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TEXAS A&M / Political Science / POLS 207 / What is the total fertility rates in the usa?

What is the total fertility rates in the usa?

What is the total fertility rates in the usa?

Description

School: Texas A&M University
Department: Political Science
Course: State and Local Government
Professor: Dwight roblyer
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Government
Cost: 50
Name: POLS 207, Exam 1 study guide
Description: This guide covers the lectures prior to the exam.
Uploaded: 09/12/2017
18 Pages 17 Views 16 Unlocks
Reviews


September 9, 2017


What is the total fertility rates in the usa?



POLS 207 EXAM 1 STUDY  GUIDE

1. POPULATION

2025: US – 338 million / TX – 27.2 million (8%) 

A. Non Hispanic White

i. Decreased ~ 10% from 2000-2015

ii. 2015: US – 61.6% / TX – 43%

B. African American

i. Population is stable

ii. 2015: US – 13.9% / TX – 14.2%

C. Hispanic

i. Growing with the most numbers

ii. Legal immigration increased

iii. Family Reunification: legal immigrants to the US may bring their  family over as citizens – Republican Party proposed to repeal. 1. Leads to exponential immigration growth

iv. 2015: US – 18.2% / TX – 37.6%


What is hispanic?



D. Asian

i. Growing at the fastest rate

1. eVisa: bring in $500 k to the US = 115 million people to  come

2. Chinese bought houses in the US during the recession 3. Maternity visa: pregnant women live in the US until the baby  is born

a. Once the child is 21, the parent can be sponsored

4. Quality of life in China is POOR

a. Lack of regulations

b. Pollution due to free market

ii. Chinese Exclusion Act enforced for 80-90 years

1. Reason for small percentage of Asians

iii. 2015: US – 5.6% / TX – 4.7%

E. Foreign Born

i. Currently at peak population

ii. Legal immigrants are flowing in

2. TOTAL FERTILITY RATES IN THE USA


Why is the quality of life in china poor?



A. Optimistic immigrants have more children

B. Fertility % High to Low

i. Hispanic – soon to be the largest population in TX

ii. Black  

iii. White – 2nd highest education If you want to learn more check out What is break-even analysis?

iv. Asian – 54% have a college degree

v. Amer-Indian

C. Without immigration US would have stagnant/declining population  growth

D. Reasons for fertility rates

i. EDUCATION OF WOMEN = LESS CHILDREN

2Don't forget about the age old question of ee8086

3. TEXAS POPULATION WHEN YOU ARE YOUR PARENTS AGE A. Maroon - Hispanic

B. Purple - Anglo

C. Teal - Other

D. Yellow - Black

4. DENSITY OF TEXAS DEMOGRAPHY

A. 1850 – 70% Anglo, 30% Black

B. 1950 – Anglo population begins to decrease, Hispanics increase C. 2040 – Black population begins to decrease, Other increases If you want to learn more check out eco 182 ub

5. TEXAS VS. U.S.

A. TX is growing at a faster % than the US

B. TX graduation % is lower than the national average

i. Attracts workers with college degrees

ii. More women going to college due to PUBLIC POLICY

1. TAMU – one of few with more men than women

C. TX per capita income is lower than US

D. TX has higher poverty % than US

3

E. TX has higher incarceration %, more prisoners per 100,000 residents,  higher crime

i. TX ranks #4 in the nation, US ranks #1 in the world

F. Economic Success

i. Determined by PARENTAL HABITS and ZIP CODE

1. Wealth predicts future success

ii. Asians

1. Small % of population, already at advantage, higher %  success

2. #1 priority is education in Asian culture

a. Tiger mom regulates activities, gives structure for success iii. Per Capita Income (PCI)

1. Higher for white male than any other person due to SOCIAL  SCIENCE

a. Men are better negotiators  

b. Men don’t have babies or assume primary care taker role c. Females have lower self esteem (bs)

2. Whites have higher PCI than Asians due to GLASS CEILING  EFFECT (minority)

iv. Median Household Income

1. Asians have the highest due to CULTURE

a. Whites leave the home whereas Asians return to parents b. Leads to more family members working in one house v. Poverty Don't forget about the age old question of What stigma mean?

1. TX higher than US, and lower than other Southern States due to PUBLIC POLICY

a. TX has cotton, cattle, and crude oil

6. TEXAS HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE

A. TX ranks 50th in the % of residents covered by health insurance

7. GOVERNMENT

A. 1 federal, 50 state, 90,000 local

i. TX: 254 counties, 1196 cities, 1090 school districts, and 2245  special districts If you want to learn more check out spc full form in microbiology

4

8. STATE VS. LOCAL LAWS

A. Supremacy Clause

i. National law is supreme law over state law

ii. President FDR allowed federal government to expand / prior to the  Great Depression we didn’t need big government

1. States need help. Ex. Hurricane Harvey needs $125 billion  from federal

2. Federal government uses the Bill of Rights to protect citizens from state

a. Gitlow v. New York – freedom of speech Don't forget about the age old question of all economic questions and problems arise from

b. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – state government violated  citizens’ rights

c. Voting Rights Act of 1965  

B. Supreme Court – judicial review of state and congressional laws

9. FEDERAL SYSTEM

A. State-centric system

i. Congress and President

ii. State legislators, governors, and executives

iii. US Supreme Court

10. 2014 EXPENDITURES

A. Total government – $7.3 trillion

i. 60% federal, 40% state and local (7% comes from fed) ii. per capita - $20,693

B. Actual

i. 65% federal, 35% state and local

C. Texas receives more from federal gov. than it gives

i. About 30-40% of budget from the federal government = $100  billion

ii. Create personal income tax if the state lost the federal funds D. Massachusetts and Vermont give more money to the federal  government and receive less

5

11. GOVERNMENT SPENDING

A. Federal Government Spending

1. Income Security

2. Health

3. National Defense

B. State Government Spending 6

1. Education

2. Health

3. General Public Service

C. Total Government Spending

1. Health

2. Income Security

3. Education

D. High in infant and maternal mortality %, low in life expectancy

i. ½ of spending goes to health and income security E. Income Security

i. Social security, unemployment, welfare, food stamps ii. Federal government pays the income security

iii. States run the services

F. Education

i. State right, majority of education is state funded G. General Public service

i. Legislators, congress, governor, and President

ii. State and local government pay less than federal because of  INTEREST PAYMENT

1. Due to PUBLIC POLICY

H. Balanced Budget

i. Not in Constitution because creators were already in debt 1. National defense spending, no borrowed money =  independent

2. Pays majority of interest because of national defense I. National Defense

i. Federal government funds 100%

ii. 5th highest spending

iii. #1 military in the world

J. Top 5 spending is 88% of total government spending K. Public Safety

i. Majority state and local

L. Economic Affairs

i. Transportation, infrastructure

M. Housing and Community Services

i. Provided housing avoids emergency hospital visits for homeless 7

ii. City spending ultimately decreases

N. Recreation and Culture

i. No federal government spending

ii. Museums, arts, ballets

12. COMPARING STATES AND COMMUNITIES

A. Texas used to be a rural state, now >89% metropolitan  B. Low population, high resources, per capita income is higher C. High population, low resources, per capita income is lower D. Unemployment % at 4.3 (TX)

E. Murder/100,000 ppl  

i. highest in LA, lowest in NH

ii. Pattern – highest in southern states

F. Well-Being index

i. Pattern – countries with a lot of safety nets (social democracy) are  happier

ii. Countries having war are generally miserable

iii. Happiness is subjective. Ie. Singapore  

G. Non-Citizen Population

i. California (15-20%) – need agriculture workers

ii. Texas (10-15%)

iii. New York (gateway state, Ellis Island)

H. Life Expectancy

i. Southern states have the lowest life expectancy

1. High infant mortality rate brings the life expectancy number  down

2. Poor infrastructure, large spaces – ability to reach you ii. Gender – women live longer

1. Men engage in risky activities, more likely to have heart  attacks, don’t ask for help

a. Now women have high pressure jobs, but take care of  themselves

2. Social, cultural, life style

a. Higher social connections have a higher life expectancy i. Control variables (apples to apples)

8

ii. Asian homes have high social connections = live  longer

I. Poverty

i. Lowest in WY, CT, and WI

ii. Highest in LA, MS

iii. Due to PUBLIC POLICY

J. TANF (Welfare)

i. Same public policy in the southern states

1. Income must be low to qualify ($400 or less a month for a  family of 3)

ii. $25,000 a year for a family of four = poverty

K. Property Crimes

i. High in southern states (except MS) and Washington state ii. MS so poor they cannot steal anything, lack of transportation iii. WA does not punish property crime because it is a liberal state L. Executions

i. Texas is the highest by far (3/4 Texans believe in the death penalty) M. Infant Mortality

i. Death before 12 months of age

ii. Highest in southern states (8-12)

iii. Texas is lower (7-8)

iv. Related to education, public policy, life expectancy

v. High life expectancy = low infant mortality

N. Religiosity

i. Southern states claim they attend church more often (plus Utah) ii. Conservatives are more prolife, yet put more people to death

13. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATES? 14.

9

September 9, 2017

POLS 207 EXAM 1 STUDY  GUIDE

1. POPULATION

2025: US – 338 million / TX – 27.2 million (8%) 

A. Non Hispanic White

i. Decreased ~ 10% from 2000-2015

ii. 2015: US – 61.6% / TX – 43%

B. African American

i. Population is stable

ii. 2015: US – 13.9% / TX – 14.2%

C. Hispanic

i. Growing with the most numbers

ii. Legal immigration increased

iii. Family Reunification: legal immigrants to the US may bring their  family over as citizens – Republican Party proposed to repeal. 1. Leads to exponential immigration growth

iv. 2015: US – 18.2% / TX – 37.6%

D. Asian

i. Growing at the fastest rate

1. eVisa: bring in $500 k to the US = 115 million people to  come

2. Chinese bought houses in the US during the recession 3. Maternity visa: pregnant women live in the US until the baby  is born

a. Once the child is 21, the parent can be sponsored

4. Quality of life in China is POOR

a. Lack of regulations

b. Pollution due to free market

ii. Chinese Exclusion Act enforced for 80-90 years

1. Reason for small percentage of Asians

iii. 2015: US – 5.6% / TX – 4.7%

E. Foreign Born

i. Currently at peak population

ii. Legal immigrants are flowing in

2. TOTAL FERTILITY RATES IN THE USA

A. Optimistic immigrants have more children

B. Fertility % High to Low

i. Hispanic – soon to be the largest population in TX

ii. Black  

iii. White – 2nd highest education

iv. Asian – 54% have a college degree

v. Amer-Indian

C. Without immigration US would have stagnant/declining population  growth

D. Reasons for fertility rates

i. EDUCATION OF WOMEN = LESS CHILDREN

2

3. TEXAS POPULATION WHEN YOU ARE YOUR PARENTS AGE A. Maroon - Hispanic

B. Purple - Anglo

C. Teal - Other

D. Yellow - Black

4. DENSITY OF TEXAS DEMOGRAPHY

A. 1850 – 70% Anglo, 30% Black

B. 1950 – Anglo population begins to decrease, Hispanics increase C. 2040 – Black population begins to decrease, Other increases

5. TEXAS VS. U.S.

A. TX is growing at a faster % than the US

B. TX graduation % is lower than the national average

i. Attracts workers with college degrees

ii. More women going to college due to PUBLIC POLICY

1. TAMU – one of few with more men than women

C. TX per capita income is lower than US

D. TX has higher poverty % than US

3

E. TX has higher incarceration %, more prisoners per 100,000 residents,  higher crime

i. TX ranks #4 in the nation, US ranks #1 in the world

F. Economic Success

i. Determined by PARENTAL HABITS and ZIP CODE

1. Wealth predicts future success

ii. Asians

1. Small % of population, already at advantage, higher %  success

2. #1 priority is education in Asian culture

a. Tiger mom regulates activities, gives structure for success iii. Per Capita Income (PCI)

1. Higher for white male than any other person due to SOCIAL  SCIENCE

a. Men are better negotiators  

b. Men don’t have babies or assume primary care taker role c. Females have lower self esteem (bs)

2. Whites have higher PCI than Asians due to GLASS CEILING  EFFECT (minority)

iv. Median Household Income

1. Asians have the highest due to CULTURE

a. Whites leave the home whereas Asians return to parents b. Leads to more family members working in one house v. Poverty

1. TX higher than US, and lower than other Southern States due to PUBLIC POLICY

a. TX has cotton, cattle, and crude oil

6. TEXAS HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE

A. TX ranks 50th in the % of residents covered by health insurance

7. GOVERNMENT

A. 1 federal, 50 state, 90,000 local

i. TX: 254 counties, 1196 cities, 1090 school districts, and 2245  special districts

4

8. STATE VS. LOCAL LAWS

A. Supremacy Clause

i. National law is supreme law over state law

ii. President FDR allowed federal government to expand / prior to the  Great Depression we didn’t need big government

1. States need help. Ex. Hurricane Harvey needs $125 billion  from federal

2. Federal government uses the Bill of Rights to protect citizens from state

a. Gitlow v. New York – freedom of speech

b. Civil Rights Act of 1964 – state government violated  citizens’ rights

c. Voting Rights Act of 1965  

B. Supreme Court – judicial review of state and congressional laws

9. FEDERAL SYSTEM

A. State-centric system

i. Congress and President

ii. State legislators, governors, and executives

iii. US Supreme Court

10. 2014 EXPENDITURES

A. Total government – $7.3 trillion

i. 60% federal, 40% state and local (7% comes from fed) ii. per capita - $20,693

B. Actual

i. 65% federal, 35% state and local

C. Texas receives more from federal gov. than it gives

i. About 30-40% of budget from the federal government = $100  billion

ii. Create personal income tax if the state lost the federal funds D. Massachusetts and Vermont give more money to the federal  government and receive less

5

11. GOVERNMENT SPENDING

A. Federal Government Spending

1. Income Security

2. Health

3. National Defense

B. State Government Spending 6

1. Education

2. Health

3. General Public Service

C. Total Government Spending

1. Health

2. Income Security

3. Education

D. High in infant and maternal mortality %, low in life expectancy

i. ½ of spending goes to health and income security E. Income Security

i. Social security, unemployment, welfare, food stamps ii. Federal government pays the income security

iii. States run the services

F. Education

i. State right, majority of education is state funded G. General Public service

i. Legislators, congress, governor, and President

ii. State and local government pay less than federal because of  INTEREST PAYMENT

1. Due to PUBLIC POLICY

H. Balanced Budget

i. Not in Constitution because creators were already in debt 1. National defense spending, no borrowed money =  independent

2. Pays majority of interest because of national defense I. National Defense

i. Federal government funds 100%

ii. 5th highest spending

iii. #1 military in the world

J. Top 5 spending is 88% of total government spending K. Public Safety

i. Majority state and local

L. Economic Affairs

i. Transportation, infrastructure

M. Housing and Community Services

i. Provided housing avoids emergency hospital visits for homeless 7

ii. City spending ultimately decreases

N. Recreation and Culture

i. No federal government spending

ii. Museums, arts, ballets

12. COMPARING STATES AND COMMUNITIES

A. Texas used to be a rural state, now >89% metropolitan  B. Low population, high resources, per capita income is higher C. High population, low resources, per capita income is lower D. Unemployment % at 4.3 (TX)

E. Murder/100,000 ppl  

i. highest in LA, lowest in NH

ii. Pattern – highest in southern states

F. Well-Being index

i. Pattern – countries with a lot of safety nets (social democracy) are  happier

ii. Countries having war are generally miserable

iii. Happiness is subjective. Ie. Singapore  

G. Non-Citizen Population

i. California (15-20%) – need agriculture workers

ii. Texas (10-15%)

iii. New York (gateway state, Ellis Island)

H. Life Expectancy

i. Southern states have the lowest life expectancy

1. High infant mortality rate brings the life expectancy number  down

2. Poor infrastructure, large spaces – ability to reach you ii. Gender – women live longer

1. Men engage in risky activities, more likely to have heart  attacks, don’t ask for help

a. Now women have high pressure jobs, but take care of  themselves

2. Social, cultural, life style

a. Higher social connections have a higher life expectancy i. Control variables (apples to apples)

8

ii. Asian homes have high social connections = live  longer

I. Poverty

i. Lowest in WY, CT, and WI

ii. Highest in LA, MS

iii. Due to PUBLIC POLICY

J. TANF (Welfare)

i. Same public policy in the southern states

1. Income must be low to qualify ($400 or less a month for a  family of 3)

ii. $25,000 a year for a family of four = poverty

K. Property Crimes

i. High in southern states (except MS) and Washington state ii. MS so poor they cannot steal anything, lack of transportation iii. WA does not punish property crime because it is a liberal state L. Executions

i. Texas is the highest by far (3/4 Texans believe in the death penalty) M. Infant Mortality

i. Death before 12 months of age

ii. Highest in southern states (8-12)

iii. Texas is lower (7-8)

iv. Related to education, public policy, life expectancy

v. High life expectancy = low infant mortality

N. Religiosity

i. Southern states claim they attend church more often (plus Utah) ii. Conservatives are more prolife, yet put more people to death

13. ARE THERE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATES? 14.

9

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