×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UA - BSC 242 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UA - BSC 242 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

UA / Biology / BSC 242 / What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and ho

What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and ho

What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and ho

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology and Man
Professor: Daryl lam
Term: Fall 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 1, 2 4, and 5
Uploaded: 09/11/2017
16 Pages 21 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


BSC 242 Exam 1 Study Guide


What is the linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and how to correctly “format” scientific genus and species names?



CHAPTER 1

1. Know that microbial individuals are too small to be seen with the  naked eye.  

2. Know the Linnaeus system for the classification of organisms and  how to correctly “format” scientific genus and species names.

∙ The genus is the first name and is always capitalized.  

∙ The species name is second and is not capitalized.  

∙ Both are underlined or italicized.  

∙ After mentioning the full name once, the name may be abbreviated to  the initial of the genus and the species name.  

3. Know difference between viruses and cellular organisms.  

Viruses

Cellular Organisms

DNA or RNA core

Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, organelles

Reproduces only in a host cell

Reproduces independently

Perform metabolism and use energy


What is the role of the genus?



If you want to learn more check out What are the themes of biology?

4. For cellular organisms, know the “3 domain” system of  

classification  

∙ Bacteria – cell walls contain peptidoglycan (protein + carbohydrate  complex) Don't forget about the age old question of What refers to the total amount of energy expended?

∙ Archaea – cell walls lack peptidoglycan

∙ Eukarya – includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals

5. Know “cell theory”  

All living things are comprised of cells.  

6. What is spontaneous generation?  

The idea that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving  matter.

7. Why did Pasteur perform the experiment with the S-shaped flask?  

The design allowed air to pass into the flask but the curved neck trapped any  airborne microorganisms that might contaminate the broth.  


What is the similarity between genus and species?



His experiment demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air and  can contaminate sterile solutions but that air itself does not create microbes – disproved spontaneous generation.

8. What is aseptic (sterile) technique?  

Techniques that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms  

9. What is contamination?  

Introduction of infectious material like bacteria, yeast, mold, fungi, virus,  prions, protozoa or their toxins and by-products.

10. What is fermentation?

Microorganisms (yeasts) converting sugar to alcohol in the absence of air.

11. What is pasteurization?  

Heating substances just enough to kill most of the bacteria that might cause  spoilage.  If you want to learn more check out Which is more important: liberty or security?

12. What is a vaccine?  

A living viral agent used for preventive inoculation.

13. What is an antibiotic?  

Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to against other  microorganisms.  

14. Be able to define the terms Bacteriology, Mycology,  Parasitology. Immunology, and Virology.  

∙ Bacteriology = study of bacteria

∙ Mycology = study of fungi

∙ Parasitology = study of protozoa and parasitic worms

∙ Immunology = study of immunity

∙ Virology = study of viruses

15. What is bioremediation and how does it involve microbes?

Using bacteria that produce enzymes to break down toxins into less harmful  substances. For example, removing toxins from underground wells, chemicals spills, oil spills, etc. Sometimes microorganisms indigenous to the  environment are used, other times modified microbes are used.

CHAPTER 2

1. What are the 3 subatomic particles of an atom?  

Proton, electrons, and neutrons.

2. What makes up the atomic number?  

The number of protons in the nucleus

3. What makes up the atomic mass?  

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you interpret marginal rate of substitution?

4. What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?  

An ionic bond is an attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds  them together to form a stable bond. One atom loses an electron and one  atom gains an electron.  

A covalent bond is formed by two bonds sharing one or more pairs of  electrons. They are stronger and more common than ionic bonds.  

5. What is a hydrogen bond?  

A hydrogen, that is covalently bonded to an oxygen or nitrogen, is attracted  to another oxygen or nitrogen atom. They serve as bridges between different  molecules or portions of the same molecule (i.e. within proteins and nucleic  acids). They are broken and formed relatively easily.  

6. Which two elements are found in all organic compounds?  Carbon and hydrogen.

7. Which 4 elements make up greater than 95% of an organism’s  weight?  

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Don't forget about the age old question of Is it better to have an episiotomy or tear?
We also discuss several other topics like What does a linear equation represent?

8. What are the basic properties of water?  

∙ Cohesion – water molecules stick together. Used for movement of  water in plants

∙ Adhesion – water sticks to another substance

∙ Polarity

∙ Solvent – can dissolve many substances

∙ High heat capacity - absorbs a large amount of energy/heat without  much change in temperature

9. What are acids and bases?  

∙ An acid  

o is a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions  and one or more negative ions.

o A proton (H+) donor

∙ A base

o Dissociates into one or more positive ions (cations) plus one or  more negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-) that can accept or combine with protons

10. What is a pH value?  

The amount of H+ in a solution.  

11. What is a “salt”?  

A substance that dissociates in water into cations and anions, neither of  which is H+ or OH-. Salts are held together by ionic bonds.

12. Table 2.4 on page 35 (know the overall structure, the name of  the group, and its biological importance).

13. Know the four biological macromolecules (carbohydrates,  lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). What are their monomers?  Know the biological examples of each group that were presented in the lecture.  

∙ Carbohydrates –  

o Monomer: monosaccharides

o Polymers: starch, sugars

∙ Lipids –  

o Monomer: fatty acid + glycerol

o Polymers: triglycerides  

∙ Proteins –  

o Monomer: amino acids

o Polymers: proteins

∙ Nucleic acids –  

o Monomer: nucleotides

o Polymers: DNA and RNA

14. What does hydrophobic and hydrophilic mean?  Hydrophobic means “water fearing” and hydrophilic means “water loving”.  

15. What is dehydration synthesis?  

When two monomers join, eliminating a hydrogen from one monomer and a  hydroxyl from the other, releasing a molecule of water.  

16. At the molecular level, what is the difference between  saturated and unsaturated lipids?  

Unsaturated lipids have at least one double bond.  

17. Why are proteins important to cellular metabolism?  They increase the rate of the reaction.

18. In proteins, what is primary, secondary, tertiary, and  quaternary structure?  

19. What is protein denaturation?

When a protein unravels, and loses some of its characteristics due to  encountering a hostile environment in terms of temperature, pH, or salt  concentration.

20. Why is DNA important to living organisms?  

It is the substance of which genes are made.  

21. What are the differences between DNA and RNA?  

DNA

RNA

Strands

Double stranded in cells and most DNA viruses Single stranded in some viruses (paraviruses)

Single stranded in cells and most RNA viruses Double stranded in some viruses (reoviruses)

Composition

Sugar is deoxyribose

Nitrogen bases are

adenine, thymine,

cytosine, & guanine

Sugar is ribose

Nitrogen bases are

adenine, thymine,

cytosine, & uracil

Function

Determines all hereditary traits

Protein synthesis

22. What is ATP?  

Adenine triphosphate is the principle energy carrying molecule of all cells. It  stores the chemical energy released by some chemical reactions and  

provides the energy for reactions.

CHAPTER 4

1. Know the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

DNA is not enclosed in a membrane DNA is a singular circularly

arranged chromosome

Not associated with histones

DNA is found in the cell’s nucleus, which is separated from the

cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane DNA is found in multiple

chromosomes

DNA is associated with histones (chromosomal proteins) and

nonhistones

No membrane bound organelles

Membrane enclosed organelles (i.e. ER, mitochondria, golgi complex, lysosomes)

Divide by binary fission

Cell division involves mitosis

Cell walls contain peptidoglycan (complex polysaccharide)

Cell walls are chemically simple

2. What are the three basic shapes of bacterial cells?  

∙ Spherical coccus

∙ Rod shaped bacillus  

∙ Spiral

3. Be able to define the terms monomorphic and pleomorphic.  

Monomorphic bacteria maintain a single shape. Pleomorphic can have many  shapes.

4. What is a glycocalyx?  

∙ The general term used for substances that surround cells. ∙ It is a viscous (sticky), gelatinous polymer that is external to the cell  wall and composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or both.

∙ If it is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall, it is a capsule. ∙ If it is unorganized and loosely attached to the cell wall, it is a slime  layer.

5. What are flagella? Know the definition of monotrichous,  lophotrichous, amphitrichous, and peritrichous.  

Flagella are long filamentous appendages that propel bacteria.  

6. What is chemotaxis?  

The movement of bacteria toward or away from chemical stimuli.  

7. What is phototaxis?  

The movement of bacteria toward or away from light stimuli.

8. What are endoflagella, fimbriae, and pili? Each of these are different. What are they used for?  

∙ Endoflagella (axial filaments)

o Bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath an  outer sheath and spiral around the cell

∙ Fimbriae

o Can occur at the poles of the bacterial cell or can be evenly  distributed over the entire surface of the cell.

o Vary from a few to hundreds per cell

o Tend to adhere to each other or surfaces

∙ Pili  

o Longer than fimbriae

o Only one or two per cell

o involved in motility (twitching motility or gliding motility) and  DNA transfer

9. For prokaryotes:  

a. What comprises the cell wall in bacteria?  

A peptidoglycan cell wall composed of disaccharides and amino acids

b. What is the purpose of the cell wall?  

It provides the cell with both structural support and protection, and  also acts as a filtering mechanism.

c. What is the difference between gram-positive and gram  negative bacteria?  

∙ Gram positive = thick peptidoglycan layer with teichoic acids =  stain purple

∙ Gram negative = thin peptidoglycan layer (without techoic  acids) surrounded by a thick plasma membrane. = stain red  

d. What comprises the cell (plasma) membrane? What is its  purpose?  

It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. It is selectively  permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement  of substances in and out of cells, and to protect the cell from its  surroundings.

e. Define diffusion, facilitative diffusion, active transport, and  osmosis.  

∙ Diffusion is the net passive movement of particles (atoms, ions  or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher  

concentration to regions of lower concentration until the  

concentration of substances is uniform throughout.

∙ Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive  transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via  

specific transmembrane integral proteins.

∙ Active transport is a kind of transport where ions or molecules  move against a concentration gradient using energy and a  

carrier protein.

∙ Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a  

selectively permeable membrane from higher water  

concentration to a lower water concentration - or - down a  

concentration gradient.

f. Which one requires energy (ATP)?  

Active transport

g. Know the difference between isotonic, hypotonic, and  hypertonic solutions.

∙ Isotonic solution refers to two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane.

∙ A hypotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes  is greater inside the cell than outside of it  

∙ A hypertonic solution is one where the concentration of solutes  is greater outside the cell than inside it

h. What is cytoplasm?  

The material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

i. What is a nucleoid?  

An irregularly shaped region that houses genetic material found only in prokaryotes.

j. How is it different from a nucleus?  

The nucleoid is not bound by a membrane.

k. Know that prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic  ribosomes  

l. What is an endospore?  

A dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small  number of bacteria to ensure the survival of a bacterium through  periods of environmental stress.

10. For eukaryotes:  

a. What comprises the eukaryotic cell wall?  

∙ In algae and plant cells, the cell wall is usually composed of  cellulose.  

∙ In molds, it is composed of chitin and/or cellulose.  

∙ Animal cells and protozoans lack cell walls

b. How is it different than the prokaryotic cell wall?  

The cell walls of prokaryotes are generally formed of peptidoglycan  (carb +protein complex). For eukaryotes, the walls are made of  cellulose (plants) or chitin (fungi).  

c. Be able to define cytoplasm, cytosol, cytoskeleton and  cytoplasmic streaming.

- Cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the  nucleus

- Cytosol is the aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell

- Cytoskeleton is made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and  intermediate filaments. These structures give the cell its shape and help organize the cell's parts. In addition, they provide a  basis for movement and cell division

- Cytoplasmic streaming is the movement of the cytoplasm  within a plant or animal to transport nutrients, proteins, and  organelles within cells.

d. Be able to define the function of all of the membrane bound  organelles

Organelle

Function

Nucleus

Control Center of the cell.

Contains the cell's DNA (genetic information) in the  form of genes

Contains one or more nuclei for the biosynthesis of  ribosomal RNA and production (assembly) of ribosomes

Rough ER

Consists of many interconnected membranous sacs  called cisternae, onto whose external surface  ribosomes are attached

Ribosomes produce polypeptides that are inserted into  the RER membrane, moved into the lumen (central  region) of the cisternae, or moved to the Golgi complex and probably onwards from there

Smooth ER

Consists of many interconnected membranous sacs  called cisternae (without ribosomes)

Helps with protein folding and transport of synthesized  proteins

Glycosylation - which involves the attachment of  oligosaccharides.

Disulfide bond formation and rearrangement to  stabilize the tertiary and quaternary structure of many  proteins

Modification of some drugs

Mitochondri a

Production of energy by synthesis of ATP

Processing and storage of calcium ions (Ca2+). Apoptosis, i.e. the process of programmed cell death Regulation of cellular metabolism

Synthesis of certain steroids

Chloroplast s

Sites of photosynthesis within plant cells

Golgi

Apparatus

Modifies, sorts and packages macromolecules for  delivery to other organelles or secretion from the cell  via exocytosis

Lysosomes

Tiny sacs containing enzymes.

Main sites of intracellular digestion

Destroy the cell after it has died.

Breakdown of fatty acids by beta-oxidation

Breakdown excess purines to urea

Peroxisome s

Breakdown of toxic compounds in the cells of the liver  and kidney.

Play a role in the biosynthesis of certain important  molecules incl. cholesterol and (in liver cells) bile acids  derived from cholesterol

Secretory

Vesicles

Transport and delivery of their contents (e.g. molecules such as hormones or neurotransmitters) either into or  out of the cell via the cell membrane.

Exocytosis - movement of the contents of secretory  vesicles out of the cell.

Endocytosis - movement of the contents of secretory  vesicles into the cell

Vacuoles

Helps maintain turgor pressure (turgidity) inside the  cell - which pushes the plasma membrane against the  cell wall. Plants need turgidity to maintain rigidity.

e. Be able to explain endosymbiotic theory.

It states that some organelles were once independent prokaryotic  organisms (chloroplast and mitochondria) and that these organisms  (mitochondria) were consumed by larger prokaryotic organisms.

CHAPTER 5

1. What is metabolism?  

The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to  maintain life.

2. What is the difference between catabolism and anabolism? ∙ Catabolism involves all of the metabolic processes that tear down  biomolecules

∙ Anabolism is all of the metabolic processes that build biomolecules.

3. What molecule is used as an energy source for all biological  organisms?  

ATP

4. What are enzymes?  

∙ Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.  

∙ Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions.  

∙ The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates  and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules  known as products.

5. Know how collision theory relates to activation energy and reaction rate.  

According to collision theory, the rate at which molecules collide will have  an impact on the overall reaction rate. If the molecules do not collide with

sufficient energy or in the right orientation, the reaction will not occur. If  they do not have sufficient energy, they cannot overcome the activation  energy.  

6. How does temperature and pressure affect reaction rate?  ∙ Pressure:  

o Increasing the pressure on a reaction involving reacting gases  increases the rate of reaction because you squeeze it into a  smaller volume.

o Changing the pressure on a reaction that involves only solids  or liquids has no effect on the rate.  

∙ Temperature:

o Increasing the temperature increases reaction rates because it  increases the number of high energy collisions

7. Be able to define apoenzyme, cofactor, coenzyme, and holoenzyme. ∙ Apoenzyme - an inactive enzyme

∙ Cofactor- nonprotein molecules, mostly metal ions or coenzymes, are  inorganic and organic chemicals that assist enzymes during the  catalysis of reactions

∙ Coenzyme- a nonprotein compound that is necessary for the  functioning of an enzyme

∙ Holoenzyme- a biochemically active compound formed by the  combination of an enzyme with a coenzyme

8. What is an active site and why is it important?  

∙ This is where specific molecules bind to the enzyme and the reaction  occurs.  

∙ Anything that changes the shape of the active site stops the enzyme  from working

∙ Like a key that opens a door lock.

9. What are three factors that influence enzyme activity (hint: see the three graphs)?  

1) Temperature - as temperature increases, initially the rate of reaction will  increase, because of increased Kinetic Energy

2) pH - any change in pH above or below the optimum will quickly cause a  decrease in the rate of reaction, since more of the enzyme molecules will have active sites whose shapes are not complementary to the shape of  their substrate

3) Concentration of enzyme or substrate- Changing the concentration of a  substance only affects the rate of reaction if it is the limiting factor and  only up to a certain point

a. Increasing Substrate Concentration increases the rate of reaction  because more substrate molecules will be colliding with enzyme  molecules, so more product will be formed

b. Increasing Enzyme Concentration will increase the rate of  reaction, as more enzymes will be colliding with substrate  

molecules

10. What is the difference between a competitive inhibitor and a  noncompetitive inhibitor?  

A competitive inhibitor will block the enzyme's active site (ie: it will occupy  the same space as the natural substrate, blocking it from being catalyzed) A non-competitive inhibitor will bind to the enzyme somewhere other than  the active site of the enzyme; an allosteric site.

11. What is feedback inhibition?  

When the end product of a reaction interferes with the enzyme that helped  produce it. The inhibitor does this by binding to a second active binding site  that's different from the one attached to the initial reactant. The enzyme  then changes its shape and can't catalyze the reaction anymore.

12. What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?  ∙ Oxidation occurs when an atom loses electrons.  

o OIL  oxidation is loss

∙ Reduction occurs when an atom gain electrons

o RIG  Reduction is gain

13. What are the 3 methods of ATP generation?  

1) Substrate Level Phosphorylation  

a. a process of forming ATP by the addition of a phosphate group to  ADP

b. can take place in the cytoplasm during glycolysis or inside the  mitochondrial matrix during the Krebs cycle

2) Oxidative Phosphorylation

a. the process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of  electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 by a series of electron  

carriers

b. takes place in the mitochondria for eukaryotic cells

3) Photophosphorylation  

a. the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight

b. occurs in the chloroplast, in the thylakoid membrane

14. What is carbohydrate catabolism?  

The breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called  ATP through the oxidation of glucose molecules. In oxidation, the electrons  are stripped from a glucose molecule to reduce NAD+ and FAD.

15. What is glycolysis? a 10-step metabolic pathway two convert  glucose (6 carbon sugar) into two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon sugar),  ATP, and NADH each.

What does it cost? 2 ATP

What are the products? Two pyruvate molecules, four ATP molecules, and two NADH molecules

What is the net gain? A net gain of two ATP molecules

What part of the cell does it occur? In the cytoplasm

16. What is fermentation? A metabolic process that consumes sugar in  the absence of oxygen; producing organic acids, gases, or alcohol. Is it aerobic or anaerobic? Anaerobic

What are the two types of fermentation that are named after their  end products?  

1) Alcoholic fermentation- the process by which certain cells convert  pyruvate (a product of glycolysis) into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.  Yeast in bread carries out this process, and the CO2 causes the bread to  rise

2) Lactic acid fermentation- the process that the dairy industry uses to  produce yogurt and cheese. Lactic acid builds up in the muscles when  the body doesn't get enough oxygen, causing the burning sensation you  get when you exercise

17. Know pyruvate oxidation joins glycolysis with the Krebs (Citric  acid cycle).  

18. What is the Krebs (Citric acid or TCA) cycle? The sequence of  reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of  aerobic respiration

Where does it occur in eukaryotes? Mitochondria

How many reactions are in the cycle? 9 reactions

Know that the carbohydrates are turned into CO2.  

Is it aerobic or anaerobic? Aerobic

19. Know that the NADH and FADH2 products from the Krebs cycle  are used to drive (power) the electron transport chain.

20.Know that the electron transport chain is related to chemiosmosis  and it powers oxidative phosphorylation which yields ~36 ATP  (eukaryotes) or ~38 ATP (prokaryotes).

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here