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UA - BSC 216 - BSC 216 Exam 1 study guide (heart and blood) - Study

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UA - BSC 216 - BSC 216 Exam 1 study guide (heart and blood) - Study

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background image EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (heart and blood)  Blood Describe the functions and major components of the circulatory 
system:
-transport oxygen, wastes, hormones
-protection against blood loss (clotting) and infection (immune system)
-regulation of body temperature, pH (buffering), fluid volume
Describe the components and physical properties of blood: -components
-formed elements (blood cells)
o Erythrocytes-RBC
o Platelets-clotting 
o Leukocytes-WBC
-Agranulocytes-lymphocytes, monocytes
-Granulocytes-neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
 -properties
-connective tissue without collagen and elastic fibers
-erythrocytes-heavy
-WBC and platelets-buffy coat
Describe the composition of blood plasma -serum
-plasma proteins
o Albumins-osmolarity
o Globulins-antibodies
o Fibrinogen/clotting proteins
Describe the structure and function of erythrocytes -non-nucleated; no organelles
-renew by bone marrow cell division
-flattened discs, biconcave
-carry oxygen from lungs to tissues
-carry carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs 
Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin, as well as its 
breakdown products
background image -binds reversibly with oxygen -4 protein chains 
-heme group (contains iron atom)-binds reversibly with one molecule of
oxygen
Explain the basic process of erythropoiesis and its regulation through 
erythropoietin
-production of red bloods cells 1. Hemopoietic cell transforms into erythrocyte- CFU
2. Erythropoietin (hormone) used to form erythroblast
3. Erythroblasts synthesize hemoglobin rapidly
4. Organelles and nucleus discarded from late erythroblast forming 
a reticulocyte 5. Cell enters bloodstream and matures into an erythrocyte -after a drop in RBC count, erythropoietin from kidneys stimulates bone
marrow and RBC count goes back up (regulation of erythropoiesis)
Describe and discuss causes and symptoms of anemia -decreased hemoglobin
-decreased hematocrit
o Hemorrhagic anemia- blood loss
o Hemolytic anemia- premature rupture of erythrocytes
-abnormal hemoglobin -pale skin, shortness of breath (tissue hypoxia)
-edema (reduced blood osmolarity)
-reduced BP, increase HR (reduced blood viscosity)
Compare and contrast the relative prevalence and morphological 
features of the five types of leukocytes
-granulocytes-sphere shaped, globe nuclei
-neutrophils-3-5 lobed nuclei 
-eosinophils-2 lobed nuclei with barely visible strand connecting the 
lobes
-basophils-multi-lobed nuclei covering almost entirety of element 
-agranulocytes- lack cytoplasmic granules
-lymphocytes-large spherical nucleus the size of the entire element
background image -monocytes-kidney shaped nucleus not covering the entirety of the 
element
Describe the function for each of the five major types of leukocytes -neutrophils- phagocytize bacteria-release antimicrobial chemicals
-eosinophils-phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes-release parasite-
destroying enzymes
-basophils- secretes histamine and increases blood flow- secretes 
heparin and prevents clotting and allows WBC mobility
-lymphocytes- destroy cancer cells, viral infections, foreign cells-
activate other cells of immune system-secrete antibodies-serve in 
immune memory
-monocytes- differentiate into macrophages-phagocytize pathogens 
and debris
Discuss the difference in leukopoiesis of granulocytes and 
agranulocytes
-granulocytes are formed through a myeloid cell line : 
agranulocytes are formed through a lymphoid cell line
-granulocytes involve 1 type of committed cells (myeloblast) : 
agranulocytes involve 2 types (lymphoblast/ monoblast)
-granulocyte precursor cells include promyelocytes, eosinophilic 
bond cells, basophil bond cells, and neutrophil bond cells
 : 
agranulocyte precursor cells include promonocytes, 
prolymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes
-mature granulocytes are neutrophil, basophil, eosinophils : 
mature agranulocytes are monocytes, T lymphocytes, B 
lymphocytes
 
Explain how platelets differ structurally from the other formed 
elements of blood
-platelets are cell fragments, so they are more broken than the formed 
elements of blood
Discuss the role of the megakaryocyte in the formation of platelets -as blood flows, the cytoplasmic arms of megakaryocytes break off into
platelets 
Distinguish between the terms hemostasis and coagulation 

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Anatomy & Physiology II
Professor: Austin Hicks
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: BSC 216 Exam 1 study guide (heart and blood)
Description: This study guide covers the blood and heart lecture documents covered for exam 1.
Uploaded: 09/17/2017
9 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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