or semantics displacement talking or thinking about the past or future and productivity the ability to produce and understand new and unique words and expressions 0 Vicki spoken words 0 Washoe American sign language 0 Lana learned how to speak with computer All chimpanzees were females because males were too dominant Terms Phoneme o the basic sounds that make up any language Morpheme o the smallest meaningful units of speech such as simple words prefixes and suffixes Syntax o the system of rules that governs how we combine words to form meaningful phrases and sentences 0 Semantics 0 describes how we assign meaning to morphemes words phrases and sentences Communication in other Species Communication is common in most species 0 Even insects plants and various microorganisms communication at an elementary o Dolphins can hear other forms of communication and ease dropquot 0 Met intelligence you are aware others are thinking When a mother monkey loses her child then she will just call out unless there is a danger then she knows not to call out because that will alert other animals n Bees doing the wagon dance bee finds honey then flies back does a wagon dance and if you remove the original bee from the hive the other bees know where to go a Protozoa can release chemicals to tell other protozoa that bacteria is present Human attempts to communicate with Primates Chimpanzees o Viki spoken words Raised as a child for the first two years Viki was way ahead of the child then the child started talking Could not talk but could understand 0 Washoe ASL Genius chimp that used prepositions etc Only animal ever known to be able to lie I When put into a Zoo she had babies and taught them to sign the chain stopped there 0 Lana Computer 0 Gorillas we usually work with Chimps because gorillas are so strong they wouldn t know they re hurting you They could rip a tree out of the ground to get the fruit at the top 0 Kanzi ASL Nature of Language Phonology Sound Phonemes smallest possible sound that is still language sound 0 3 sounds of cat kuhh ahh tttt 3 phonology Morphemes built upon phonemes or multipule phonemes o Smallest MEANINGFUL component of a language 0 Ex ing 0 Ex a syllable Syntax Structure 0 how you say the sounds Semantics Meaning 0 Denotation o What a word denotes to what the definition is o Connotation o Emotional baggage associated with word 0 Ex words associated with age 13 to 19 Teenager devious Young Adult suck up Adolescent young Youthful jealous Pragmatics Gestures 0 You may know the language but people know you re not from that place Early Language Development 0 Cooing o All children do this doesn t matter what you hear 0 Within the first month of life 0 Babeng 0 complicated Echolalic Babbling phonemic contraction 0 Starts to be based on what you hear deaf vs hearing 0 Starts to take on the form of their language 0 First Words 0 Expressive vs Receptive Language 0 Knowing the meaning of words Average vocabulary 30000 to 35000 words You got into college because you have a larger vocabulary Largest indicator of a leader study leader was chosen with largest vocabulary Expressive vs Receptive Language 0 What they are able to communicate what you understand is Receptive language 0 Semantic vs Syntax training 0 Semantic Meaning Give the toddlers meaning and words so their vocabulary explains Reading to a child is about learning words 0 Syntax Grammer o Commonly used when talking to toddlers and repeating what they say 0 Toddlers can conjugate words without realizing it ex goed Language Instinct LAD Language Acquisition Device n Vocabulary Growth 0 Rapid vocabulary growth will increase between 1St and 6th year 0 Bilingualism 0 Early Studies 19005 0 Large immigration rate where immigrants did not know the language could not take the tests Bilingualism used to be viewed as a serious problem 0 Contemporary Research 0 Children who have a Spanish speaker teacher after 3 months will be able to fluently speak Spanish In Applications of early bilingualism to the acquisition of additional languages 0 Children who are bilingual younger the more languages they will be able to learn at a older age 0 Deep Structurequot Growth and flexibility 0 children who grow up with no language are distended to be mentally retarded 0 ex deaf and dumbquot 0 when you learn a language at a young age will have a deep structure intertwined with that language 0 children who learn 2 languages will have a flexible deep structure and therefore can learn more languages Intelligence 0 Historical Perspective Early recognition of the differences in human abilities Early work of Francis Galton British n Intelligence was a quality you either had or didn t have and you could measure it as compared to great intellects British Royal Society 0 Alfred Binet39s France father of intelligence work to indentify children who would experience difficulty in school a Identified children they knew would not be ready for school and developed the mental agequot instead of a chronological age 0 Binet 0 Develop procedures 0 Mental Agequot Concept 0 Reliability they would do the test over and over 0 MOST IMPORTANT PART of an experiment Validity same different questions does it actually predict something 0 Way they answered the questions w o Helped measure their intelligence I TestRetest Contribution of the Lewis Terman US Translation of Binet s Test 0 Standford Binet Terman s introduction of the Concept of IQ o IQ MACA 100 Mental Age Chronological age based on variation on 1 0 Look up STANDARD DEVIATION CHART IQ o 100MEAN 115 1 SD ABOVE MEAN 84th percentile ETC 0 Medical Doctors have an average IQ of 130 o Surgeons have an average IQ of 141 Terman39s Research instead of researching the unglifted kids he started looking at the gifted kids 0 Characteristics of the gifted 90 went to higher education income when adults were in the upper quarter of the top 1 on average these people had fewer acne fewer marriage failures children were highly intelligent UNCC perfect student ex Developed new torque in contact lenses part time 0 Mental Retardation IQlt 2 SD is below mean n In order the best to worst is Mild 90 Moderate 6 Severe 3 Profound 1 Originate prior to 215t year a You can t be deemed mentally retarded if your IQ drops after 215t year Maladaptive Behavior Etiologies n Parental and Postnatal a Genetic n Infections a Physical Injury n Others Associated Conditions a CP n Sensory Impairments n EpHepsy Contemporary Measures of Intelligence LOOK UP IN BOOK Stanford Binets Wechsler Scales n WPPSIIII n WISC III a WAISIII Scales of Infant Development The Bayley Special Measures of Intelligence WICS III Sub Scales Full Scale IQ GPA n Verbal Scale 0 General Information Comprehension Vocabulary Arithmetic Reasoning Digit SpanMemorizing Digits Similarities a Performance Scale 0 Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Puzzle Coding Mazes 0 Intelligence is Nature Nurture Based Born Environment Chapter 8 Motivation Primarv Drives Unlearned drives that are based on a physiological state Motivate behavior that is vital to survival Hunger Thirst Sex Homeostasis State of balance and stability in which the organism functions effectively When we are hungry we look for food to reduce the hunger drive Stimulus Drives Unlearned motives that prompt us to explore or change the world around us Curiosity Aggression Curiosity Motives sparked by the new and unknown James viewed it as emotion Freud considered it as a socially acceptable expression of the sex drive Also viewed as response to the unexpected and as evidence of a human need to find meaning in life Linked to creativity May arise from a need for increased domain stimulation Aggression Behavior aimed at doing harm to others also the motive to behave aggressively Intent is a key element Harlow s Research Rhesus monkeys What would happen if it wasn t raised by their actual mother Given surrogate mothers One made of terrycloth One made of Metal wire Babies all go the source of nutrition but always attached themselves to the terrycloth mothers Causes us to question if maternal love and human attachment is instinct or the result of a critical period Instinct and Imprintinq Ethology A branch of knowledge dealing with human character and with its formation and evolution The scientific and objective study of animal behavior especially under natural conditions To study anything it must be studied in its natural habitat Instincts Common to all species Imprinting Critical period of learning Lorenz s Duckling Sex Primary Motive Motivates reproductive behavior Vital to the survival of species compared to hunger and thirst which are vital to the survival of the individual Unike other animals whose sexual activity is tied to the female s reproductive system humans are capable of sexual arousal at any time SociobioloqvEvolutionarv Psvcholoov Where genes not gene vessels are the unit of analysis Women pick men based on genes Women tend to pick more dominant males Maslow s Need Hierarchv Selfavtivilization needs Esteem Needs Belongingness needs Safety needs Physiological needs Emotion Emotions are linked to facial expressions Cultural universal emotions Display Rulesquot Culture specific rules that govern how when and why expressions of emotion are appropriate Vary by culture 102413 1031 AM 102413 1031 AM


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