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POLI 201 - Class Notes - Week 3

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POLI 201 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image Political Science-9/14/17 Eras of Federalism 1870-1937 Dual Federalism
1937-1969 Cooperative Federalism
1969-Present New Federalism
Dual Federalism-during the decades following the civil war, the prevailing  model was what political scientists have called dual federalism-a doctrine 
that emphasizes a distinction between federal and state spheres of 
government authority.
Cooperative Federalism-Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal policies led to the  end of Dual Federalism and led to an era of cooperative federalism in order to 
address the vast problems caused by the Great Depression.
1969~New Federalism- Attempt to devolve the authority from the national  government to the states. ARTICLE IV OF THE CONSTITUTION (Horizontal Federalism) 1. Each state shall give full faith and credit to every other state's public acts, 
records and judicial proceedings
2. Each state shall extend to every other state's citizens the privileges and 
immunities of its own citizens.
3. Each states agrees to render persons who are fleeing from justice in another 
state back to their home state when requested to do so.
Civil Liberties- Those personal freedoms that are protected for all  individuals. Civil liberties typically involve restraining the government's actions 
against individuals.
Freedom of Religion: Engel vs. Vitale(1962) -New York State Board of Regents suggested that a prayer be spoken aloud in 
the public schools at the beginning of each day.
- Parents sued, arguing that it violated the establishment clause.
- Parents lost at trial; appealed to the Supreme Court.
- Supreme Court overturned the decision, arguing that, "it is no part of the 
business of government to compose official prayers for any groups of the 
American people to recite…"
Lemon vs. Kurtzman (1971) **Direct state aid could not be used to subsidize religious instruction.**
-Three-part Lemon test
1. secular in aim
2. cannot have the primary effect of advancing or inhibiting religion.
3. must avoid an excessive government entanglement with religion.
The "Free Exercise" Clause A person can hold any religious belief that he or she wants; or a person can 
have no religious beliefs. However, when religious practices come into conflict 
with secular (man-made) law, the right to exercise one's religious beliefs is 
often denied. The right to "free exercise" of religion in other words, is not 
absolute.
-can require certain vaccinations
-sale and use of marijuana has been found to be illegal
**A religion (or religious beliefs) cannot make legal what would 
otherwise be illegal (exercise can sometimes be denied)**

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School: University of South Carolina - Columbia
Department: Science
Course: American National Government
Professor: David Darmofal
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: political and Science
Name: Political Science Notes 9/14/17
Description: These notes cover a few of the US's historical Supreme Court cases, as well as Civil Liberties.
Uploaded: 09/14/2017
2 Pages 12 Views 9 Unlocks
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