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KSU / Engineering / PSY 11762 / What defines psychology as a field of study?

What defines psychology as a field of study?

What defines psychology as a field of study?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: Engineering
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Robin joynes
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology Study Guide
Description: These notes in this "Study Guide Outline" contains information on" - Chapter 1 -Chapter 2 -Review questions to know for exam -Mini rewiew of exam outline - Practice questions - Recent Notes I uploaded already on Chapters 1-2 content
Uploaded: 09/17/2017
9 Pages 54 Views 2 Unlocks
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09/17/2017


What defines psychology as a field of study?



PSYCH: STUDY GUIDE OUTLINE 

**THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO HELP “GUIDE” YOU ON THE EXPECTED CONTENT MATERIAL FOR THE EXAM** 

 Some KEY Questions to ask yourself for EXAM:                      Very Important!!! 

 Chapter 1: 

1. What defines psychology as a field of study, and what are psychology’s four  primary goals?

2. How did structuralism and functionalism differ, and who were the important  people in those early fields?

3. What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early  approaches known as Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism?

4. What are the basic ideas behind the modern perspectives, as well as the  important contributions of Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers?


How did structuralism and functionalism differ?



5. Why is psychology considered a science, and what are the steps in using the  scientific method?

6. How are naturalistic and laboratory settings used to describe behavior, and  what are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these  settings?

7. How are case studies and surveys used to describe behavior, and what are some drawbacks to each of these methods?

8. What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about  relationships?

9. How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables,  experimental and control groups, and random assignment used in designing an  experiment?

10. Why are the placebo effect and the experimenter bias problems for an  experiment, and how can blind studies control for these effects? 


What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism?



Don't forget about the age old question of How did tobacco impact the development of the virginia colony?
If you want to learn more check out Do graded potentials undergo spatial and temporal summation?

 Chapter 2 

1. What are the nervous system, neurons, and nerves, and how do they relate to  one another? 2. How do neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each  other and with the body? 3. What are the different structures of the bottom part of 

the brain and what do they do?

4. What are the structures of the brain that control emotion, learning, memory,  and motivation? 5. How does the left side of the brain differ from the right side? 6. What are two ways to image the brain?

7. How does a PET scan differ from a CT scan?

8. What are the different parts of a neuron and the function of each? 9. How does a neuron generate electricity?

10. Define resting membrane potential and action potential.

11. Define threshold, refractory period and all­or­none law

12. What is the role of sodium and potassium during the action potential? 13. What are the major neurotransmitters in the brain and the main functions of  each? If you want to learn more check out Why does marmot argue that the status syndrome is a challenge to medicine?

14. What are some diseases associated with the Acetylcholine system?  Dopamine? 

 Here are some “Practice Questions 1­26”  try them out: 

1. A researcher is attempting to design a program to help people stop  smoking. The goal she is attempting to achieve is to

a) describe.

b) predict.  

c) explain. d) control.  

2. Which of the following research questions would NOT fall within the field of psychology? a) How can you increase the amount of time a female bird  stays with its mate after the birdlings hatch? Don't forget about the age old question of Is there anything that has mass and takes up space?

b) What changes occur in the brain of a rat that has been deprived of  sleep?  

c) Why do students perform better on exams when the exam is given in  the same room in which they learned the material?

d) All of the questions above could be studied by a psychologist.  

3. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of  psychology? a) the science of behavior

b) the science of mental processes

c) the science of behavior and mental processes  

d) the science of the body.  Don't forget about the age old question of At what gestational age does rest and activity become divided into different states?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the elements that make up 96% of living matter?

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4. The perspective of psychology called structuralism used a technique  called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to  study a person's experiences.

a) intervention

b) introspection  

c) insight inventory d) induction  

5. William James believed that mental processes could not be studied as  an isolated, static event but instead needed to be viewed in terms of how  they helped people perform in their daily lives. James was a strong  proponent for

a) structuralism.  

b) functionalism.

c) behaviorism.

d) the humanistic perspective.  

6. A researcher who studies the chemical changes in the brains of patients with depression would be approaching psychology from which  perspective?

a) behaviorist

b) psychodynamic  

c) cognitive

d) biopsychological  

7. A humanistic psychologist would be interested in which of the following  research studies?

a) describing a group of people who claim to have reached their full  potential

b) understanding the role of the unconscious in a child’s decision to  disobey her parents c) investigating the role of hormones in the mating  behavior of birds  

d) figuring out visual illusions are possible  

8. Why do psychologists use the scientific method?

a) It is easier to use than other methods.

b) All academic fields must use the scientific method. c) It is the only  method available to answer questions. d) It reduces bias and error in  measurement.  

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9. Deb spent the entire day at the park observing children with their  parents to see whether fathers or mothers spent more time playing with  their kids. Deb used the method of

a) naturalistic observation.

b) laboratory observation.  

c) survey.

d) case study.  

10. What is an advantage of the survey method? a) nonrepresentative  samples

b) courtesy bias

c) large amounts of information  

d) observer bias  

11. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?

a) +0.62

b) -0.98  

c) +0.01 d) -0.22  

12. A researcher finds that as the number of classes missed increases, the students’ grades decrease. This is an example of a

a) positive correlation.

b) negative correlation.  

c) zero correlation. d) case study.  

13. Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be used for her  experiment. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________. a) hypothesis

b) operational definition  

c) double-blind study d) theory  

14. A psychology professor feels that her students will do better on her  exams if there is music playing while they take their exams. To test her  hypothesis she divides her class in half. One half takes the exam in a room with music playing and the other half takes the exam in a similar room but without the music playing. In this case, the independent variable is  

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a) the room the exam is taken in.

b) the absence or presence of music playing. c) the exam. d) the students’ scores on the exam.  

15. For the experiment described in Question 14, the dependent variable  is a) the room the exam is taken in.

b) the absence or presence of music playing.

c) the exam.  

d) the students’ scores on the exam.  

16. Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? a)  You sleep because you are tired.

b) You throw up after eating bad meat.

c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve.  

d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and feel "intoxicated" because you think  it contains alcohol.  

17. The central nervous system is made of which two components? a) the  somatic and autonomic systems

b) the brain and the spinal cord

c) the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions  

d) neurotransmitters and hormones  

18. What type of signal is used to relay a message from one end of a  neuron to the other end?  

a) chemical

b) hormonal c) biochemical d) electrical  

19. A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles of terminal buttons which,  when released, has an effect on the next cell is called a_____.  

a) glial cell

b) neurotransmitter c) precursor cell

d) synapse  

20. Neuron A releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap onto  neuron B. As a result, the frequency of action potentials in Neuron B was  reduced. Neuron A most likely released  

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a) an inhibitory neurotransmitter. b) an excitatory neurotransmitter. c)  acetylcholine.

d) an agonist.  

21. Involuntary muscles are controlled by the _____nervous system. a)  somatic

b) autonomic

c) sympathetic  

d) parasympathetic  

22. Eating, drinking, hormone release, sleeping, and temperature control  are most strongly influenced by the ___________.  

a) hippocampus b) thalamus

c) hypothalamus d) amygdala  

23. The two hemispheres of the cortex are identical copies of each other.  a) true

b) false  

24. ________ is a process in which neurotransmitter is pumped back into  the terminal button after release.  

a) Reactive cycling

b) Axoplasmic transport c) Reuptake

d) Enzymatic degradation  

25. Which neurotransmitter is involved in mood, sleep, and eating  behavior? a) dopamine

b) serotonin

c) endorphins  

d) acetylcholine  

26. Alzheimer’s disease has been linked to the _____________ system. a)  dopamine

b) serotonin

c) endorphins  

d) acetylcholine  

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⇒ Answers to examples: 1) Independent Variable: Type of TV  watching; Dependent Variable: Amount of time spent with  aggressive toys. 2) independent variable: Brightness of the lights;  Dependent  

variable:  

amount of time  

until stopping.  

3) Independent  

Variable: Type  

of reading  

method;  

dependent  

variables: scores 

on reading tests. 

⇒ Answers: 1.D,  

2.D, 3.C, 4.B,  

5.B, 6.D, 7.A,  

8.D, 9.A, 10.C, 11.B, 12.B,13.B, 14.B, 15.D, 16.D, 17.B, 18.D, 19.B,  20.A, 21.B, 22.C, 23.B;24. C;25.B;26.D 

** THIS PAGE WILL HAVE SOME CONTENT THAT WAS  COVERED IN THE OTHER NOTES I UPLOADED THAT WAS  DISGUESSED IN LECTURE CLASS ON PPT AND ALSO A MINI  REVIEW OF THE EXAM**  

 A LOT OF GREAT INFORMATION BELOW PLEASE REVIEW!!   Mini Review  

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 Below is the pervious class Notes that I uploaded “go back and check these notes out” !!!  

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