Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 712 (Preschool, Middle Childhood, & Adolescent Development) Exam Format: This exam will consist of about 50 multiplechoice questions.
Study Tips: When studying, focus on lecture notes first, but it is useful to read concepts covered in lecture in the textbook to get more examples/further understanding of topics. There are some segments/topics in the textbook that are not covered in my slides, those segments will not be on the exam). Also, try to think about these concepts critically visualize things, think about new examples; don’t just skim the topics and assume you know the information because you may not recall that information as easily on exam day. Everything on this study guide could be on the exam, but if it’s not on the study guide, it’s not on the exam! Don't forget about the age old question of ucsd cogs 13
Other Resources: The quizzes you have been taking for each chapter on REVEL will be good to review particularly if you got any particular question wrong in the past. Email me questions if you have anything you want me to explain or stop by my office hours. I will be creating a Question and Answer document and posting it in the Study Guides folder on Canvas; this document will include all questions students ask me and my response to them (removing identity of student of course). I will update that document (in study guide folder on Canvas) periodically, noting when the file was last updated. Please check this file for helpful feedback and content!
Don't forget about the age old question of ole miss blackboard
UPDATED 10/31/17. Will be finalized by 11/2/17.
Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years
∙ What changes occur during the preschool years in the brain (growth rates, corpus callosum, lateralization effects and what they are; which hemisphere processes things sequentially vs. globally?, gender differences in lateralization, increase in myelin in reticular formation (attention) and hippocampus (memory), growth in neurons connecting cerebellum to cerebral cortex)?
o Growth rate of the brain: grows faster than any other part of the body during this time. By the age of 2 the brain is 75% the size of the adult brain, and by age 5 the brain is 90% the size of the adult brain (but body weight is only 30% the weight of an average adult).
o Corpus callosum: thickening occurs
o Lateralization: This improves. The left side of the brain develops verbal competence (includes reading, thinking, reasoning, sequential processing skills). The right side of the brain develops nonverbal, spatial relationships (including music, emotional expression, recognition of patterns, drawings, global processing skills)
o Gender differences in lateralization: Boys show a greater lateralization of language in the left hemisphere of the brain, whereas in girls, language is more evenly divided between the two hemispheres. We also discuss several other topics like ucsb art history
Corpus callosum is larger in part in girls.
Girls develop language more rapidly (verbal abilities may emerge earlier because girls may receive greater encouragement).
o Myelin: Increase in myelin is associated with the increase of cognitive skills. Myelination of reticular formation (attention) and hippocampus (memory) – there is significant growth in neurons connecting the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex.
∙ What major developments occur in Piaget’s stage of preoperational thinking (27 years)? How does language help cognitive skills according to Piaget? What are the limitations to thinking in this stage (e.g., know terms of centration, conservation, and egocentrism and how these limitations are tested/shown.
o Preoperational thinking: symbolic thinking grows (symbolic function: ability to use symbol, words or objects to represent something that is not physically present), mental reasoning emerges (intuitive
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 thinking: “why?” questions, children act as authorities on particular topics even if they are wrong during the end of this stage, and they also begin to understand functionality and identity), use of concepts increase, not capable of “operations” yet
o Language allows children to represent actions symbolically, think beyond the present to the future, and consider several possibilities at the same time.
Centration: What you see is what you get, inability to consider all available information about a stimulus, focuses on obvious elements in sight (ex. Kids perceive a row of buttons that is spread out as more than those that are spaced close together, or which glass contains more juice) If you want to learn more check out soc1100
Conservation: learning that appearances are deceiving, knowledge that quantity is unrelated to arrangement and physical appearance of objects (ex. Buttons are the same number even if they are spread out)
Egocentrism: preschoolers do not understand that others have different perspectives from their own, failure to realize that others may hold thoughts, feelings, and points of view that differ from theirs (ex. Two different pictures, one on the front, one on the back, child will If you want to learn more check out biol3003
think that you are seeing the same image they are).
∙ What is Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development, particularly how do children learn, what is the zone of proximal development, and social scaffolding?
o Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development: cognition is the result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation
o Zone of proximal development: cognition increases through the exposure to information that is new enough to be intriguing, but not too difficult (includes greater improvement with help and when in zone of proximal development)
o Social scaffolding: support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth
The Growth of Language and Learning
∙ How do sentence length and syntax use change in preschool years? What is fast mapping and what does it achieve? o Sentence length increases at a steady pace and syntax doubles each month
o Fast mapping: enormous leaps in the number of words, vocabulary is acquired at a rate of one new word every 2 hours each day. If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between fear and anxiety?
∙ Describe the changes in preschooler language abilities, including use of plurals and past tense, articles, questions and overregularization and how it changes over time (define).
o The use of plurals and possessive forms occur, as well as employment of the past tense, articles are used, they can ask and answer complex questions
o Overregularization: error (ex. Growed instead of grew or mouses instead of mice), over time this is usually self corrected or sometimes corrected with the help of the parents
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 ∙ What is private speech versus social speech? What is pragmatic language development?
o Private speech: child’s speech is spoken and directed to themselves, important cognitive and social function, encourages children’s thinking and helps them control their own behavior
o Social speech: speech is directed to others, they want others to listen to them and become frustrated when they cannot make themselves understood, use pragmatics
o Pragmatic language development: communicating effectively and appropriately with others (conversation rules) (ex. Turn taking, sticking to a single topic, societal rules – what is appropriate to talk about, etc.)
∙ What are poverty effects on language development (Hart & Risley study)?
o Poverty effects: parents who were professionals spent almost twice as much time interacting with their children compared to parents who received welfare assistance (also exposed to fewer words than those with parents that were professionals)
Affluence of the parents is greater in families where parents are professionals (more speech to their children).
∙ Know characteristics that differentiate the impact on language for following disorders: Autism, Williams Syndrome, childhood apraxia, and chronic stuttering
o Autism Spectrum Disorder: use less eye contact in social situations, do not orient towards speech sounds, have trouble in joint attention tasks, delayed babbling, echolalia, speech delays, pronoun reversal problems, problems with using pragmatic language
o Williams Syndrome: strong eye contact, has sensitivity to nonverbal cues, have difficulty in joint attention tasks, have large vocabulary ability and use complex syntax, have problems with language comprehension, verbtense agreement, and pronoun use, have problems with language pragmatics, initiate stereotyped conversation, and initiate conversation at inappropriate times, very talkative, like to use big words and tell stories.
o Childhood apraxia: neurological childhood speech sound disorder, precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits, includes inconsistent errors in repeated productions of syllables or words, lengthened and disrupted articulatory transitions between sounds and syllables, inappropriate prosody especially in the realization of lexical or phrasal stress, have trouble with specific sounds
o Chronic stuttering: repetitions of words or parts of words, prolonging speech sounds, speech can be blocked, may be accompanied by nonverbal movements; 24 years old, mostly males, triggered by anxiety or stress
∙ What are the recommendations for screen time according to AAP? (Updated answer: REVISED 2017: under 18 months, no screen time (video chat ok) and after age 2 limit 12 hours a day). Is there any benefit of viewing educational programs like Sesame Street?
o AAP: no screen time (video chat is okay) under 18 months, after the age of 2 there should be no more than 12 hours a day
o Educational programs: viewers have larger vocabularies, read more books, perform significantly higher on several measures of verbal and math ability at ages 6 and 7. There is no evidence that viewing Sesame Street leads to declines in enjoyment of traditional schooling.
Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years
∙ What are the general time frames and characteristics for the following of Erikson’s psychosocial stages: trust/mistrust, autonomy/shame and doubt, initiative/guilt?
o Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust; 018 months; depends on how well needs are met by the caregiver; if mistrust, might later have problems forming close bonds with others (ex. Can I count on others to be there for me?)
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt; 18 months3 years; autonomy if encouraged exploration and freedom within safe boundaries; overly restricted/overly protective; shame, selfdoubt and unhappiness develop (ex. Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?)
o Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt; 36 years; conflicts felt between desire to act independently from parents and the guilt that comes from failure when they don’t succeed (ex. How can I be like my parents? Or what happens if I am not as good as you expect me to be?)
∙ Understand Kohlberg’s theory of gender understanding, including knowing differences in terms of gender identity, gender schema, gender constancy. What are the gender differences in play and expectations about genderappropriate behavior?
o Gender identity: age 2, perception of oneself as male or female
o Gender schema: cognitive framework that organized information relevant for gender; rigid and based on outside appearances early in preschool ages (girl because she is wearing a dress)
o Gender constancy: age 45, people are predominantly males or females depending on fixed unchangeable biological factors
o Differences in play: Males are more rough and tumble during play, there is samesex playmate preference around age 3, while females participate in organized games and role playing and there is samesex playmate preference around age 2
o Expectations: Boys are expected to demonstrate competence, independence, forcefulness, and competitiveness, whereas girls are expected to demonstrate warmth, expressiveness, nurturance, and submissiveness
∙ What is the difference between functional and constructive play? Differentiate between all of the social aspects of play (parallel play, solitary play, onlooker play, associative play, and cooperative play).
o Functional play: simple, repetitive activities typical of 3 year olds, involve objects or repetitive muscular movements
o Constructive play: children manipulate objects to produce or build something, tests cognitive skills, motor skills, problem solving and teaches cooperation
o Parallel play: children play with similar toys in a similar manner but don’t interact with each other o Onlooker play: watch each other play
o Solitary play: play by themselves
o Associative play: children interact with one another in groups of 2 or more, share and borrow toys, do NOT do the same activity
o Cooperative play: children play with one another, take turns, play games, have contests, do the same activity
∙ What is theory of mind, and how are preschoolers’ advanced in their theory of mind? What are false belief problems and what age are they typically solved by?
o Theory of mind: preschool children generate explanation for how others think and reasons for why they behave the way they do (imagine things that are not there, pretend and react to imagined events, know others can imaging thins too, understand motives, have incomplete understanding of “beliefs”, can solve false belief problems)
o False belief problems are solved by children 46 years old (ex. The crayon box contained something else – children that can solve this false belief problem would say that others would belief that crayons were in the box even though there are no crayons in the box)
∙ Know the 4 parenting styles, particularly how they change on responsiveness and demandingness, which style produces best children, how each style impacts children, and problems with parent style research.
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Authoritarian: low responsive and demanding; controlling, rigid, cold style, value strict, unquestioning obedience; produce withdrawn, socially awkward, unfriendly children; girls are dependent and boys are hostile
o Authoritative: high responsive and demanding; set firm, clear limits, allow disagreement and use reasoning, explanations, consequences; produce independent, friendly, selfassertive, and cooperative, strong selfregulation, better protection against potential later adversity
o Permissive: high responsive and undemanding; very involved with children, place little/no limits on children’s behavior, give lax/inconsistent feedback; produce dependent, moody children with low social skills and poor self control
o Uninvolved: low responsive and undemanding; uninvolved with children, no interest shown, indifferent, rejecting behavior, detached emotionally, only role is providing the basic needs for the child, extreme forms can lead to neglect of the child; produce children that are emotionally detached, unloved, and insecure. Their physical and cognitive development is negatively impacted
o No single parenting pattern or style is likely to be universally appropriate or likely to invariably produce successful children
∙ What characteristics make children most likely to be victims of child abuse? What is the most frequent type of child abuse? What are the signs of child abuse?
o Children are most likely to be victims of child abuse when they are fussy, resistant to control, slow to adapt to new situations, overly anxious, frequent bedwetters, developmentally delayed, 34 years old or 1517 years old
o The most frequent type of child abuse is neglect.
o Signs: inappropriate attire in warm weather, extreme behavior, highly aggressive, extremely passive, extremely withdrawn, or fear physical contact
∙ How do preschoolers control/regulate their emotions?
o Preschool children improve in emotional control. At age 2 they talk about their feelings and start to regulate their emotional behaviors. They learn to cope with negative emotions, use language to express their wishes, and develop the ability to negotiate with others
∙ How can parents impact the length of a temper tantrum?
o It is better to let them have their tantrum and then whey they have calmed down, they should talk with them.
o Stage 1: yelling and screaming
o Stage 2: physical actions
o Stage 3: crying and whining
∙ How is aggression shown in preschoolaged children and does it change over time? What is difference between instrumental and relational aggression and which type of aggression do boys/girls show more of? What did the Bandura study show about aggression?
o Aggression: intentional injury or harm to another person
o Early preschool years: aggression to attain a desired goal, declines through the preschool years along with the frequency and length of the episodes, extreme and sustained aggression is cause for concern
o Instrumental aggression: motivated by desire to obtain a concrete goal, typically physical, higher in boys
o Relational aggression: intended to hurt another person’s feelings through nonphysical means, higher in girls
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Bandura Bobo doll experiment: The adult model’s aggressive behavior is imitated by children who had viewed the aggressive behavior – social learning of aggression
Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood
∙ What are the barriers to identification of psychological disorders in children, as well as the pros and cons of using medication to treat psychological disorders in children?
o Barriers: Symptoms are often inconsistent from those of adults; antidepressant drugs used for treatment have not been approved by regulators for the use in children
o Pros of medication: depression and other psychological disorders have been treated successfully, more traditional nondrug therapies that employ verbal methods have been ineffective
o Cons of medication: long term effectiveness of antidepressants in children are not known; use of antidepressants on developing brains and long term consequences are not known; correct dosages for children of given ages or sizes are not known; some antidepressants are linked to increased risk of suicide in children and adolescents
∙ What are learning disabilities and do they indicate anything about the child’s intellectual level? What is dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia? Know that dyslexia is considered an auditory processing disorder.
o Learning disabilities: difficulties in acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities
o Dyslexia: reading disability; misperception of letters during reading/writing; difficulty sounding out letters (auditory processing disorder); confusion between left and right; difficulties in spelling
o Dysgraphia: inability to write coherently, symptom of brain disease or damage
o Dyscalculia: difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers and learning math
∙ What are the symptoms of ADHD? How does drug treatment (e.g., stimulants like Ritalin) help with attention and academics (shortterm and longterm impacts of taking ADHD meds on academics)?
o ADHD symptoms: persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, organizing work, inability to watch an entire TV program, frequent interruption of others or excessive talking, fidgeting or squirming
o Drug treatment: stimulants improved attention and compliance
Side effects: include reduced appetite, irritability, depression
Academic improvements were short term; long term studies show that children don’t do better academically than those that were not treated with drug therapy
∙ Know the main characteristics of how children think in Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage (712 years), including the terms of decentering and reversibility, how logic is used in this stage, how egocentric are they, and what they can and can’t understand/master in this stage.
o Concrete Operational Stage: 712 years, active and appropriate use of logic, conservation masters, concrete problems solvable, less egocentric, understanding of time/speed, unable to understand abstract or hypothetical/theoretical questions; in the beginning of this stage, children shift back and forth between preoperational and concrete operational thinking
o Decentering: ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account
o Reversibility: notion that processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed to original form
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 ∙ What are the major characteristics of language development in middle childhood? Know specifically about how grammar use improves, as well as understanding of syntax, which phonemes are difficult, how intonation is difficult for children to interpret, what are the increases in pragmatic language development, and how can language help selfcontrol with regards to the marshmallow test?
o Vocabulary increases, grammar improves, passive voice and conditional sentences increase, understanding of syntax grows
o Phonemes that are difficult include j, v, th, and zh
o There is decoding difficulties when dependent on intonation, there is more competence in pragmatics
o Language promotes self (ex. Marshmallow study – older kids “talked” to themselves to avoid eating the marshmallow)
∙ What is the difference between codebased and wholelanguage approaches to teaching about reading and which method is most recommended by reading experts?
o The National Reading Panel and National Research Council support reading instruction using code based approaches.
o Code based: The basics are taught (letters) and then are combined into words
o Wholelanguage: reading is taught through the exposure to complete writing, children are encouraged to make guesses about the meaning
∙ What do IQ scores do and do not predict about success?
o IQ scores are good predictors of school performance, but poor predictors of later income/success
∙ Be able to identify the following conceptions of intelligence, including: Spearman’s g, Catell’s fluid and crystallized intelligence, and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
o Spearman’s g: one central intelligence type
o Fluid intelligence: information processing, reasoning, and short term memory
o Crystalized intelligence: information, skills and strategies learned through experience
o Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences: musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
Chapter 10: Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood
∙ What is Erikson’s industry vs. inferiority stage (612 years) entail? What happens if the child experiences inferiority (in terms of social/academic pursuits)? What is the main finding from the Vaillant & Vaillant study?
o Industry vs. inferiority stage: 612 years old, brings feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence
Industry: feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence
Inferiority: feelings of failure and inadequacy; withdrawal from academic pursuits or social interactions
o Vaillant and Vaillant study: showed longterm impacts of this stage. Most men that are industrious and hardworking in childhood become the most successful as adults
∙ How does selfconcept change in middle childhood? What is social comparison, and specifically what is downward and upward social comparison?
o Selfconcept shifts from focusing on external physical attributes in younger children to internal psychological traits in older children; children realize they are good at some things and not so good at others; children’s self concepts become divided into personal and academic spheres
o Downward social comparison: comparison to those less competent or successful; can boost self esteem in children
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Upward social comparison: comparison to those more competent
∙ Know Kohlberg’s 3 stages of morality (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional; you don’t have to know substages), when is postconventional morality generally reached, and does everyone reach it? What are the main criticisms of his theory?
o Preconventional Morality: stages 1 and 2, people follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments
o Conventional Morality: stages 3 and 4, people approach problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society
o Postconventional Morality: stages 5 and 6, universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than a particular society
Reached in adolescents, but not everyone reaches it
o Criticisms: based solely on observations of members of Western cultures and the theory was initially based largely on data from males only
∙ What are Carol Gilligan’s 3 stages of moral development for girls, and how does Gilligan theorize girls vs. boys focus on morality differently?
o Stage 1: Orientation toward individual survival; initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self. Gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others
o Stage 2: Initial view is that a woman must sacrifice her own wishes to what other people want. Gradual transition from “goodness” to “truth” which takes into account needs of both self and others
o Stage 3: A moral equivalence is established between self and others. Hurting anyone – including one’s self is seen as immoral. Most sophisticated form of reasoning
o Boys: morality = justness and fairness
o Girls: morality = responsibility/compassion toward individuals/selfsacrifice
∙ What are the characteristics of popular children?
o Popular children are helpful and cooperative, have a good sense of humor, have good emotional understanding, ask for help when necessary, are not overly reliant on others, are adaptive to social situations, and have social problem solving skill competence
∙ What are the characteristics of bullied children and of bullies? (You don’t have to know prevalence stats) What is the most effective way of reducing bullying in schools?
o Bullied children: loners who are fairly passive, often cry easily, lack the social skills that might otherwise defuse a bullying situation
o Bullies: about half of all bullies come from abusive homes, bullies tend to watch more TV containing violence, and they misbehave more at home and at school than do children who are not bullies
o The most effective way to reduce the incidence of bullying in through school programs that enlist and involve students
∙ Know that children’s friendships are almost entirely sex segregated in middle childhood and the term “border work”. Know the characteristics of boys’ and girls’ friendships.
o “Broader work”: when sexes interact; often flirtatious and helps emphasize clear boundaries between the sexes
o Boy friendships: larger networks of friends than girls, strict dominance hierarchy, attempt to maintain/improve status in hierarchy – restrictive play
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Girl friendships: focus on one or two “best friends” of relatively equal status, conflicts solved by compromise, ignoring the situation, or giving in; can be confrontational with other girls who are not their friends, language is less confrontational and direct than boys
∙ How does age impact consequences of divorce (older childhood ages= worse impacts) and what are impacts of divorce on children and how long do those maladjustments typically occur? When do children return to predivorce levels of adjustment? What is worse to experience in a family beyond divorce itself?
o School age children tend to blame themselves for divorce.
o Children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustments for 6 months to 2 years (including anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, phobias)
o After 18 months to 2 years, most children return to their levels of predivorce psychological adjustment
o For some, living in a home with an unhappy marriage and which is high in conflict has stronger negative consequences than divorce
Chapter 11: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
∙ What is the timing of growth spurts for girls vs. boys? What is menarche/spermarche and the average ages associated with each? What determines onset of menarche for girls (how does income status/nutrition affect menarche timing?) What are primary vs. secondary sex characteristics for girls/boys. You don’t have to know timing for development of primary/secondary sex characteristics.
o Girl growth spurts – 10 years old
o Boy growth spurts – 12 years old
o Menarche: Age 1112, onset nutrition, weight, health, stress; primary sex characteristics – vagina and uterus; secondary sex characteristics – changes in breasts, pubic hair, underarm hair
Better nutrition and higher income status can lead to earlier onset
o Spermarche: Age 1213, primary sex characteristics – penis and scrotum begin to grow at accelerated rate around age 12 and reach adult size 34 years later; enlargement of prostate gland and seminal vesicles; secondary sex characteristics – pubic hair, followed by growth of underarm and facial hair, boy’s voices deepen
∙ What are positive or negative impacts of early and late maturation for boys vs. girls?
o Early maturation in boys: more successful at athletics, tend to be more popular and more positive self concept; have difficulties in school, and are more likely to become involved in delinquency and substance abuse
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Late maturation in boys: tend to be viewed as less attractive; disadvantaged when it comes to sports activities and social activities; decline in selfconcept; have positive qualities, such as insightfulness and assertiveness; more creatively playful than early maturers
o Early maturation in girls: obvious changes in their bodies, development of breasts, which may lead them to feel uncomfortable and different from their peers; may have to endure ridicule from their less mature classmates; tend to be sought after more as potential dates, and their popularity may enhance their self concepts
o Late maturation in girls: may be overlooked in dating and other mixedsex activities during middle school, and they may have relatively low social status; satisfaction with themselves and their bodies may be greater than that of early maturers; have fewer emotional problems
∙ What are the changes in brain development during adolescence in terms of gray matter and myelination? Which area of the brain is developing the most during adolescence and what does it control? What are the consequences of adolescent sleep deprivation?
o Brain produces an oversupply of gray matter during adolescence which is later pruned at a rate of 12% per year
o Myelination increases and continues to make transmission or neural messages more efficient o Developing prefrontal cortex reason for inability to inhibit impulses
o Sleep deprivation: lower grades, depression, difficulty controlling moods, greater risk of auto accidents Intellectual Development
∙ Know the characteristics that describe children in the formal operations stage (12+ years) particularly in regards to how they solve the pendulum task, and what propositional logic entails? What are the cultural differences in reaching this stage?
o Formal Operations Stage: 12+ years, development of abstract and hypothetical reasoning; development of propositional logic; cultural differences in enactment; ability to reason abstractly, embodied in the use of formal operations, leads to a change in everyday behavior (question parents and authority figures, exhibit greater idealism and impatience with imperfections, experience indecision).
o Pendulum task: They look at one factor (ex. String length) and change it to see how it affects the speed of the pendulum
o Propositional logic: reasoning that uses abstract logic in the absence of concrete examples
o Cultural differences: countries with less technology will have less people who reach the formal operational stage, we approach education differently
∙ How do adolescents show egocentrism in terms of imaginary audiences and personal fables (define)?
o Egocentrism in adolescents: new abilities make adolescents particularly introspective and self conscious; includes a state of selfabsorption in which the world is viewed as focused on oneself
o Imaginary audiences: belief that a person is under constant, close observation by peers, family and strangers
o Personal fables: belief held by many adolescents telling them that they are special and unique, so much so that none of life’s difficulties or problems will affect them regardless of their behavior
∙ What is metacognition and how does it change during adolescence?
o Metacognition: This improves during adolescence. Includes thinking about one’s own thoughts, leading to selfconsciousness; monitoring one’s own learning processes more efficiently; pacing one’s own studying
∙ Know that adolescents are more sensitive to neurological damage and show more cognitive impairment in response to alcohol, compared to adults. What are differences in their brains and how they perform on tests
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 compared to nondrinking adolescents? How do adolescents compare to adults on tolerance and sensitivity to negative impacts of alcohol?
o Brains with alcohol show smaller hippocampal and prefrontal white matter volume
o Binge drinking teens did worse on thinking and memory tests; female drinkers performed poorly on tests of spatial functioning; male drinkers did worse on tests of attention
o Adolescents show less sensitivity to negative side effects of alcohol, teens develop a tolerance to alcohol more quickly than adults
Chapter 12: Social and Personality Development in Adolescence
∙ What is the difference between selfconcept and selfesteem? How do both change during adolescence? How do gender, SES, or race differences impact selfesteem (if at all)?
o Self concept: One’s own assessment of who they are; is more complex, integrating others’ perspectives with their own perspective, is based more on abstract psychological characteristics, understand aspects of self is situationally based; unease if difference between preferred self and actual behavior
o Self esteem: liking who you are; increase in self concept does not imply increase in self esteem; can be different depending on aspect of self you are evaluating; gender differences in self esteem (girls less than boys); socioeconomic status impacts self esteem; race differences no longer exist for self esteem
o Socioeconomic status impact: higher socioeconomic status = higher self esteem, especially in later adolescents
o Gender impact: girls have lower self esteem than boys
o Race impact: no impact
∙ What are the primary characteristics of Erikson’s Identity vs. Identity Confusion during adolescent years (1318 yrs)? Specifically what occurs if identify is achieved or if confusion persists? What is a psychological moratorium and is it helpful for identity seeking?
o Identity vs. Identity Confusion (1318 years):
Identity: appropriate identity that sets foundation for future psychosocial development
Confusion: might adopt of socially unacceptable roles or difficulty forming/keeping relationships; diffuse sense of self
o Positive outcome: awareness of uniqueness; knowledge of roles
o Negative outcome: inability to identify roles in life
o Psychological moratorium: time for exploring options, suspending upcoming responsibilities of adulthood
∙ Know Marcia’s 4 types of identity statuses, specifically which involve high/low exploration (aka crisis) and which do or do not involve commitment.
o Identity achievement: high exploration, commitment present (ex. I enjoyed working at an advertising company the last two summers, so I plan to go into advertising)
o Moratorium: high exploration, commitment absent (ex. I’m taking a job at my mom’s bookstore until I figure out what I really want to do)
o Identity foreclosure: low/no exploration, commitment present (ex. My dad says I’m good with kids and would be a good teacher so I guess that’s what I’ll do)
o Identity diffusion: low/no exploration, commitment absent (ex. Frankly, I have no idea what I’m going to do)
∙ You don’t have to know prevalence rates for suicide. You do want to know that attempts are higher in girls than boys but success higher in boys.
Psyc 3400 Fall 2017 o Suicide attempts are higher in girls than boys (pills)
o Suicide success is higher in boys
∙ Define the following terms: social comparison, reference groups, cliques, crowds, sex cleavage. Do cliques become more or less influential with age? Are cliques samesex or mixedsex in early/late adolescence?
o Social comparison: desire to evaluate one’s own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to others
o Reference groups: present a set of norms or standards, against which adolescents judge their social success
o Cliques: Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent interaction with one another (less influential with age)
o Crowds: larger groups who share common characteristics but may not interact with one another
o Sex cleavage: boys interact with boys and girls interact with girls (diminishes upon puberty; cliques become mixedsexed)
∙ Know the characteristics associated with popular, controversial, rejected, and neglected adolescents. Which are high vs. low status? What are sociometric standards and how is that different from perceived popularity?
o Popular: mostly liked, high status, have more close friends, engage more frequently in activities with peers; disclose more of themselves to others; involved more in extracurricular activities; well aware of their popularity; less lonely than rejected and neglected peers
o Controversial: liked by some, disliked by others, high status, have more close friends, engage more frequently in activities with peers; disclose more of themselves to others; involved more in extracurricular activities; well aware of their popularity; less lonely than rejected and neglected peers
o Rejected: uniformly disliked, low status, have fewer friends; engage in social activities less frequently; have less contact with opposite gender; see themselves as less popular; are more likely to feel lonely
o Neglected: neither liked nor disliked, low status, have fewer friends; engage in social activities less frequently; have less contact with opposite gender; see themselves as less popular; are more likely to feel lonely
o Sociometric standards: count if are liked or disliked and place them based on number of likes or dislikes ∙ When do adolescents turn to their peers vs. their parents for advice?
o Peers: social matters
o Parents: nonsocial matters