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Exam Study Guide BISC208 Exam 1 Flashcards

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Flashcards of terms and concepts for Exam 1

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Evolution by Natural Selection

One of the best supported and most important theories in modern biologyOne of the 5 key attributes of life (populations of organisms evolve through time)

Special Creation (as opposed to Natural Selection)

1. Species are independent (unrelated) 2. Life on Earth is young (about 6000 years) 3. Species are immutable (incapable of change)

Scientific Theory

1. Not a guess 2. Explains a broad class of observations and is widely supported by evidence

Pattern

Component of scientific theories involving observations about natural world

Process

Component of scientific theories involving mechanisms that produce a pattern

Plato

Claimed that:   1. Every organism was an example of a perfect type created by God           2. Types were essentially unchanging TYPOLOGICAL THINKING

Aristotle

Ordered known organisms into the linear great chain of being where:1. Species were fixed types2. Species were organized into a sequence based on increasing size and complexity3. Sequence started with minerals and lower plants4. Humans were at the  top of the chain (some species are higher, meaning they are more complex or "better") TYPOLOGICAL THINKING + SCALE OF NATURE

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck

Firt to propose a formal theory of evolution:simple organisms originate at base of great chain by spontaneous generation organisms evolve by moving up the chain over time progressive (producing larger, more complex "better" species over time) CHANGE THROUGH TIME + SCALE OF NATURE

Inheritance of Acquired Characters (Lamarck)

As individuals develop, their phenotype changes in response to environmental challenges phenotypic changes are passed on to offspring

Darwin and Wallace

Proposed that change in species through time: does not follow a linear, progressive pattern is based on variation among individuals in populations individuals with certain traits produce more offspring than others without these traits CHANGE THROUGH TIME + COMMON ANCESTRY (POPULATION THINKING)

Variation

A population consists of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time with different traits

Darwin

Claimed that variation among individuals in a population was the key to understanding evolution

Descent with Modification (Darwin)

Change over time produced modern, modified species from ancestral species

Sedimentary Rocks

Form from sand or mud form in layers (younger layers on top of older layers)

Geologic Time Scale

Based on fossils' relative positions in ayers of sedimentary rock divided into eons, eras, periods, and epochs indicated that Earth was much older than 6000 years old

Radiometric Dating

Based on: observed decay rates, ratio of parent to daughter atoms in newly formed rocks ratio of parent to daughter atoms in a particular rock sample

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