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LUC / Chemistry / CHEM 101 / How do you write chemical formulas for molecules?

How do you write chemical formulas for molecules?

How do you write chemical formulas for molecules?

Description

School: Loyola University Chicago
Department: Chemistry
Course: Chemistry 101
Professor: Helquist
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Chemistry
Cost: 25
Name: Chem 101 Week 3 Notes
Description: These notes are the rest of the material on exam one (2.6-2.8, 21.3-21.9 except 21.4)
Uploaded: 09/18/2017
18 Pages 34 Views 1 Unlocks
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Week Three Notes (2.6-2.8, 21.3-21.9 except 21.4)Don't forget about the age old question of What are the five factors of production?

2.6 → Molecules & Molecular Compounds

If you want to learn more check out Why is lord byron, an english author, considered a hero in greece?

Molecules and Chemical Formulas:

Molecular form - two or more of the same type of atom bound together.

Chemical formula - example would be O2Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to maintain a regular schedule of fitness activities?

Diatomic molecule - a molecule made up of two atoms

Seven diatomic molecules = H2, O2, N2, F2, CI2, Br2, I2

  • All clustered on the right side of the periodic table except for H

If you want to learn more check out What molecule contains the hereditary information and can be passed from parent to offspring?

Molecular compounds - compounds composed of molecules contain more than one type of atom. (methane is an example of this - CH4)

**All molecular compounds are composed of nonmetallic elements**

Molecules and Empirical Formulas:Don't forget about the age old question of Earth heats up during formation due to what?

Molecular formulas - chemical formulas that indicate the actual number of atoms in a molecule.

Empirical formulas - chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type of molecule. Subscripts in an empirical formula are always the smallest possible whole-number ratios.

  • Molecular formula for hydrogen peroxide H2O2 vs the empirical formula for hydrogen peroxide HO

If you want to learn more check out What are society's resources?

** Whenever the molecular formula is known, the empirical formula can always be found, but the converse in not true**

  • Empirical formulas are helpful in analyzing certain common substances as well as that there are many substances that do not exist as isolated molecules like ionic compounds.

Picturing Molecules:

Structural formula - show how the atoms are joined in a molecular compound. The atoms are represented by their chemical symbols, and lines are used to represent bonds that hold the atoms together.

  1. Perspective drawings: use wedges and dashed lines to depict bonds that are not in the plane of the paper. This gives a sense of the 3d shape of a molecule.
  2. Ball & Stick Models: show atoms as spheres and bonds as sticks. This type allows to accurately depict the angles at which the atoms are attached to each other.
  3. Space-Filling Models: depict what a molecule will look like if the atoms were scaled up to size. They show the relative sizes of the atoms and the angles (more difficult to see in this model then the ball and stick model).

2.7 → Ions and Ionic Compounds

Ion - a charged particle is formed when the electrons are removed or added to an atom.

Cation - ion with a positive charge (e- was removed)

Anion - ion with a negative charge (e- was added)

  • The net charge of an ion is represented by a superscript.

**Metals tend to lose electrons to form cations and nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form anions, so ionic compounds tend to be composed of both metal cations and nonmetal anions**

Polyatomic ions - ions consisting of atoms joined as a molecule (NH4+ or SO4 2-)

**Chemical properties of ions are very different from chemical properties of the atoms from which the ions are derived**

Predicting Ionic Charges:

Wobble-gas elements - in the group 8a and are chemically nonreactive because of their full valence shells.

  • Group 1 (Alkali metals): form 1+ ions
  • Group 2 (Alkali-earth metals): form 2+ ions
  • Group 7A (Halogens): form 1- ions
  • Group 6A: form 2- ions

Ionic Compounds

Ionic compound - a compound made up of cations and anions (like NaCI made up of Na+ and CI-ions)

  • We can tell a compound is molecular or ionic by looking at its composition.
  • The ions in ionic compounds are arranged in 3d structures.
  • Only empirical formulas can be written for most ionic compounds.
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