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UTA / Psychology / PSYC 1315 / What is empirical testing in research?

What is empirical testing in research?

What is empirical testing in research?

Description

School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: S. coleman
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology Chapter 2 Notes
Description: Same as chapter 1 notes, more in depth. If anyone ever has any questions about my notes just contact me through the group me and I'll try to respond as quick as I can.
Uploaded: 09/14/2017
7 Pages 124 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 2 Don't forget about the age old question of What does ile ife mean?

Theory: a system of ideas that attempt to explain observations and make predictions about future observations

  • *Theories are rejected, supported, or refined using the scientific method*

We also discuss several other topics like What makes the cell membranes dynamic systems?

OBSERVE: observe some phenomena  Ex: current events, social issues

  • Curiosity and critical thinking
  • formulate /challenge a theory

If you want to learn more check out What is the formula to compute the predetermined factory overhead rate?

HYPOTHESIZE: formulate hypothesis and predictions

  • Testable prediction
  • Derived from theory

If you want to learn more check out How can we detect heterogeneity of cancer cells?

Hypothesis -a prediction that can be testedDon't forget about the age old question of What channel is university of texas playing on?

Prediction - a specific expectation for the outcome of a study

TEST: test through empirical research

  • Gaining knowledge by observing objective evidence
  • Operational definition of variables
  • Analyze data using statistical procedures

Don't forget about the age old question of What did charles darwin notice about the species he collected?

CONCLUSIONS: Do the data support the predictions?

  • Replication of results
  • Reliability

EVALUATE: Do the studies support the theory?

  • A key step after a study has been published is replication

  • Direct replication - doing the study precisely as it was conducted
  • Conceptual replication - doing the study with different methods/types of samples

  • Change the theory
  • Peer review and publication
  • Meta-analysis
  • A statistical procedure that summarized a large body of evidence from the research literature on a particular topic, allowing the researcher to assess the strength of the relationship between the variables

                TYPES OF RESEARCH

Descriptive: describing some phenomenon, can help identify some problems

  • Descriptive research cannot prove what causes some phenomenon, but it can reveal important information about people’s behaviors and attitudes.

METHODS:

  • Observation
  • Survey and interviews
  • Case studies
  • An in-depth look at a single individual

Correlational: research that examines the relationship between variable with the purpose of determining whether and how two variable change together

* correlation coefficient: -1.00 < r < 1.00

  • Tells us the strength and direction of a relationship
  • The # or magnitude of the correlation tells the strength of the relationship. The closer to 1.00, the stronger the relationship, the sign (+ / -) tells the direction

* correlation does not equal causation* it only means that 2 variables change together

3rd variable problem: a variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between 2 other variables

  • AKA: Confound

Cross-sectional design: variables are measured at a single point in time

Longitudinal design: obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time

Experimental: carefully regulated procedures where the researcher manipulates or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable

  • Experimental group: those who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents

… a manipulated experimental factor

  • Contest group: the participants who are treated equally, except no manipulation

Depend variable: the outcome

Confederate: a person who is given a role to play in an experiment so that the social context can be manipulated

Validity: refers to the soundness of the conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment

  • External validity: the degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real-world issues it’s supposed to address
  • Internal validity: the degree to which changes in the depend variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable

                        BIAS AND EXPECTATIONS

Experiment bias: the influence of the experimenter’s expectation on the outcome of the research

Demand characteristic: any aspect of a study that communicates to the participants now the experimenter want them to behave
Researcher participant bias: the influence of participant’s expectations, and thought on how they should behave

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