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Test 2 Study Guide

by: Chandler Darden

Test 2 Study Guide 1103.0

Chandler Darden
GPA 3.79
Concepts in Biology

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the second test in BIOL 1103. It includes detailed book notes on Ch.4: The Cell, Ch.6: Introduction to Energy, Ch.7: Deriving Energy from Food, Ch.8: Photosynthesis.
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chandler Darden on Monday August 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1103.0 at University of Georgia taught by Brickman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 08/24/15
Biology Exam 1 Book Notes Ch1 Science as a Way of Learning Science a body of knowledge about the natural world 0 A way of learning Theory a general set of principles that is supported by evidence and explains some aspect of nature 0 Ex Big Bang Theory 0 Has explanatory power 39Why it is more valued than a scientific fact 39Science is in the theorybuilding business not factfinding business Scientific Method a means of coming to understand the natural world through observation and the testing of hypotheses O 1 Observation 0 2 Question 0 3 Hypothesis A tentative testable explanation for an observed phenomenon Several hypotheses are usually proposed for the same question 4 Experiment Series of experiments controlled tests of the question at hand 0 Louis Pasteur life comes from life not spontaneous generation 0 Conclusion No growth appears in the broth unless dust is admitted from outside 0 Used an Sshaped ask to keep broth open to air but would trap particles trying to enter in a bend in the neck Variable an adjustable condition in an experiment 0 Ex Pasteur s variable was the shape of the ask or the tilt of it A control condition can be thought of as an experimental condition that exists prior to the introduction of any variables being tested 0 Ex Control condition with Pasteur brothfilled ask left sitting straight up with its particle trap intact A theory can never be proven finally Every finding is given only provisional assent 0 Believed true for now pending the addition of new evidence 0 Every principle and fact in science is subject to modification based solely on the best evidence available Scientific Principle with the Scientific Process 0 1 Everything is subject to challenge and revision 0 2 Any scientific hypothesis or claim must be falsifiable 39Must be able to argue against it Cannot be wood is brown because that is obviously true O 3 Scientific inquiry concerns itself only with natural explanations for natural phenomena I No supernatural explanations 0 Biology the study of life 0 Classifications of living thing 0 Can take in and use energy 0 Can respond to their environment Can maintain a relatively constant internal environment Has DNA which allows them to function Can reproduce Have one or more cells Evolved from other living things Highly organized compared to inanimate objects 0 Living things are organized in a hierarchical manner 0 1 Atom 0 2 Molecule 0 3 Organelle 39 tiny organs 39nucleus 0 4 Cells 39simplest unit that carries out life s basic processes 0 5 Tissues 39collections of cells O 6 Organ System 39organs and tissues 0 7 Organism O 8 Population 39species living together 0 9 Community 39all species in an area 0 10 Ecosystem 39ex California coast 0 11 Biosphere 39eX Earth 0 Life Sciences a set of disciplines that focus on varying aspects of the living world 0 Biology did not come into its own as a science until the 19th century 0 They began describing the rules of the living world rather than describing forms in the living world 0 Evolution the gradual modification of populations of living things over time 0 The most important thread in biology 0 Sometimes results in new species Ch2 Fundamental Buildin Blocks Chemistr Water amp H Everything that exists is either matter or energy Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass Mass a measure of the quantity of matter in any given object 0 Volume and density 0 Equivalent to weight for biology purposes 3 important parts of an atom O 1 Protons O 2 Neutrons O 3 Electrons move around the core some distance away I Hydrogen is an exception I no neutron 1 proton 1 electron The nucleus accounts for little of the space an atom takes up but it accounts for almost all of its mass Protons positive charge electrons negative charge neutrons no charge 0 of protons of electrons if atom is neutral Element a substance that is pure in that it cannot be reduced to any simpler set of component substances through chemical processes 0 Defined by of protons in nucleus 0 Gold 79 protons Protons and neutrons cannot be broken down further because they must combine to make up atoms Atomic number of protons in their nuclei 0 Hydrogen 1 Main elements in the human body 0 1 Oxygen 65 O 2 Carbon 18 O 3 Hydrogen 10 O 4 Other 7 Isotopes various forms of elements 0 EX Carbon14 I Most carbons have 6 neutrons but this one has 8 neutrons I Most elements have several isotopes Electrons play a crucial role in combining atoms Chemical bonding the process of chemical combination and rearrangement O Electrons can reshuf e themselves in a way in which the atoms can then come together I 1 Atoms can give up electrons I ionic bonding I 2 Atoms can share electrons I covalent bonding Atoms are more stable after they ve bonded O Atoms move to this more stable state by filling their outer shell I 2 electrons fill the first energy level shell I 8 electrons fill all other energy levels shells Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Molecule an entity consisting of a defined member of atoms covalently bonded together 0 Ex 1 atom of Oxygen and 2 atoms of Hydrogen Water Molecule H20 Atoms with a filled outer shell are unreactive with other elements because they are already stable 0 Ex Helium and other noble gases Outer shell electrons determine how stable the element is 0 1 most reactive least stable 0 8 least reactive most stable Electronegativity the measure of the strength of attraction an atom has for electrons that are being shared in a covalent bond 0 Higher electronegativity stronger pull Polarity a difference in electrical charge at one end opposed to the other end 0 Ex In H20 0 pulls the electrons more so it becomes slightly negatively charged while the H becomes slightly positively charged This is called polar covalent bond H2 has a nonpolar covalent bond because they share electrons equally Ionic Bonding one atom gives up electrons while the other one takes electrons 0 Ex Sodium 11 electrons amp Chlorine 17 I Cl take Na s extra electron to fill its shell After ionic bonding Cl now has a negative charge and Na has a positive charge which attracts them to one another 0 Creates NaCl AKA table salt Ion a charged atom 0 Electrons 3 Protons 0 Ex Na and Cl39 Ionic Bonding a chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of their opposite charge 0 Rarely happens with just 2 ions 0 Forms a solid crystal structure Ionic Compound a collection of the atoms of 2 or more elements that have become linked through ionic bonding 0 Not an atom then Hydrogen Bonding a chemical bond that links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with a second relatively electronegative atom 0 Nearly always pairs hydrogen with oxygen and nitrogen Molecules and ionic compounds have a 3D shape Molecular shape is important because it determines the ability that molecules have to bond with each other 0 Solution a mixture of two or more kinds of molecules atoms or ions that is homogenous 0 Ex Salt and water 0 Solute what s being dissolved 0 EX The salt 0 Solvent what does the dissolving 0 Ex Water 0 Water is a great solvent 0 Speci c Heat the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius 0 Water has high specific heat I Takes in more energy to raise temperature but can also release energy when environment around it is cooler 0 Heat is the motion of molecules 0 Chemical bonds must be broken to get molecules moving 0 Cohesion the tendency of water molecules to stay together 0 Surface tension at the surface H20 does not have attraction upwards I What causes the beading of water droplets 0 Surface water molecules pack together more tightly which is why small animals can walk on surfaces of water 0 Hydrocarbons compounds made solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms 0 EX Methane O Nonpolar covalent molecules 0 Water can t dissolve oil because oil carries almost no electrical charge that water can bond with 0 Hydrophilic compounds that will interact with water water loving 0 Ex NaCl 0 Hydrophobic compounds that do not interact with water water fearing 0 pH hydrogen power 0 Acid any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in an aqueous solution 0 Below 7 0 Base any substance that accepts hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution 0 Above 7 0 Hydroxide Ion OH 0 Alkaline solution solution that is basic 0 Buffering Systems a physiological system that functions to keep pH within normal limits in an organism 0 Air pollution causes acid rain Ch3 Life s Components 0 Carbon s bonding capacity is great because it has 4 valence electrons O Covalent bonds electron sharing so they re more stable Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry devoted to the study of molecules that have carbon as their central element Isomers molecules that have the same chemical formulas but differ in the special arrangement of their atoms 0 Ex Butane Functional Group a group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon based molecule 0 Anytime an OH group is added to a hydrocarbon chain some sort of alcohol is formed Functional Groups 0 1 Carboxyl COOH I found in fatty acids amino acids 0 2 Hydroxl OH I found in alcohols carbohydrates 0 3 Amino NH2 I found in amino acids 0 4 Phosphates PO4 I found in DNA ATP Polymer a large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits 0 Ex Starch Monomer a small molecule that can be combined With other similar or identical molecules to make up a polymer 0 EX Glucose Carbohydrates organic molecules that always contain carbon oxygen and hydrogen 0 Many times they only contain those elements 0 Usually contains twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms 39 C6H1206 Monosaccharides the building blocks of carbohydrates monomers 0 Also called simple sugars If it s an ose it s a sugar 0 Ex Glucose fructose maltose etc Polysaccharides the polymers of carbohydrates 0 many sugars Starch a complete carbohydrate found in plants 0 Potatoes rice carrots corn Glycogen a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of carbohydrate storage in animals 0 Sometimes called animal starch Cellulose a structural complex carbohydrate produced by plants and other organisms 0 Most abundant carb on Earth 0 Major source of insoluble fiber 0 Exists in the cell walls of plants Chitin forms external skeleton of the arthropods I complex carb 0 All insects spiders and crustaceans O Gives shape and strength to structure of organism Lipids a class of molecules that do not readily dissolve in water 0 Made of hydrogen carbon and oxygen but has much more hydrogen than carbs 0 Exists in fat oil cholesterol 0 Stores energy and provides insulation Triglyceride a lipid molecule formed from 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol Fatty acids a molecule found in many lipids that is composed of a hydrocarbon chain bonded to a carboxyl group O 1 Saturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with no double bonds between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain 0 2 Monounsaturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with 1 double bond between carbon atoms 0 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with 2 or more double bonds between carbon atoms Oils fats in liquid form Steroids a class of lipids that have 4 carbon rings in its structure 0 Cholesterol testosterone estrogen etc Cholesterol a steroid molecule that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells 0 Acts as a precursor for many other steroids I Testosterone and estrogen are formed from it Phosphate Group a phosphorus atom surrounded by 4 oxygen atoms Phospholipid a charged lipid molecule composed of 2 fatty acids glycerol and a phosphate group Wax a lipid composed of a single fatty acid linked to a longchain alcohol Lipids Summary 0 Defining characteristic they don t readily dissolve in water 0 Fats in foods I composed mostly of triglycerides 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol 0 Saturated fatty acid no double bonds between carbon atoms Polypeptide a series of amino acids linked in linear fashion Protein a large folded chain of amino acids 0 Different combinations of amino acids make different proteins 4 Levels of Structure in Proteins O 1 Primary Structure its sequence of amino acids 0 2 Secondary Structure the structure that proteins assume after folding up I EX Alpha Helix corkscrew shape Beta Pleated Sheet folds of an accordion shape 0 3 Tertiary Structure the larger scale 3D shape a protein takes I Folded polypeptide chain 0 4 Quaternary Structure 2 or more polypeptide chains come together to form a protein I pg58 I Visual levels In the wrong pH environment an enzyme can unfold and lose its structure Lipoproteins a combination of lipids and proteins 0 Transport molecules that amount to a capsule of protein surrounding a globule of fat I 1 High density lipoproteins lipid gt protein I 2 Low density lipoproteins lipid lt protein Glycoproteins proteins and carbohydrates 0 Found on surface of cells DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 Primary informationbearing molecule of life 0 Composed of 2 linked chains of nucleotides I About 3 billion in humans Ribonucleic acid RNA a molecule composed of nucleotides that is active in the synthesis of proteins 4 Nitrogen Containing bases 0 Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Thymine T 2 chains of nucleotides are linked to form DNA Via hydrogen bonds Ch4 Biology Exam 2 Book Notes The Cell Eukaryotic Cells cells whose primary complement of DNA is enclosed with a nucleus 0 All life forms other than bacteria or archaea Prokaryotic Cells cells whose DNA is not enclosed with a nucleus 0 Bacteria or archaea Nucleus a membranelined compartment that encloses the primary complement of DNA in eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells 0 Eukaryotic cells are often multicelled organisms o Prokaryotes are always singlecelled Organelle a highly organized structure internal to a cell that serves some specialized function 0 Eukaryotic cells often have several different kinds of organelles Ex Mitochondria l transforms energy from food Ex Lysosomes I recycle the raw material of the cell 0 Prokaryotic cells only have one organelle Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell 0 1 The cell s nucleus 0 2 Other organelles lie outside the nucleus 3 Cytosol a proteinrich jellylike uid in which the cell s organelles are immersed 4 Cytoskeleton a kind of internal scaffolding consisting of 3 sorts of protein bers look like tent poles o 5 Plasma Membrane the outer lining of the cell Cytoplasm the region of the cell inside the plasma membrane but outside the nucleus 0 The organelles and cytoskeleton o If removed only cytosol would be left Animal Cell 0 Eukaryotic cell 0 Roughly spherical shape Nuclear Envelope the double membrane that lines the nucleus in eukaryotic cells Nucleus is where DNA exists and where new DNA is put together DNA s instructions are copied onto RNA amp the RNA takes the DNA info out of the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis 0 O 0 mRNA messenger RNA 0 escapes the nucleus through nuclear pores to get to the cytoplasm DNA contains information for making proteins Ribosome an organelle that serves as the site of protein synthesis in the cell 0 Destinations for mRNA 0 Puts together amino acids in the order mRNA said to Eventually makes a protein Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranes that aids in the processing of proteins in eukaryotic cells 0 Studded with ribosomes 0 quotRough ERquot or quotRERquot Ribosomes are mostly made of RNA Nucleolus the area within the nucleus of a cell devoted to the production of ribosomal RNA Ribosomes do not have a membrane and are also in prokaryotic cells Many organelles have a membrane that can connect to other membranes after they break off and can carry proteins across the cell Transport Vesicles the membranelined spheres that move within this network carrying proteins and other molecules Endomembrane system an interactive group of membrane lined organelles and transport vesicles within eukaryotic cells 0 The network itself Golgi Complex a network of membranes that processes and distributes proteins that come to it from the rough ER 0 Acts as a distribution center for proteins Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranes that is the site of synthesis of various lipids and a site at which potentially harmful substances are detoxi ed within the cell Lysosome an organelle found in animal cells that digests worn out cellular materials and foreign materials that enter the cell Mitochondria organelles that are the primary sites of energy conversion in eukaryotic cells 0 Most heat is generated here 0 Food we eat is consumer here Cytoskeleton a network of protein laments that functions in cell structure cell movement and the transport of materials within the cell 0 The full form is found only in eukaryotic cells 0 Some types of cytoskeleton bers are found in bacteria The cytoskeleton is divided into three parts o 1 Micro laments o 2 Intermediate laments o 3 Microtubules Micro laments 0 Most slender of the cytoskeletal bers 0 Made of the protein actn 0 Serve as support or structural lament o Helps cells move or capture prey Intermediate Filaments o Filaments of the cytoskeleton intermediate in diameter between micro laments and microtubules 0 These inbetweensized proteins are the most permanent of the cytoskeletal elements 0 They stabilize the positions of the nucleus and other organelles within the cell Microtubules o The largest of the cytoskeletal laments Takes the form of tubes composed of the protein tuban 0 Functions Maintenance of cell shape Movement of organelles Cell mobility 0 Each process is 8 nanometers long and is powered by a release of energy from an ATP molecule Cell Extensions Made of Microtubules Cilia and Flagella o Cilia microtubular extensions of cells that take the form of a large number of active hairlike growths stemming from them Move back and forth very rapidly Either propels a cell or moves material around a cell Extremely common among onecelled organism and in some of the cells of simple animals 0 Flagella the relatively long taillike extensions of some cells that function in cell movement Often there is a single agella in a cell A sperm is a single cell that whips its agellum in a corkscrew motion to get an unfertilized egg Plant cells do not have the lysosome Plant cells have these additions to the animal cell 0 A thick cell wall 0 Structures called chloroplasts o A large structure called a central vacuole Ch6 The Central Vacuole o Composed mostly of water 9098 water proportion in plants 0 There are also hydrogen ions pumped into the cell s cytoplasm to keep it at a neutral pH level 0 Central Vacuole a large watery plant organelle whose functions include the maintenance of cell pressure the storage of cell nutrients and the retention and degradation of cell waste products The Cell Wall 0 Cell Wall outer protective lining 0 Animals are the one major group of living things whose cells never have cell walls We are the exception not the rule 0 Cell walls provide structural strength put a limit on their absorption of water and generally protect plants from harmful outside substances 0 Composed mostly of cellulose 0 They are usually the site of metabolic activity as well Chloroplasts 0 Where photosynthesis takes place 0 Chloroplasts organelles that are the sites of photosynthesis in algae cells as well as plant cells 0 Only found in plant cells Chloroplasts are especially abundant in leaves Most plant and animal cells are linked together through tissues Plasmodesmata a series of tiny channels in the plant cell wall 0 Permanent channels Gap Junction a protein assemblage that forms a communication channel between adjacent animal cells 0 Open only as necessary Introduction to Energy Almost all life depends on energy from the sun 0 Energy from the sun always runs downhill from more concentrated to less concentrated It sends out light and heat but another sun does not form Energy the capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force 0 1 Potential Energy stored energy Rock sitting on hill 0 2 Kinetic Energy energy in motion Rock rolling down hill Thermodynamics the study of energy 0 First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is never created or destroyed but is only transformed For every energy quottransactionquot that takes place at least some of the original energy is converted into heat 0 We go from the ordered concentrated energy in the chemical bonds of coal to the disordered dispersed energy of heat 0 Energy transformations will spontaneously run onyfrom greater order to lesser order 0 Second Law of Thermodynamics Energy transfer always results in a greater amount of disorder in the universe Entropy a measure of the amount of disorder in a system Exergonic reactions reactions in which the starting set of molecules the reactants contains more energy than the nal set of molecules the products 0 Ex Starches breaking down into sugars Endergonic reactions reactions in which the products contain more energy than the reactants 0 Ex Glucose molecules brought together to make glycogen Coupled Reaction a chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction 0 Usually powered by energy released from the molecule ATP ATP is a middleman o It receives energy from food and then gives it out for things like muscle contraction which needs energy ATP the most important energy transfer molecule in living things 0 Full name adenosine triphosphate 0 Has a sugar ribose and a nitrogencontaining base adenine adenosine 0 Three phosphate groups are linked to adenosine triphosphate Energy stored here They re negatively charged which is why ATP serves as such an effective energy transfer molecule Enzyme a type of protein that accelerates a chemical reaction 0 Each works on some chemical process 0 A speci c enzyme usually facilitates a speci c reaction Substrate the substance that is worked on by an enzyme Ch7 0 Ex Lactose substrate Enzyme for lactose is lactase Metabolic Pathway a set of enzymatically controlled steps that results in the completion of a product or process in an organism o The product of one reaction becomes the substrate for the next Metabolism the sum of all the chemical reactions that a cell or larger organism carries out Enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to get chemical reactions going which means they can go faster Activation energy the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction 0 Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy Catalysts substances that retain their original chemical composition while bringing about a change in the substrate 0 Enzymes Enzymes are usually balllike proteins with a pocket where the substrate ts o All are made with amino acids but only 56 amino acids are involved in actually binding with the substrate Active Site the portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate thus helping transform it Coenzymes molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them 0 Ex Vitamins Competitive Inhibition a reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound other than the enzymes usual substrate binding with it in its active site 0 Ex Lipitor amp cholesterol enzymes Allosteric Regulation the regulation of an enzyme s activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site 0 This can increase or reduce the activity of enzymes Deriving Enerdv from Food Energy that is extracted from food powers the phosphate group up the energy hill and onto ADP A substance that loses one or more electrons to another is said to have undergone oxidation Reduction the substance that gains electrons in the reaction underwent reduction 0 Because electrons carry a negative charge any substances that gains electrons has had a reduction in its positive charge In cells oxidation and reduction never occur independently o If one substance is oxidized then another one is reduced RedoxReaction the process by which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another 0 Combination of oxidation reduction Electron Carriers molecules that serve to transfer electrons from one molecule to another in ATP formation Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD the most important intermediate electron carrier in cellular respiration 0 Think of it as a city cab that can exist in 2 states 1 Loaded with passengers Electrons 2 Empty o NAD It can switch off easily between those two states 0 In a redox reaction NAD picks up one hydrogen atom electron and proton and one solo electron from a second hydrogen atom This makes it go from NAD to NAD and then picking up the hydrogen atom makes it NADH NAD goes to NADH by oxidizing a substance taking it s electrons One molecule of glucose yields a maximum of 36 ATP molecules 0 C6H1206 602 36ADP 36P I 6C02 6H20 36ATP Respiration can be divided into 3 main phases 1 Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 The Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 3 The Electron Transport Chain 32 ATP About 32 of the 36 molecules of ATP that are netted per glucose molecule are obtained in the ETC electron transport chain Glycolysis is a more ancient form of energy phasing o Krebs cycle and the ETC developed during evolution Oxygendependent aerobic no oxygen needed anaerobic Aerobic energy transfer the entire threestage energy harvesting process Cellular respiration the aerobic harvesting of energy Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol while the Krebs cycle and the ETC take place in the mitochondria Glycolysis first stage of energy harvesting 0 Means quotsugar splittingquot o Accomplishes 3 valuable things in energy harvesting 1 Yields 2 ATP molecules 2 Yields 2 energized molecules of NADH 3 Results in 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 0 The derivatives of the original glucose molecule Pyruvic molecules will be oxidized have electrons removed Krebs Cycle the second stage of cellular respiration 0 Also known as the quotcitric acid cyclequot because the rst product of the cycle is citric acid 0 Yields 2 ATP molecules 0 Strips molecules of pyruvic acid of their energetic electrons and sends them off to the ETC 0 Takes place in the interior of the inner membrane 0 ATP is produced in the cycle and so is the byproduct C02 0 Electrons are transferred to 2 different electron carriers 1 NADH 2 FADH2 Electron Transport Chain ETC the third stage of aerobic energy harvesting o Takes place in the mitochondrial inner membrane 0 The electron carriers donate electrons and hydrogen ions to the ETC 0 The H ions that have been pumped into the outer compartment now move back down their concentration amp energy gradients into the inner compartment through a special enzyme called ATP synthase 0 This enzyme is driven by the H ions owing through it which causes the enzyme to rotate This energetic spinning puts a 3rd phosphate group P onto ADP which makes ATP 0 ATP Synthase an enzyme that functions in cellular respiration by bringing together ADP and inorganic phosphate molecules to produce ATP 0 the pumping of hydrogen ions powers the synthesis of ATP 0 Proposed by Peter Mitchell 0 We need to breathe because the energy assembly line will only keep moving if the electrons that are a part of it are taken away by oxygen 0 In the ETC each NADH molecule will be responsible for the production of 3 molecules of ATP 0 10 NADH Ch8 2 produced in glycolysis 2 from pyruvic acid conversion 6 from the Krebs cycle 2 FADH2 produced in the Krebs cycle 0 FADH2 NADH 34 ATP produced in the ETC Final ATP yield 0 34 from ETC 0 2 from glycolysis o 2 from the Krebs cycle Minus the 2 ATP spent transporting the NADH o a maximum of 36 net ATP per molecule of glucose The electrons picked up at various stages of energy harvesting by NADH FADH2 must be accepted by 02 at the end of ETC for energy transfer to continue Photosynthesis Plants make their own food 0 They use energy from the sun to take a simple gas carbon dioxide join it to a carbohydrate a sugar and then energize that sugar thus transforming it into food A byproduct of photosynthesis is oxygen 0 Plants break down water molecules and use electrons and protons from H20 but they leave behind the 02 molecules Photosynthesis is a trip up the energy hill Photosynthesis the process by which certain groups of organisms capture energy from sunlight and convert this energy into chemical energy that is initially stored in a carbohydrate 6C02 6H20 sunight energygt C6H1206 602 Photosynthesis begins with the absorption of sunlight by leaves 0 Leaves only capture a portion of light that falls on them 0 Photosynthesis is driven by part of the visible light spectrum Mainly only blue and red light of certain wavelengths Plants are green because they re ect green light instead of absorbing green light Parts of the Leaf the site of photosynthesis o Stomata the microscopic pores that open during the day to let carbon dioxide pass into leaves and water vapor to pass out of them 0 Chloroplasts the organelles within the plant and algae cells that are the site of photosynthesis Has outer and inner membranes o Thylakoids a network of chloroplast membranes active in photosynthesis Often stacked on top of each other creating a structure called quotgranaquot Looks like a stack of pancakes o Stroma the liquid material of the chloroplast Thylakoids are immersed in this 0 All steps of photosynthesis occur in either thylakoid membranes or on the stroma o Thylakoid membranes contain a pigment called Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll a the primary pigment active in plant photosynthesis Aided by quotaccessory pigmentsquot which help chlorophyll a in absorbing energetic rays from the sun The First Stage of Photosynthesis o The power of sunlight strips water of electrons amp then boosts these electrons to a higher energy level 0 First stage ends when the original energized electrons got attached to a mobile electron carrier NADP that transports them to the second set of reactions The Second Stage of Photosynthesis The electrons come together with carbon dioxide and a sugar 0 The attachment of the electrons and C02 to this sugar produces a highenergy sugar AKA the Calvin Cycle Takes place in stroma Photosystem an organized complex of molecules within a thylakoid membrane that collects solar energy and transforms it into chemical energy during photosynthesis Reaction Center a pair of special chlorophyll a molecules and associated compounds that rst receive the solar energy from photosystem pigments amp then transform this solar energy into chemical energy In photosynthesis the power of the sun is used to boost the energy of electrons that are derived from water and bring them together with both a lowenergy sugar and C02 from the atmosphere thus producing an energyrich carbohydrate food Photosynthesis happens in chloroplast which is mostly found in leaves 0 A particular pigment chlorophyll a serves to absorb the suanht 2 Major Steps of Photosynthesis o 1 The Light Reactions 0 2 The Calvin Cycle Stage 1 The Light Reactions First step solar energy arrives at the reaction center 0 Electron physically moves to another part of the reaction center complex l the primary electron acceptor 0 Electron is also pumped up the energy hill With this activity the reaction center chlorophyll has lost an electron 0 Leaves an energy quotholequot in the chlorophyll marking it as an oxidizing agent A special enzyme in the reaction center splits water molecules that lie within the thylakoid compartment 0 Water molecules are oxidized losing electrons so then the electrons travel to the reaction center where they will be the next electrons in line for an energy boost Electrons are transferred down the second energy hill and are received by the electron carrier NADP 0 Reduced to NADPH when accepting an electron Electron movement 0 Start in the water of the thylakoid compartment l into and through the thylakoid membrane l the stroma attached to NADPH The Splitting of Water Electrons and Oxygen 0 Hydrogen atoms are removed from H20 amp Oxygen is left behind This oxygen accounts for 21 of Earth s atmosphere 02 The Transformation of Solar Energy to Chemical Energy 0 The energized electrons are transferred to a different molecule the initial electron acceptors of photosystems II and l They are passed on in a redox reaction 0 Electrons are transferred to molecules that have the ability to store energy they ve received rather than letting it go as heat A primary function of the fall of electrons between photosystems II and l is a release of energy that is used for the production of ATP The sun s power is providing energy via ATP amp the energetic electrons in NADPH This photo of photosynthesis is an energycapturing operation Stage 2 The Calvin Cycle 0 The energy captured in the light reactions will now be used 0 Energetic electrons are brought together with carbon dioxide and a sugar to produce an energetic carbohydrate o Aka the C3 cycle Fixation a gas being incorporated into an organic molecule 0 Carbon dioxide is being xed into the starting sugar RuBP 0 First step of the Calvin cycle 0 The next reactions in the cycle are the energizing steps of the process 0 The lowenergy sugar receives the energetic products of the light reactions 0 The RuBP derivatives rst interact with ATP and then receive energetic electrons from NADPH The energized sugar that is produced G3P is the essential part of photosynthesis 2 molecules of G3P 6carbon sugar glucose The ultimate product of photosynthesis is the whole plant The Calvin cycle has a glitch called photorespiration o Rubisco is a huge enzyme that is very slow and also can bind with 02 as well as C02 0 Especially likely to occur when temperatures rise because heat prompts the stomata on leaves to close to preserve water Water and oxygen are kept in while C02 is kept out so rubisco binds with oxygen frequently 0 02 does not serve as a building block for plant growth only C02 does Photorespiration a process in which the enzyme rubisco reduces carbon xation in photosynthesis by binding with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide Rubisco an enzyme that allows organisms to incorporate atmospheric carbon dioxide into their own sugars during the process of photosynthesis C4 Photosynthesis a form of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is rst xed to a fourcarbon molecule amp then transferred to special cells in which the Calvin cycle is undertaken bundle sheath cells Photosynthesis works against water retention 0 C02 passes in and water vapor goes out Dryweather plants succulents 0 Close their stomata during the day and open it at night C4 metabolism is carried out at night CAM Photosynthesis a form of photosynthesis undertaken by plants in hot dry climates in which carbon xation takes place at night and the Calvin cycle occurs during the day


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