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XAVIER UNIVERSITY / Psychology / PSYC 130 / How do you describe a descriptive statistics table?

How do you describe a descriptive statistics table?

How do you describe a descriptive statistics table?

Description

School: Xavier University
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology Science Perspectives
Professor: Anna ghee
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 4 Notes
Description: Covered in class material with further explanations and examples.
Uploaded: 09/15/2017
3 Pages 109 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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> li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_teke9jyljct-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_teke9jyljct-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_teke9jyljct-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_teke9jyljct-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wqd396qwmsdq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9trzq83l3sy-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9trzq83l3sy-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hr5dmq18twjb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b042bumbmrkc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_h9trzq83l3sy-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hr5dmq18twjb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wqd396qwmsdq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wqd396qwmsdq-8 > li:before{content:"- 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Statistics: Descriptive

  • Central tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode
  • Variability: Range, standard deviation
  • How spread out the data is
  • Sd -> the average amount the data is different from overall mean(average)

If you want to learn more check out What causes divergence over a generation?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the common method that commercial interest uses to track the browsing habits of computer users?

Statistics: Inferential

  • Statistical significance
  • All about probabilities
  • How likely the results are just by chance
  • Random chance or if it actually exists/is true
  • The magic number of p < .05

  • Practical significance
  • The question of “yeah, so what?”
  • Unlikely to have resulted by chance -> but does this data matter in the real world

We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that affect spending?

CHAPTER 4

Key definitions

  • Sensation: the detection of physical energy by sense organs
  • Send info to the brain called transduction
  • Perception: the brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs

We also discuss several other topics like What is the type of films that the lumiere brothers made?

Psychophysics

  • relationship between sensory experience and physical properties of the stimuli
  • Psycho (sensory experience)
  • Physics (physical stimulus characteristics)

  • Sensory thresholds
  • absolute threshold -> smallest amount of stimulus
  • Difference threshold -> similarity to stimuli
  • Difference between two shades of a color swatch

If you want to learn more check out Explain the unity and complexity of life.

Absolute threshold

  • Smallest amount of energy that a person can detect
  • Measured as amount that can be detected 50% of the time
  • Is something present or not
  • Can you hear me? Yes or no
  • Light, sound, taste, touch

If you want to learn more check out What is the first component in the visual perception process?

Difference threshold

  • Smallest difference in stimulation that can be reliably detected when two things are compared
  • Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
  • 2 candles burning in a room, and 1 more, will you notice?
  • 100 candles burning in a room, add 1 more, will you notice?

  • In class example, paper clips 1 vs 2 -> always was 2
  • Weber’s Law
  • Change necessary to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus
  • 2 + 1 = 50% change (more likely to see this change)
  • 100 + 1 = 1% change

Goal of Psychophysics

  • Determine how sensitive our senses are
  • There are individual differences in thresholds
  • Threshold can be learned - perceptual learning
  • distinguish between musical notes
  • Differentiate wine flavors

Vestibular sense

  • How our bodiews are oriented with respect to gravity
  • Direction of movement
  • velocity/rate of movement
  • Rollercoasrers jar your vestibular sense
  • Adaptation - sensitivity to a stimulus declines when the stimulus is continually presented
  • Adaptation occurs for all senses

Kinesthetic sense

  • Gives use info about the movement of body parts relative to the rest of our body
  • Kinesthesis -> info that comes from the muscles, tendons, joints
  • Also called “proprioception”

Cutaneous (skin) sense: The sonatosensory system

  • Through receptors in our skin
  • Touch
  • Pressure -> fastest
  • Warmth
  • Cold
  • Pain

  • Sensitivity to touch varies across body parts - back less sensitive than fingers
  • Adaptation
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Pressure on your arm

Tasting sense

  • Chemical substances stimulate receptors in the mouth called taste buds
  • Five taste sensations
  • Sweet
  • Bitter
  • Sour
  • Salty
  • Umami -> comfort foods

  • Born with “sweet tooth” = natural dislike for bitter
  • Most poisons are bitter
  • Unripe vs ripe fruit (sweet and bitter)

  • adaptation
  • Salty chips
  • Cleansing palate
  • Eating saltine or sorbet between courses to taste more purely
  • Maximally sensitive to flavors

  • Taste experience
  • experience/culture
  • Texture
  • Temperature -> warm cheese
  • Taste related to smell

Smell (olfactory) sense

  • Chemicals in the air, enter your nasal passage, and excite receptors
  • Smell can warn of danger, cue sources of food, improve taste
  • How many different scents can a typical person recognize? 10,000
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