J 350 Exam #1 Study Guide
J 350 Exam #1 Study Guide J 350
Popular in Princ Public Relations
Popular in Social Science
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Monday August 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to J 350 at University of Oregon taught by Chandler C in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Princ Public Relations in Social Science at University of Oregon.
Reviews for J 350 Exam #1 Study Guide
Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/24/15
Chapter 1 What is Public Relations Definitions of public relations book lecture 0 Traditional definition 0 Public relations is the management of communication between an organization and its publics Grunig amp Hunt 1994 p 6 I Moves us beyond just communications tweeting press releases etc I It s more of a process I Commonly Used definition 0 Public relations is the use of communication to negotiate relationships among groups Botan 1992 I Negotiation implies deal being made creating a transaction I The heart of what we do is about building relationships 0 Public relations is a communication function of management through which organzations adapt to alter or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organization goals Long and Hazelton 1987 I Book s Definition 0 Public relations is the strategic management of competition and con ict for the benefit of one s own organization and when possible for the mutual benefit of the organization and its various stakeholders or public Wilcox Cameron Reber Shin 2013 I Beneficial to listen to stakeholders and negotiation territory with them Definitions 0 public relations is the management function that identifies establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics on whom its success or failure depends 0 this definition reps current belief that PR is more than persuasion should foster open two way communication and mutual understanding while complying with principle that org changes its attitudes and behaviors in the process 0 strategic management of competition and con ict for the benefit of one s own organization and when possible also for the mutual benefit of the organization and its stakeholders or publicsquot 0 def casts the public relations professional first and foremost as advocate for employer or client but acknowledges importance of mutual benefit when circumstances allow 0 does not imply PR professional acts only in self interest of employer without due regard to honesty integrity and org transparency o Deliberate public relations activities is intentional It s designed to in uence gain understanding provide information and obtain feedback 0 Planned public relations activity is organized Solutions to problems are discovered and logistics are thought out The activity is systematic requires research and analysis and takes place over a period of time 0 Performance effective public realtions is based on actual policies and performance no amount of public relations will generate goodwill and support if an organization is unresponsive to community concerns 0 Public interest reputable public relations activity is mutually beneficial to the organization and the public it provides for the alignment of the organization s selfinterests with the public s concerns and interests 0 Two way communication public relations is more than one way dissemination of informational materials It is equally important to solicit feedback 0 Strategic management of competition and con ict public relations is most effective when it is an integral part of decision making by top management Public relations involves counseling and problem solving at high levels not just the dissemination of info after a decision has been made by other leaders Power of definitions 0 Definitions are important because how we define something in uences how we see it and experience it 0 Definitions provide a lens through which we understand experiences and the practice of public relations RACE Formula 0 RACE formula John Martson 1963 o Research what is the problem or situation 0 Action what are you going to do about it analysis and planning 0 Communication how will you communicate with your publics execution o Evaluation how will you know if you were successful How PR is different from journalism advertising marketing 0 Public Relations is Unique 0 Public Relations Differs from Journalism I Journalists gather and produce information for the public I They usually write for one channel sometimes two channels attempt to be objective and write for a mass audience I They write the news stories and editorials we provide background and info they need 0 Public relations is simply being a journalistinresidence for a nonmedia organization 0 Scope effective practice of public relations requires strategic thinking problemsolving capability and other management skills 0 Objectives public relations communication activity is a means to the end a way of managing competition and con ict in the best interests of the practitioner s employer in other words not only is inform but also to change people s attitudes and behaviors so as to further an organization s goals and objectives Whereas journalists are objective observers public relations personnel are advocates o Audiences journalists write primarily for a mass audience readers listeners or viewers of the medium for which they work A public relations professional in contrast carefully segments audiences based on various demographics and psychological characteristics such research allows public relations messages to be tailored to audience needs concerns and interests for maximum effect 0 PR differs from Marketing I Marketing seeks to attract and satisfy customers of an organization It deals with goods and services I Marketing contributes directly to bottom line 0 Public relations builds relationships with publics It can support marketing but we do not use marketing measure to evaluate our success 0 PR is concerned with building relationships and generating goodwill for the organization marketing is concerned with customers and selling products and services PR does support sales but additionally deals with a broad array of publics beyond customers 0 Marketing and advertising professionals tend to speak of target markets consumers and customers PR professionals talk about publics audiences and stakeholders 0 According to Grunig publics can arise within stakeholder categories such as employees communities stockholders govts members students suppliers and donors as well as consumers 0 Philip Kotler fifth P of marketing strategy original Ps being product price place and promotion 0 When PRs is used to directly support an organization s marketing objectives it s called marketing communications 0 Dennis L Wilcox 8 ways in which public realtions activities contribute to fulfilling market objectives 1 Develop new prospects for new markets such as people who inquire after seeing or hearing a product release in the news media 2 Provide third party endorsements via newspapers magazines radio and TV thru news releases about a company s products or services community involvement inventions and new plans 3 Generate sales leads usually through articles in the trade press about new products and services 4 Pave the way for sales calls 5 Stretch an organization s advertising and promotional dollars through timely and supportive news release 6 Provide inexpensive sales literature articles about a company and its products can be reprinted as informative pieces for prospective customers 7 Establish a corporation as an authoritative source of info on a given product 8 Help sell minor products that don t have large advertising budgets 0 PR differs from Advertising 0 Publicity info about an event an individual or group or a product appears as a news item or feature story in the mass media Material is prepared by PR personnel and submitted to news departments for consideration 0 Advertising in contrast involves paid space and broadcast time 0 An organization writes the advertisement chooses the type style and graphics and controls where and when the advertisement chooses the type style and graphics and controls where and when the advertisement runs in other words advertising involves renting space in a medium where the advertiser has considerable control over the final message 0 Major disadvantage and advertising is its cost 0 For this reason companies increasingly use one tool of PR product publicity that is more cost effective and often more credible because the message appears in a news context Product publicity is news coverage of a product or servicebelieved to be more credible 0 Advertising is controlled communication You pay for it and therefore you control the content and outcome of the message I 30 second super bowl ad costs 25 to 3 million 0 public relations usually uses uncontrolled communication When we need to gt messages into controlled media we buy ads 0 journalisms are looking for things that are news worthy relevant to their audiences FritoLay Campaign 0 Used primary and secondary research to identify media trends an determine how to reach in uencers journalisms bloggers and health professionals During process company essentially conducted situation analysis obtaning feedback from target public looking at what media were currently reporting on in industry examining past campaigns and performing other forms of research 0 Ex Focus groups good fats simple ingredientsquot 0 Public relations personnel used research results to establish objetives which led to strategy development and recommendations to management This is the adviser role of public relations 0 Ex consulted with nutrition foodhealth expert 0 After management made its decisions public relations personnel fully developed the snack sense and license to snack campaign including defining measurable objectives strategies and tactics a timeline a budget and evaluation guidelines 0 The program was executed Frito Lay set up booths at blogging conferences held workshops for dieticians sent educational materials and product samples to journalists and brand fans created Youtube content developed educational websites and more 0 Ex Twitter tour of plant chefs and recipes 0 The effectiveness of these actions was measured by the percentage of attitude change number of positive blog posts and tweets and success of brand fans in in uencing their ends and family 0 The company undertook postanalysis and adjustment of the public relations program The cycle was then repeated to solve related aspects of the problem that might require additional decision making and action Chapter 2 Careers in Public Relations Essential Abilities of PR professionals Skills 0 Written interpersonal communication research negotiation creativity logistics facilitation problem solving Essential Qualities of PR professionals 0 0 Cultural Literacy O O O 0 000000000 Six Essential Abilities Writing skills convey info and ideas in written docs and online communications quickly clearing and concisely is essential Good grammar and correct spelling is vital Research ability arguments must be supported by factspersistence and ability to gather info from variety of sources as well as be able to conduct original research by designing and implementing opinion polls or audits Use internet and computer database Reading newspapers and magazines is also important Planning expertise communication tools and activities are most effective when they are carefully developed and coordinated Person needs to be good planner to make certain that materials are distribute in timely manner events occur without probs and budgets are not exceeded PR people must be highly organized and detail oriented yet still able to see big picture Problem Solving Ability innovative ideas and fresh approaches solve complex problems and make a public relations program unique and memorable Higher salaries and more frequent promotions go to those individuals who show top management they can solve problems creatively Business Economics Competence nuts and bolts of business and economics Students preparing for careers in PR should obtain a solid grounding by taking elective course in economics marketing and especially management Expertise in Social Media social media savvy Social networking blogging tweeting employers prefer job applicants who know about podcasting search engine optimization web content management social bookmarking Employers say PR pros need to be culturally literate Cultural literacy refers to a knowledge of history and practices within a culture as well as cultural norms and popular trends Curiosity and sincere interest in a broad range of subjects traditions and people serves PR practitioners well ED Hirsch defines cultural literacy as shared knowledge that allows people to communicate effectively 0 What Employers Want 10 qualities Good writing Intelligence Cultural literacy The ability to recognize a good story when you see one Media savvy Contacts Good business sense Broad communication experience Specialized experience Fresh perspective Salaries Public Relations Salaries O 0 Corporate 38750 182000 Agency 35 250 185 000 Work settings and specializations O 0000 0 Examples of firms I Waggener Edstrom Edelman Fleishman HillEknowlton Ketchum I Porter Novelli I Ogilvy Public Relations Hired by other orgs to manage public relations activities Hire at the entry level regularly I They need a lot of people to work on their many accounts Wide array of project work for clients I If big client can do many things for that one client Fast paced with substantial workload I Agencies have as many clients as possible and try to service them with just enough people in house on their payroll Hit the ground running with diverse assignments Work on rapidly unfolding situations for variety of clients simultaneously New career opportunities can result from networking responsibilities to generate new clients Expand tactical PR skills quickly while also developing other useful managerial skills reporting to supervisor client and even do budgets Disadvantages I Few opportunities to see the outcocme of work I Generating new clients and billable hours can create sweatshop office culture I Resources can be limited with high expectations for achieving results I Turnover can be high and benefit packages minimal Work settings and specializations corps 0 Can work on several of these at once I Media relations I Crisis communication I Investor relations I Internal communications 0 Like newsletters to employees I Issues management I Reputation management Corporate social responsibility CSR The Components of PR 0 Counseling Research Media Relations Publicity Employees Member Relations Community Relations Public Affairs Gov t Affairs OOOOOOO Issue Management Financial Relations lndustryRelations DevelopmentFundRaising Multicultural Relations Workplace Diversity Special Events Marketing Communications OOOOOOO Chapter 3 The Growth of the Profession Ancient beginnings Public Relations it s been around longer than you think I Rosetta Stone considered one of the first news releases description of a Egyptian pharos accomplishments 0 After battle of EgyptiansGreekRomans fought a big battle 9 purpose of those events to keep community involved and connected in the victory and creating a relationship 0 Boston Tea Party considered one of the most successful public relations events lots of support and generated results very symbolic that sticks in the minds of people and it s memorable really galvanized the issue 0 PT Barnum 1800s gives PR the press agentry description 0 Pseudo event event that is planned to be reported on th Development of PR in the 19 Century 199052000 0 Burson Marsteller PR is mainly Perception management reputation management and corporate social responsibility 0 CSR corp America acknowledging and acting upon social responsibility 0 CSR the current enviro o Lev 2012 Winning over Investors argues that rebuilding investors and the public s trust is the most serious challenge confronting the senior executives of today s public companies 0 2014 Edelman Trust Barometer based on an online survey of 27000 general population respondents 58 trust business and 48 trust government the largest ever gap since Edelman began study in 2001 0 Building and Maintaining Trust 0 What can a CEO do I Assume responsibility and accountability I Personally and visibly show care and concern for stakeholders I Stick to a code of business ethics no matter What I Communicate openly and frequently With stakeholders o How can companies rebuild trust I Be open and honest in business practices I Communicate more clearly effectively and straightforwardly With customers I Visibly demonstrate concern and consideration for employees I Make the CEO a spokesperson beyond reproach beyond criticism CEO can t be described as someone Without facts no emotion etc I Be involved With the community 0 We have to be doing things right to begin With What we say has to really be how we act 0 Social issues of CSR o Hunger Job trainingimproved economic opportunity Health issues Product quality and safety Access to clean water and sanitation Protecting and preserving the environment Sustainable economic development OOOOOO o The homeless 0 Child abuse 0 Sex trafficking Modern Era of PR 0 CEO view published by Arthur Page society 0 Social Media is here to stay I Changing the way we communicate 0 Message segmentation is dead I Can t really target your audience because nearly everyone has access to information etc everyone sees everything all the time 0 There are more stakeholders now I Because everyone has access to the info everyone can focus on the info I Ex cruise ship that was stranded 0 Reputation is more valuable every day 0 Changing Focus in Public Relations 0 Traditionally it was widely believed that public relations practitioners should begin their careers as newspaper reporters or wire service correspondents to polish their writing skills and to learn firsthand how the media function 0 No longer the case though I Field of PR has broadened far beyond the concept of media relationsquot and placing publicity in the mass media Today much writing in PR is done for controlled media company publications direct mail campaigns to key audiences speech writing brochures material posted on an organization s website I Expanding area of public relations practice is crisis communication counseling This key role strengthens the in uence of public relations in orgs and requires considerable professional experience Crisis management is where many practitioners find their greatest satisfaction as professionals they have an impact on their organization and add enormous value to the viability of their department Pioneers in public relations Bernays Lee Page Pioneers in Modern Public Relations 19001950 I Ivy Ledbetter Lee 1905 o former journalism at New York Times first public relations counsel emphasized truthful accurate information rather than distortions hype an exaggerations journalistin 0 Our plan is frankly and openly on behalf of business concerns and public institutions to supply to the press and the public of the United States prompt and accurate Information concerning subjects which is of value and interest to the public 0 Ludlow Massacre April 20 1914 serious event that Lee addressed high profile story in colorado and nationally 0 Worked for Rockefeller family owned 40 interest in CFampI o Became high profile target 0 Lee hired as consultant 0 Edwards L Berynays two way asymmetric model 0 Father of the modern public realtions Nephew of Sigmund Freud Torches of Freedom Campaign 1929 make cigarettes more popular female empowerment Idea make smoking a symbol of liberation Communication invite journalists and photographers Generated publicity across the country women went on streets in boston Detroit and SF Another idea was the bacon industry campaign 9 list doctors and talk about the importance of hearty breakfast 0 Women in Public Relations OOOOOO o Doris Fleishman an outline of careers of women a practical guide 1928 o Betsy Plank the first lady of public relations first female president of PRSA godmother of PRSSA 1960s 0 Inez Kaiser first African American women to lead a national PR firm first African American woman president of PRSA 1960s Arthur W Page Corp Public Relations 0 brought credibility to profession to corp setting 0 Arthur Page Society professionals come together to talk about what research needs to be done in the field Society came up with key to PR I Tell the truth I Prove it with actions I Listen to the customer I Manage for tomorrow I Don t just be reactive be proactive Costbenefit analysis is it hard to fix I Dominate coalition dominant leaders and decision makers aka CSuite chief financial chief operations chief communications etc 0 PR should be a part of the CSuite in order to be effective I Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it I Realize a company s true character is eXpressed by its people I Remain calm patient and good humored Models of public relations Public Relations as a Process 0 Public relations is a process that is a series of actions changes or functions that bring about a result Underlying philosophy of two way symmetrical model 0 The objective of public relations is to build mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and its various publics o In other words organizational policies and actions should be a winwin situation for both the organization and the publics Mixed Motive Model 0 In the model organizations and publics are viewed as holding separate and sometimes con icting interests Nevertheless negotiation and compromise permit organizations and publics to find a common ground the winwin zone the model suggests that a number of outcomes are possible within the winwin zone I Sometimes people will just not agree but using a mixed motive can help both parties reach a compromise Communication and Behavior 0 When symbolic communicationbased relationships are divorces from behavioral grounded in actions and events relationships public relations practitioners reduce public relations to the simplistic notion of image building which offers litter of value to the organizations they advice because they suggest that probs in relationships with publics can be solved by using the proper message disseminated through publicity or media relations to change an image of an organization Chapter 4 Departments and firms Role of structure Organizational Roles 0 Entry level Technician 0 Supervisor 0 Manager 0 Director 0 Executive Line and staff functions 0 Organizational Factors Determine the Role of PRs I Research indicates that the role of PR in an org often depends on the type of org the perceptions of top management and even the capabilities of the PR executive I Complex orgs have greater tendency than smaller firms to include public relations in policy making process I IBM and General Motors 9 authority and power of the PR department are quite high public relations is part of dominant coalition and has a great deal of autonomy I In contrast small scale org that offers standardized product of service feels few public pressures an faces little governmental regulatory interest I PR in such orgs has little or no input into management decisions and policy formation I The most reputable Fortune 500 coprs tend to think of PR as a strategic management tool I Primary indicator of department s in uence and power is whethser top communication officer has a seat at the management table 0 How Public Relations Departments Are Organized I Head executive of PR or similarly named department typically has one of three titles 0 Manager 0 Director 0 VP I Vice President of cop communications may have direct responsibility for the additional activities of advertising and marketing communications I Department usually divided into specialized sections that have coordinator or manager Common division found in larg corps include 0 Media relations 0 Investor relations 0 Consumer affairs government relations 0 Community relations 0 Marketing communications 0 Employee communications I Large global cops such as IBM or General Motors substantial communication function 0 Line and Staff Functions I PR is staff function PR professionals are experts in communication line managers including the CEO rely on them to use their skills in preparing and processing data making recommendations and executing communication programs to meet organizational objectives I It has no direct authority to decide on its own to hold an open house or to order various departments within the company to cooperate I Power and in uence of a public relations department usually result from access to top management which uses advice and recommendations from the remainder of the org to formulate policy 0 Level of In uence I At the lowest level staff function ma be simply advisory line management has no obligation to take recommendations or even request from I Ex the Tylenol crisis in the 19805 0 Quick recall of the public relations staff 0 Compulsory advisory position 0 Compulsory advisory set up org policy requires that line manager at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding on a strategy 0 In this type of org an operating division wishing to publish a brochure cannot do so unless PR department approves the copy and layout 0 Situation is even more restrictive for PR when the legal department has command authority to change a news release with or without the consent of PR Director of Public and Investor Relations PR rms vs inhouse I In House PR Depth of Experience 0 0 Pros I Opportunity to interact with senior leadership team and impact the long term I Involvement in organizational strategic planning as well as public relations planning and implementation I Singularly focus on specific organization in specific industry highly informed storytelling I Upward mobility with good benefits Cons I Ex 0 Starbucks 0 Facebook 0 Nordstrom Nike 0 Deschutes Brewery 0 Portland Art Museum I Fewer entry level job opportunities I Daily pace slower less exciting I Networking opportunities less diverse I Changes in ownership or senior leadership can lead to less job security 0 Public Relations Firms 0 Large or small each firm gives counsel and performs technical services to carry out an agreed upon program 0 Firm may operate as an adjunct to an org public relations department or if in house department exists conduct the entire effort 0 US home to most of the world s PR firms and generates the most fee income because of its large population and economic base 0 Five largest independent firms Edelman Fleishman HIlard Waggener Edstrom Worldwide Ruder Finn and APCO Worldwide 0 PR firms have proliferated in proportion to the growth of the global economy 0 Executives of PR firms predict healthy future growth for the industry as more countries adopt free market economies and more international media outlets are established 0 Skyrocketing use of Internet has expanded global reach of PR firms 0 Increasingly PR firms are emphasizing counseling aspect of their services although most of their revenues come from implanting tactical aspects such as writing news releases and organizing special events or media tours PR Fees and charges Chapter 5 Research and Campaigns Why do we do research Primary and secondary research amp quantitativequalitative 0 Secondary Research I Existing info already been created for other purposes I Can be located quickly and inexpensive I Can originate from 0 Within the org 0 Outside the org 0 Primary Research I Primary research refers to data or info that you as public relations professional collect directly for your own project I In depth interviews focus groups surveys or polls I Two general methods I Qualitative soft data 0 Aimed at gaining a deep contextual understanding 0 Aimed to provide an understanding of the structure order and broad patterns found among a group of participants 0 Is descriptive in nature 0 Ex I Focus groups I Group interviewingdiscussion technique I Unstructured and spontaneous 0 612 people with shared characteristics 0 moderator controls the discussion I can be used before a campaign begins during a strategic campaign after a campaign has concluded I timing should align with strategic goals 0 interview that take place directly between two individuals 0 does not need to be facetoface 0 ex I Research question how important is trust in your relationships with your investors ask CEOs I I absolutely believe they investors want to look into the eyes of the CEO I don t think they care whether or not im an eloquent speaker or use all the right words they re looking for honesty out of a person I I think trust is almost everything If they can t trust you as a CEO and trust what you say then how do they know whether to invest in your company or not I I think a company can be performing poorly but if there are rational explanations for that and you have a plan in place that you re executing on to rectify it I think investors will stick with you or buy into that vision All that is built not on hard quantitative data That s built on the qualitative stuff on the intangibles 0 Quantitative hard data 0 Structured systematic and generally associated with statisticsmath and the scientific method 0 Often designed to make generalizations from a sample of greater population 0 Can ask a larger population sample size 9 more answers better idea of the average or majority o More reliable than qualitative reliability is what separates the two 0 Some primary types I Content analysis 9 can read every article of various newspapers and look at mentions of whatever category people or issues and analyze Focuses on study of recorded human communications Analyzes speeches media releases video content news articles internet postings 0 Easy and cost efficient to perform 0 Can reveal meaningful trendspatters I Surveys 0 Mail surveys 0 Telephone surveys Piggy back surveys Zumba Komen Campaign Chapter 6 Communication and Measurement Communication issues to consider exposure accuracy message acceptance attitude change Awareness and Exposure 0 Sometimes we hire services to tell us where our name appears monitoring services tell us who is talking about us and what they are saying 0 Media impressions Grunig s Communication Objectives 0 James Grunig building good relationships with strategic public Changing Audience Attitudes and Behavior 0 Research tells us that awareness leads to attitude changes 0 Increased awareness may increase positive attitudes 0 Having a positive attitude toward an issue increases possibility of taking action 0 We raise awareness through our communication tactics news releases special events brochures tweets facebook posts plant tours 0 We increase positive attitudes through our key messages and linking messages to values and self interest of the public 0 We alter behaviors by telling people how to change We also have to give them the means to act The Public Relations Effectiveness Yardstick PR Effectiveness Yardstick 0 Basic level measuring message production 0 Intermediate level measuring message awareness retention comprehension reception 0 Advanced level measuring changes in audience attitudes and actionsbehavior Measuring Production 0 Count the process indicators of communication tactics count news releases interviews brochures youtube facebook posts tweets AVE ROI Share of Voice 0 Advertising value equivalency AVE is what your editorial coverage would cost if it were purchased as advertising space 0 In other words Ad Value Equivalency calculates how much it would have cost to buy an ad to appear in that same space Measuring Share of Voice We look at the content 0 news blogs etc to see how much our org is mentioned or quoted in stories an the tone of the coverage We compare it to our competitors to see if we are getting appropriate share of voice If we are getting a high share of voice but negative tone then we need to change our strategy ROI 0 Return on investment helps us see how much it costs to reach members of our target audience 0 Simple math cost of the ad or public relations materials divided by the number of people reached 0 J ustifies big ad and big PR programs SMART Objectives Objectives Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic and Timely SMART Outcome and Output Objectives Objectives Outcome Objectives info attitudinal and behavioral These are called outcome objectives related to impact impact you hope to have because they represent specific intended effects of public relations programs on audiences Output objectives program production and efforts news releases special events brochures tweets Facebook posts plant tours Informational Objectives 0 Create awareness for a new recycling program 0 EX to increase the awareness of U0 students about the recycling program by 25 percent in siX months 0 Difficult to measure informational objectives although easy to achieve 0 This objective is SMART Attitudinal Objectives 0 Create positive attitude toward a new recycling program 0 EX to increase positive awareness of U0 students about the recycling program by 40 percent in one year 0 Difficult to measure 0 Need a baseline Behavioral Objectives 0 To increase participation in a new recycling program 0 EX to increase UO student participation in the recycling program by 60 in one year 0 Easier to measure but harder to accomplish Measuring Objectives 0 Outcome Objectives I Informational awareness comprehension retention reception surveys I Attitudinal attitudinal surveys I Behavioral surveys and observations of behavior 0 Output objectives I Are measured quantitatively by simply counting the actual outputs Advanced post campaign evaluation
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'