PSYCH: STUDY GUIDE OUTLINE
**THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO HELP “GUIDE” YOU ON THE EXPECTED CONTENT MATERIAL FOR THE EXAM**
Some KEY Questions to ask yourself for EXAM: Very Important!!!
1. What defines psychology as a field of study, and what are psychology’s four primary goals?
2. How did structuralism and functionalism differ, and who were the important people in those early fields? If you want to learn more check out When was tobacco cultivated?
3. What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism?
4. What are the basic ideas behind the modern perspectives, as well as the important contributions of Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers?
5. Why is psychology considered a science, and what are the steps in using the scientific method? If you want to learn more check out Do graded potentials undergo spatial and temporal summation?
6. How are naturalistic and laboratory settings used to describe behavior, and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these settings?
7. How are case studies and surveys used to describe behavior, and what are some drawbacks to each of these methods?
8. What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about relationships?
9. How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment?
10. Why are the placebo effect and the experimenter bias problems for an experiment, and how can blind studies control for these effects?
1. What are the nervous system, neurons, and nerves, and how do they relate to one another? 2. How do neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other and with the body? 3. What are the different structures of the bottom part of Don't forget about the age old question of What does the term wealth-health gradient mean?
If you want to learn more check out Is there anything that has mass and takes up space?
the brain and what do they do?
4. What are the structures of the brain that control emotion, learning, memory, and motivation? 5. How does the left side of the brain differ from the right side? 6. What are two ways to image the brain?
7. How does a PET scan differ from a CT scan?
8. What are the different parts of a neuron and the function of each? 9. How does a neuron generate electricity?
10. Define resting membrane potential and action potential.
11. Define threshold, refractory period and allornone law
12. What is the role of sodium and potassium during the action potential? 13. What are the major neurotransmitters in the brain and the main functions of each? Don't forget about the age old question of What testing is run on an infant who is preterm?
14. What are some diseases associated with the Acetylcholine system? Dopamine?
Here are some “Practice Questions 126” try them out:
1. A researcher is attempting to design a program to help people stop smoking. The goal she is attempting to achieve is to
c) explain. d) control.
2. Which of the following research questions would NOT fall within the field of psychology? a) How can you increase the amount of time a female bird stays with its mate after the birdlings hatch?
b) What changes occur in the brain of a rat that has been deprived of sleep?
c) Why do students perform better on exams when the exam is given in the same room in which they learned the material?
d) All of the questions above could be studied by a psychologist.
3. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? a) the science of behavior
b) the science of mental processes
c) the science of behavior and mental processes
d) the science of the body.
4. The perspective of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.
c) insight inventory d) induction Don't forget about the age old question of What is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions?
5. William James believed that mental processes could not be studied as an isolated, static event but instead needed to be viewed in terms of how they helped people perform in their daily lives. James was a strong proponent for
d) the humanistic perspective.
6. A researcher who studies the chemical changes in the brains of patients with depression would be approaching psychology from which perspective?
7. A humanistic psychologist would be interested in which of the following research studies?
a) describing a group of people who claim to have reached their full potential
b) understanding the role of the unconscious in a child’s decision to disobey her parents c) investigating the role of hormones in the mating behavior of birds
d) figuring out visual illusions are possible
8. Why do psychologists use the scientific method?
a) It is easier to use than other methods.
b) All academic fields must use the scientific method. c) It is the only method available to answer questions. d) It reduces bias and error in measurement.
9. Deb spent the entire day at the park observing children with their parents to see whether fathers or mothers spent more time playing with their kids. Deb used the method of
a) naturalistic observation.
b) laboratory observation.
d) case study.
10. What is an advantage of the survey method? a) nonrepresentative samples
b) courtesy bias
c) large amounts of information
d) observer bias
11. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?
c) +0.01 d) -0.22
12. A researcher finds that as the number of classes missed increases, the students’ grades decrease. This is an example of a
a) positive correlation.
b) negative correlation.
c) zero correlation. d) case study.
13. Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be used for her experiment. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. a) hypothesis
b) operational definition
c) double-blind study d) theory
14. A psychology professor feels that her students will do better on her exams if there is music playing while they take their exams. To test her hypothesis she divides her class in half. One half takes the exam in a room with music playing and the other half takes the exam in a similar room but without the music playing. In this case, the independent variable is
a) the room the exam is taken in.
b) the absence or presence of music playing. c) the exam. d) the students’ scores on the exam.
15. For the experiment described in Question 14, the dependent variable is a) the room the exam is taken in.
b) the absence or presence of music playing.
c) the exam.
d) the students’ scores on the exam.
16. Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? a) You sleep because you are tired.
b) You throw up after eating bad meat.
c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.
d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and feel "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.
17. The central nervous system is made of which two components? a) the somatic and autonomic systems
b) the brain and the spinal cord
c) the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
d) neurotransmitters and hormones
18. What type of signal is used to relay a message from one end of a neuron to the other end?
b) hormonal c) biochemical d) electrical
19. A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles of terminal buttons which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called a_____.
a) glial cell
b) neurotransmitter c) precursor cell
20. Neuron A releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap onto neuron B. As a result, the frequency of action potentials in Neuron B was reduced. Neuron A most likely released
a) an inhibitory neurotransmitter. b) an excitatory neurotransmitter. c) acetylcholine.
d) an agonist.
21. Involuntary muscles are controlled by the _____nervous system. a) somatic
22. Eating, drinking, hormone release, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the ___________.
a) hippocampus b) thalamus
c) hypothalamus d) amygdala
23. The two hemispheres of the cortex are identical copies of each other. a) true
24. ________ is a process in which neurotransmitter is pumped back into the terminal button after release.
a) Reactive cycling
b) Axoplasmic transport c) Reuptake
d) Enzymatic degradation
25. Which neurotransmitter is involved in mood, sleep, and eating behavior? a) dopamine
26. Alzheimer’s disease has been linked to the _____________ system. a) dopamine
⇒ Answers to examples: 1) Independent Variable: Type of TV watching; Dependent Variable: Amount of time spent with aggressive toys. 2) independent variable: Brightness of the lights; Dependent
amount of time
on reading tests.
⇒ Answers: 1.D,
2.D, 3.C, 4.B,
5.B, 6.D, 7.A,
8.D, 9.A, 10.C, 11.B, 12.B,13.B, 14.B, 15.D, 16.D, 17.B, 18.D, 19.B, 20.A, 21.B, 22.C, 23.B;24. C;25.B;26.D
** THIS PAGE WILL HAVE SOME CONTENT THAT WAS COVERED IN THE OTHER NOTES I UPLOADED THAT WAS DISGUESSED IN LECTURE CLASS ON PPT AND ALSO A MINI REVIEW OF THE EXAM**
A LOT OF GREAT INFORMATION BELOW PLEASE REVIEW!! Mini Review
Below is the pervious class Notes that I uploaded “go back and check these notes out” !!!