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AU / Chemistry / CHEM 1030 / When was the discovery of the first subatomic particle?

When was the discovery of the first subatomic particle?

When was the discovery of the first subatomic particle?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Chemistry
Course: FUNDAMENTALS CHEMISTRY I
Professor: Yngard
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: General Chemistry, CHEM1030, Chem, Chemistry, notes, Chapter, Vocabulary, atoms, and Molar Mass
Cost: 25
Name: Chem 1030 Chapter 2 notes
Description: These notes cover the main objectives of chapter 2 of chemistry an atoms-focused approach.
Uploaded: 09/12/2017
6 Pages 39 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 2If you want to learn more check out What is the central idea of atomic theory?

2.1 Subatomic Particles

  • Discovery of the first subatomic particle came in 1897 in the laboratory of Joseph John Thomson. His research included investigations of how gases conduct electricity and through his observations, he discovered that corpuscles (electrons) were fundamental particles that occur in all forms of matter
  •  In 1909, Robert Millikan determined the charge of an electron and indirectly its mass.
  • Scientists knew that matter was electrically neutral so the discovery of the electron raised the possibility that other positively charged subatomic particles existed.

Radioactivity: a term used to describe the spontaneous emission of high energy radiation and particles by radioactive materialsIf you want to learn more check out What refers to the measure of the proportion of the phenotypic variation for a trait that is determined by additive effects of its gene?
We also discuss several other topics like Describe how concurrent jurisdiction functions.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of a concurring opinion?

Rutherford’s model of the atom is the basis for our current understanding of atomic structure. It assumes that an atom consists of a tiny nucleus that contains the positive charge and most of the mass of the atom and is surrounded by the diffuse cloud of negative charged electrons by a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons that accounts for most of the volume of the atom

 Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call the smallest part of an element made of protons, neutrons, and electrons?

Properties of subatomic particles

2.2 Nuclides and their symbols

Today, we know that the Ne+ ions detected by Thomson and Aston came from two different isotopes of neon.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of aphanitic?

Isotopes: atoms of the same element that have the same numbers of protons in their nuclei but different numbers of neutrons

Nuclide: any atom of any element that has a particular number of neutrons in its nucleus

-          The number of protons is called the atomic numbers in the nucleus of an atom defines its mass number (A)

2.3 Navigating the Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev published a table that is widely considered the forerunner of the modern periodic table of the elements.

  • Note:  Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass, but in the modern periodic table, the elements appear in order of their atomic numbers.
  • The elements in modern periodic tables are arranged in seven horizontal rows (periods) and 18 columns (groups or families)
  • Cation: positively charged ion
  • Anion: negatively charged ion
  • Elements in the row with atomic numbers from 58 to 71 are called the lanthanides.
  • Those with atomic numbers between 90 and 103 are called  actinides.
  • All the isotopes of the elements with atomic numbers above 83 are radioactive.
  • Radionuclide: a radioactive nuclide

Elements with Z > 94 are not found in nature and elements 93 and 94 occur in only trace amounts in minerals that also contain uranium.

Elements of group IT are called halogens.

Elements in group I of the table are alkali metals except for hydrogen.

 Alkaline earth metal: an element in group 2 of the periodic table

Chalcogen: an element in group 16

Metals: elements that are typically shiny, malleable, ductile solids that conduct heat and electricity

Non-metals: element with  properties opposite of metals

Metalloids/semimetals: elements that tend to have the physical properties of metals and the chemical properties of nonmetals

Main group elements/representative elements:  the elements in groups 1, 2, and 13-18 of the periodic table

Transition metals: the elements in groups 3-12

Noble gases: the elements in group 18

2.4 The Masses of Atoms, Ions, and Molecules

Average atomic mass: the weight average of the masses of all isotopes of an element, calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its mass in atomic mass units and then summing the products.

Natural abundance:

The proportion of a particular isotope, usually of the that element in a natural sample to all the isotopes of that element in a natural sample

When we apply the concept of particle mass to molecular compounds, the particles involved are not individual atoms but rather groups of atoms, not individual atoms, but rather groups of atoms chemically bonded together in molecules.

A molecule of a molecular compound has a molar mass that is the sum of the average atomic masses of the atoms in it.

 

 

 

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