Study Guide for Psychology
1. What are the goals of psychology when studied as a science? a. Description-identify/classify behaviors and mental processes b. Explanation-thinking of reasons for said mental processes and behaviors
c. Prediction-thinking of a hypothesis for how a condition will affect mental processes and behavior
d. Influence-utilizing research to solve problems that include mental processes and behavior
2. What is critical thinking?
a. Evaluating claims and conclusions in an objective (unbiased) way i. Independent thinking-not accepting what you read or hear If you want to learn more check out What are byproducts?
ii. Suspension of judgement-gathering all information before taking a position on either side
iii. Being willing to modify judgements-evaluating evidence when found even if it goes against what you believed previously
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3. What is a theory?
a. A general principle that intends to explain how a group of different facts are related
4. Why is the experimental method so important?
a. It’s the only method that can be implemented to classify cause-effect relationships between two or more variables
5. What’s the difference between a control group and an experimental group? a. A control group is exposed to the exact same environment as the experimental group, but they are not exposed to the independent variable. The experimental group on the other hand is exposed to the independent variable.
i. Ex: Someone is testing whether a pill causes hair to grow faster. The control group is given a sugar (placebo) pill and their results are recorded in the same way as the experimental group.
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However, the experimental group is actually given the pill and
thus exposed to the variable.
6. What is a variable?
a. A condition or factor that can be changed or manipulated, controlled, and measured.
1. What are specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system?
2. How do you measure the strength or weakness of the brain’s responses? a. Action potential and resting potential
3. If you fell over and hurt your arm, what chemical would you hope your brain would release?
4. What does the central nervous system consist of?
a. Spinal Cord
i. Extension of the brain If you want to learn more check out Water is a polar molecule of what?
ii. Links parts of your body to the brain and transmits messages between the brain and nerves
1. Controls heart rate, respiration, and other functions
ii. Midbrain We also discuss several other topics like What is the marginal cost function?
1. Lies between hindbrain and forebrain
2. Acts to link the hindbrain to the forebrain
1. Cognitive and motor function
5. What determines handedness according to research?
i. Right handedness is dominant-explains why most people are right handed
ii. Those who are right handed use their right side of brain to
i. The best answer
1. If it was solely based on genetic, then twins would always
have the same handedness but they don’t
2. It’s a combination of nature and nurture
6. Why do female brains have more gray matter?
a. Women engaging in a task where they had to process information use different areas of their brain than men do
b. The presence of gray matter may be linked to higher emotional perception that women have
c. Women’s brain has equal parts of gray and white matter
1. What is the type of consciousness when you daydream, are intoxicated, meditate, and sleep?
a. Altered consciousness
2. What’s the most significant environmental cue that influence circadian rhythm?
a. Bright light-particularly sunlight
3. If you work when your biological clock says sleep, what will go up and what will go down? If you want to learn more check out How do you determine comparative advantage?
a. Productivity, energy, alertness, etc. go down
b. Industrial accidents go up
4. What is REM sleep?
a. Rapid eye movement
i. Blood pressure and heart rate rise
ii. External becomes calm (arms, legs, trunk)
5. What is the effect of small amounts of sleep on cognitive ability (sleep deprivation)?
a. Decrease in cognitive performance
b. Ability to learn is decreased
6. What is the body’s natural way of protecting itself from harmful substances? a. It develops a drug tolerance
i. User because less affected by drug and has to take more to feel it
ii. Brain adapts to drug by responding less to it
1. What is the central theme or idea of psycho analytic theory? a. Unconscious forces shape human behavior and thought
2. What defense mechanism is applied when we used inappropriate logic or reason?
3. What were the 3 themes of Carl Jung’s approach?
b. Personal unconscious
c. Collective unconscious
4. Who introduced the conception of conditions of worth?
a. Carl Rodgers
5. What is a therapeutic environment in which someone is accepted and not judged no matter what?
a. Unconditional positive regard
6. Which aspect of the five factor model focuses on intellectual curiosity? a. Openness