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Test 1 Study Guide

by: Chandler Darden

Test 1 Study Guide 1103.0

Chandler Darden
GPA 3.79
Concepts in Biology

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the first BIOL 1103 test with detailed book notes. It includes Ch.1: Science as a Way of Learning, Ch.2: Fundamental Building Blocks, and Ch.3: Life's Components.
Concepts in Biology
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chandler Darden on Monday August 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1103.0 at University of Georgia taught by Brickman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 08/24/15
Biology Exam 1 Book Notes Ch1 Science as a Way of Learning Science a body of knowledge about the natural world 0 A way of learning Theory a general set of principles that is supported by evidence and explains some aspect of nature 0 Ex Big Bang Theory 0 Has explanatory power 39Why it is more valued than a scientific fact 39Science is in the theorybuilding business not factfinding business Scientific Method a means of coming to understand the natural world through observation and the testing of hypotheses O 1 Observation 0 2 Question 0 3 Hypothesis A tentative testable explanation for an observed phenomenon Several hypotheses are usually proposed for the same question 4 Experiment Series of experiments controlled tests of the question at hand 0 Louis Pasteur life comes from life not spontaneous generation 0 Conclusion No growth appears in the broth unless dust is admitted from outside 0 Used an Sshaped ask to keep broth open to air but would trap particles trying to enter in a bend in the neck Variable an adjustable condition in an experiment 0 Ex Pasteur s variable was the shape of the ask or the tilt of it A control condition can be thought of as an experimental condition that exists prior to the introduction of any variables being tested 0 Ex Control condition with Pasteur brothfilled ask left sitting straight up with its particle trap intact A theory can never be proven finally Every finding is given only provisional assent 0 Believed true for now pending the addition of new evidence 0 Every principle and fact in science is subject to modification based solely on the best evidence available Scientific Principle with the Scientific Process 0 1 Everything is subject to challenge and revision 0 2 Any scientific hypothesis or claim must be falsifiable 39Must be able to argue against it Cannot be wood is brown because that is obviously true O 3 Scientific inquiry concerns itself only with natural explanations for natural phenomena I No supernatural explanations 0 Biology the study of life 0 Classifications of living thing 0 Can take in and use energy 0 Can respond to their environment Can maintain a relatively constant internal environment Has DNA which allows them to function Can reproduce Have one or more cells Evolved from other living things Highly organized compared to inanimate objects 0 Living things are organized in a hierarchical manner 0 1 Atom 0 2 Molecule 0 3 Organelle 39 tiny organs 39nucleus 0 4 Cells 39simplest unit that carries out life s basic processes 0 5 Tissues 39collections of cells O 6 Organ System 39organs and tissues 0 7 Organism O 8 Population 39species living together 0 9 Community 39all species in an area 0 10 Ecosystem 39ex California coast 0 11 Biosphere 39eX Earth 0 Life Sciences a set of disciplines that focus on varying aspects of the living world 0 Biology did not come into its own as a science until the 19th century 0 They began describing the rules of the living world rather than describing forms in the living world 0 Evolution the gradual modification of populations of living things over time 0 The most important thread in biology 0 Sometimes results in new species Ch2 Fundamental Buildin Blocks Chemistr Water amp H Everything that exists is either matter or energy Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass Mass a measure of the quantity of matter in any given object 0 Volume and density 0 Equivalent to weight for biology purposes 3 important parts of an atom O 1 Protons O 2 Neutrons O 3 Electrons move around the core some distance away I Hydrogen is an exception I no neutron 1 proton 1 electron The nucleus accounts for little of the space an atom takes up but it accounts for almost all of its mass Protons positive charge electrons negative charge neutrons no charge 0 of protons of electrons if atom is neutral Element a substance that is pure in that it cannot be reduced to any simpler set of component substances through chemical processes 0 Defined by of protons in nucleus 0 Gold 79 protons Protons and neutrons cannot be broken down further because they must combine to make up atoms Atomic number of protons in their nuclei 0 Hydrogen 1 Main elements in the human body 0 1 Oxygen 65 O 2 Carbon 18 O 3 Hydrogen 10 O 4 Other 7 Isotopes various forms of elements 0 EX Carbon14 I Most carbons have 6 neutrons but this one has 8 neutrons I Most elements have several isotopes Electrons play a crucial role in combining atoms Chemical bonding the process of chemical combination and rearrangement O Electrons can reshuf e themselves in a way in which the atoms can then come together I 1 Atoms can give up electrons I ionic bonding I 2 Atoms can share electrons I covalent bonding Atoms are more stable after they ve bonded O Atoms move to this more stable state by filling their outer shell I 2 electrons fill the first energy level shell I 8 electrons fill all other energy levels shells Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction Molecule an entity consisting of a defined member of atoms covalently bonded together 0 Ex 1 atom of Oxygen and 2 atoms of Hydrogen Water Molecule H20 Atoms with a filled outer shell are unreactive with other elements because they are already stable 0 Ex Helium and other noble gases Outer shell electrons determine how stable the element is 0 1 most reactive least stable 0 8 least reactive most stable Electronegativity the measure of the strength of attraction an atom has for electrons that are being shared in a covalent bond 0 Higher electronegativity stronger pull Polarity a difference in electrical charge at one end opposed to the other end 0 Ex In H20 0 pulls the electrons more so it becomes slightly negatively charged while the H becomes slightly positively charged This is called polar covalent bond H2 has a nonpolar covalent bond because they share electrons equally Ionic Bonding one atom gives up electrons while the other one takes electrons 0 Ex Sodium 11 electrons amp Chlorine 17 I Cl take Na s extra electron to fill its shell After ionic bonding Cl now has a negative charge and Na has a positive charge which attracts them to one another 0 Creates NaCl AKA table salt Ion a charged atom 0 Electrons 3 Protons 0 Ex Na and Cl39 Ionic Bonding a chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of their opposite charge 0 Rarely happens with just 2 ions 0 Forms a solid crystal structure Ionic Compound a collection of the atoms of 2 or more elements that have become linked through ionic bonding 0 Not an atom then Hydrogen Bonding a chemical bond that links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with a second relatively electronegative atom 0 Nearly always pairs hydrogen with oxygen and nitrogen Molecules and ionic compounds have a 3D shape Molecular shape is important because it determines the ability that molecules have to bond with each other 0 Solution a mixture of two or more kinds of molecules atoms or ions that is homogenous 0 Ex Salt and water 0 Solute what s being dissolved 0 EX The salt 0 Solvent what does the dissolving 0 Ex Water 0 Water is a great solvent 0 Speci c Heat the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius 0 Water has high specific heat I Takes in more energy to raise temperature but can also release energy when environment around it is cooler 0 Heat is the motion of molecules 0 Chemical bonds must be broken to get molecules moving 0 Cohesion the tendency of water molecules to stay together 0 Surface tension at the surface H20 does not have attraction upwards I What causes the beading of water droplets 0 Surface water molecules pack together more tightly which is why small animals can walk on surfaces of water 0 Hydrocarbons compounds made solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms 0 EX Methane O Nonpolar covalent molecules 0 Water can t dissolve oil because oil carries almost no electrical charge that water can bond with 0 Hydrophilic compounds that will interact with water water loving 0 Ex NaCl 0 Hydrophobic compounds that do not interact with water water fearing 0 pH hydrogen power 0 Acid any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in an aqueous solution 0 Below 7 0 Base any substance that accepts hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution 0 Above 7 0 Hydroxide Ion OH 0 Alkaline solution solution that is basic 0 Buffering Systems a physiological system that functions to keep pH within normal limits in an organism 0 Air pollution causes acid rain Ch3 Life s Components 0 Carbon s bonding capacity is great because it has 4 valence electrons O Covalent bonds electron sharing so they re more stable Organic Chemistry a branch of chemistry devoted to the study of molecules that have carbon as their central element Isomers molecules that have the same chemical formulas but differ in the special arrangement of their atoms 0 Ex Butane Functional Group a group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon based molecule 0 Anytime an OH group is added to a hydrocarbon chain some sort of alcohol is formed Functional Groups 0 1 Carboxyl COOH I found in fatty acids amino acids 0 2 Hydroxl OH I found in alcohols carbohydrates 0 3 Amino NH2 I found in amino acids 0 4 Phosphates PO4 I found in DNA ATP Polymer a large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits 0 Ex Starch Monomer a small molecule that can be combined With other similar or identical molecules to make up a polymer 0 EX Glucose Carbohydrates organic molecules that always contain carbon oxygen and hydrogen 0 Many times they only contain those elements 0 Usually contains twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms 39 C6H1206 Monosaccharides the building blocks of carbohydrates monomers 0 Also called simple sugars If it s an ose it s a sugar 0 Ex Glucose fructose maltose etc Polysaccharides the polymers of carbohydrates 0 many sugars Starch a complete carbohydrate found in plants 0 Potatoes rice carrots corn Glycogen a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of carbohydrate storage in animals 0 Sometimes called animal starch Cellulose a structural complex carbohydrate produced by plants and other organisms 0 Most abundant carb on Earth 0 Major source of insoluble fiber 0 Exists in the cell walls of plants Chitin forms external skeleton of the arthropods I complex carb 0 All insects spiders and crustaceans O Gives shape and strength to structure of organism Lipids a class of molecules that do not readily dissolve in water 0 Made of hydrogen carbon and oxygen but has much more hydrogen than carbs 0 Exists in fat oil cholesterol 0 Stores energy and provides insulation Triglyceride a lipid molecule formed from 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol Fatty acids a molecule found in many lipids that is composed of a hydrocarbon chain bonded to a carboxyl group O 1 Saturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with no double bonds between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain 0 2 Monounsaturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with 1 double bond between carbon atoms 0 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid a fatty acid with 2 or more double bonds between carbon atoms Oils fats in liquid form Steroids a class of lipids that have 4 carbon rings in its structure 0 Cholesterol testosterone estrogen etc Cholesterol a steroid molecule that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells 0 Acts as a precursor for many other steroids I Testosterone and estrogen are formed from it Phosphate Group a phosphorus atom surrounded by 4 oxygen atoms Phospholipid a charged lipid molecule composed of 2 fatty acids glycerol and a phosphate group Wax a lipid composed of a single fatty acid linked to a longchain alcohol Lipids Summary 0 Defining characteristic they don t readily dissolve in water 0 Fats in foods I composed mostly of triglycerides 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol 0 Saturated fatty acid no double bonds between carbon atoms Polypeptide a series of amino acids linked in linear fashion Protein a large folded chain of amino acids 0 Different combinations of amino acids make different proteins 4 Levels of Structure in Proteins O 1 Primary Structure its sequence of amino acids 0 2 Secondary Structure the structure that proteins assume after folding up I EX Alpha Helix corkscrew shape Beta Pleated Sheet folds of an accordion shape 0 3 Tertiary Structure the larger scale 3D shape a protein takes I Folded polypeptide chain 0 4 Quaternary Structure 2 or more polypeptide chains come together to form a protein I pg58 I Visual levels In the wrong pH environment an enzyme can unfold and lose its structure Lipoproteins a combination of lipids and proteins 0 Transport molecules that amount to a capsule of protein surrounding a globule of fat I 1 High density lipoproteins lipid gt protein I 2 Low density lipoproteins lipid lt protein Glycoproteins proteins and carbohydrates 0 Found on surface of cells DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 Primary informationbearing molecule of life 0 Composed of 2 linked chains of nucleotides I About 3 billion in humans Ribonucleic acid RNA a molecule composed of nucleotides that is active in the synthesis of proteins 4 Nitrogen Containing bases 0 Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Thymine T 2 chains of nucleotides are linked to form DNA Via hydrogen bonds


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