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UWM / African Studies / MENAS 401 / What are the 7 basic units of measurement?

What are the 7 basic units of measurement?

What are the 7 basic units of measurement?

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: African Studies
Course: General Microbiology
Professor: Sonia bardy
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Microbiology, Diffusion, active transport, Proteins, Fluid Mosaic Model, Bacterial Cell Structures, Types of Microorganisms, Types of Microscopes, Preperation and Staining of Specimens, Microscopy, and Units of measurement
Cost: 25
Name: Microbiology Week 2 Notes (Chapter 2 and some of 3)
Description: Notes cover microscopy, types of microscopes, preparation and staining of specimens, bacterial cell structure, bacterial size/shape/arrangement, fluid mosaic model, proteins, diffusion, and active transport.
Uploaded: 09/15/2017
17 Pages 34 Views 3 Unlocks
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li:before{content:"→ "}ul.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-2}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-5 0}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-7 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-4 0}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-0}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-0 0}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6ybracoft4s4-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6ybracoft4s4-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3 0}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-7 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-2 0}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_6ybracoft4s4-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-1 0}.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-8}.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3 0}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7 0}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-1}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-7 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-7 0}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_67trw5rw8j4e-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-8 0}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-7 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2}ul.lst-kix_pz2rslgk4q9i-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_svi1b9ru0swa-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-4}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-0 0}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-5}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-2 0}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_97v3y83s7ltq-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-0}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-4 0}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_czyaju6mg7x3-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_w1wfcjmfaccy-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6 0}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-0 0}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3}.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjvarz3zo27u-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fjvarz3zo27u-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1}ul.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cdoexbx7qdlw-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m7td3zl37w0i-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-1 0}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5rvibgbzlpsb-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-4 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adsie9841g0o-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-6}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-5 0}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}ul.lst-kix_b6sm2phwe6su-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7 0}ul.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-0 > li:before{content:"❖ "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_zdrlff6ijdyv-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-0 > li:before{content:"→ "}.lst-kix_7jn1jnxowk32-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_71yijuijx8fo-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hin4i0qh40np-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_t13cuagjfmgf-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_9fac73h3xw5c-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_6ybracoft4s4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-8}.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-7 > li:before{content:"o "}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-2 0}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-7}.lst-kix_wdb8h9kp6yh8-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_9143lown0ynm-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_6ybracoft4s4-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8hurxwiqih00-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-1 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_rggi8pc1u3i0-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_6so4v2caaox4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_qdrkofjy1yic-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76q4vsg11jy1-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_28ocm61jyoed-5 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-6}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-5 0}.lst-kix_1p5166m1ab0n-1 > li:before{content:"o "}ul.lst-kix_cgg2y8hjf7i-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-4 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_eog4xja941mz-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ol.lst-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ivmfbigckjyq-4 0}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-8 0}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_yqcbjclgxox4-2 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ykj5p1tdd0x5-2}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g1xexnnu9evr-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_egpr8gfmzx81-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}.lst-kix_tdxcytl5bbps-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_en2uknt8hmcn-7 > li:before{content:"o "}.lst-kix_xoa1g8g89rif-8 > li:before{content:"▪ "}ul.lst-kix_s784hxwryxzp-0{list-style-type:none}

Chapter 2

  • Common Units of Measurement

Unit

Abbreviation

Value

1 centimeter

cm

10-2

1 millimeter

mm

10-3

1 micrometer

10-6

1 nanometer

Nm

10-9

1 angstrom

A

10-10

  • Refractive Index
  • How greatly substance slows velocity of light

If you want to learn more check out What does it mean when you reject the null hypothesis for your experiment?

  • Normal = line perpendicular to surface of media
  • Into higher reflective index = bends towards normal
  • Into lower reflective index = bends away from normal
  • Resolution
  •  With higher resolution microscope could see either

  • Ability of lens to separate/ distinguish small objects are close together
  • Wavelength of light used – major factor in resolution
  • Shorter wavelength = greater resolution
  • Numerical aperture = ability of lens to gather light
  • Wider angle = better resolution
  • Narrow angle = less resolution
  • Factors defining numerical aperture
  • Refractive index of medium (air o oil)
  • Oil = increased refractive light = increase resolution
  1. 100x only for oil
  • Bright field microscope
  • Light background + dark specimen
  • Stained or unstained samples
  • Resolution  0.2
  • Size of small bacterium → all light microscopes
  • Cannot visualize viruses

  • Visualizing live cells
  • Dark Filed
  • Phase contrast
  • Differential interference contrast
  • Dark Filed
  • Image formed by light refractive/ reflective by specimen
  • Produces bright image of object against a dark background
  • Phase contrast microscopy
  • Annular stop
  • Opaque disk produces hollow cone of light
  • Variations within specimen shifts phase of some light
  • Differences in phase = differences in image contrast

  • Acid fast – red cells/ - gram – positive (+) – purple
  • Non-acid fast – blue/ - gram – negative (_) – red

  • Fluorescent Microscope
  • Expose specimen to ultraviolet, violet, or blue light
  • Specimens usually stained with fluorescent dyes (fluorochromes)
  • Shows a bright image of one object resulting from one fluorescent light emitted by the specimen
  • Dichromatic mirror
  • Excitation 580nm                - don’t need to memorize numbers
  • Emission 60nm

        (longer)

  • Preparation and staining of specimens
  • Heat Fixation
  • Typically for bacteria
  • Preserves morphology, not internal structures
  • Chemical Fixation
  • Typically eukaryotic cells
  • Preserves subcellular structures
  • Formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde

  • Chemical fixation used in prokaryotes for EM, or immune-fluorescent microscopy
  • electron microscopy

  • Dyes and Staining
  • Interact by ionic, covalent or hydrophobic bonding
  • Basic dyes
  • Acidic dyes
  1. Effects of pH on staining
  • Simple stains

  • Gram Stain Steps

Steps

State of Bacteria

  1. Crystal violet (primary stain) for 1 minutes water rinse

Calls stain purpleDon't forget about the age old question of How do you find quantity demanded when given price?

  1. Iodine (moderate) for 1 minute water rinse

Cells remain purpleIf you want to learn more check out What are the three musical elements that you considered in formulating the criteria?

  1. Alcohol (decolorizer) for 10-30 seconds water rinse

(+) gram – pos = purpleDon't forget about the age old question of How early did the first civilization settle in the indus valley?

(-) gram – neg = colorlessWe also discuss several other topics like How do you calculate the atomic mass of nitrogen?

  1. Safranin (counterstain) for 30-60 seconds water rinse blot dry

(+) gram-pos = remain purpleIf you want to learn more check out What are the three levels of media company ownership?

(_) gram-neg = appear red

  • Acid fast staining
  • Diagnostic for Mycobacterium spp:
  • High lipid content (mycolic acid) in cell wall
  • M. Tuberculosis (TB) and M. leprae (leprosy)
  • Heat, phenol and basic fuchsin = staining
  • Destain with acid – alcohol
  • Counterstained with methylene blue

  • Staining Specific Structures
  • Endospore staining
  • Bacillus spp and clostridium spp
  • Capsule staining
  • Extracellular polysaccharides
  • Flagella staining
  • Taxonomically helpful information

  • Confocal Microscopy – will not be on exam

  • Electron Microscopy
  • 99.9% of viruses to be seen
  • Electrons
  • Place samples in vacuum
  • Sample preparation
  • Chemical fixation
  • Dehydration
  • Embedding
  • Thin sectioning
  • Staining

  • Light microscopy                 vs.         electron microscopy
  • Morphology                         → Organelles and internal structures (in depth look)
  • How it works                        

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