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USC / Classical Studies / CLAS 220 / What is greek geography?

What is greek geography?

What is greek geography?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Classical Studies
Course: Introduction to Classical Mythology
Professor: Osborne
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Notes
Description: These notes cover everything up to the Monday before the exam. They do not include Wednesday's notes.
Uploaded: 09/18/2017
5 Pages 12 Views 8 Unlocks

CLAS 220 – Professor Osborne – Exam 1 Study Guide Intro to Mythology 

What is greek geography?

∙ Myth is a piece of literature involving the supernatural and gods as well as  their interaction with man

o Myth Interpretations

 Etiological – Explanatory about why things are the way they are  Rationalism – Mythic gods reflect real rulers

 Metaphorical/Allegorical – Representative of deep truths

∙ Greek Geography

o Tall mountains and seas promote isolation and alternating beliefs in  religion and myth

∙ Greece is first inhabited in 70,000 BC

∙ Bronze Age (3000 – 1100 BC)


o Minoans

 First Civilization and was discovered by Arthur Evans

 Named after King Minos and was located on Crete centered  around Knossos

When was greece first inhabited?

 Linear A writing comes about 1900BC

 Great sailors but not a military power

 Art

∙ Boxing, bulls, oceans

∙ Sophisticated art with cultural depictions of race

o Mycenaeans

 Linear B writing is early Greek language

 Contact Minoans around 2000BC and Conquer them around  1500-1400BC

 Notable King is Agamemnon

 Large palaces with “cyclopean walls”

 Shaft graves and pirates were part of Mycenaean culture We also discuss several other topics like legal and ethical environment of business

 Wanax is a Mycenaean king

 Octopi is a common theme of their art also weird warped horses  Gods

∙ Contained the 12 Olympians

∙ Had local divinities that were often female

What are the myths of creation?

 Strong military power with leather/bronze armor

 They had chariots around 1600BC

 Ends around 1150 BC and causes the dark age

o Trojan War (~1184BC)

 Unites the Greek World

o Dark Ages

 Nobody was there and nobody was literate

 Basileus became a king from a mayor

o Archaic Age (800-500BC)

 Phoenicians came around and people were literate again

 Homer and Hesiod were poets of mythology If you want to learn more check out chemical bonds in order from strongest to weakest

 Panhellenism was the distinguishing between the “barbarians”  and the Greek

 Tyranny and Oligarchy surfaced

Myths of Creation 

∙ Homer

o Illiad and Odyssey

o No creation story

∙ Hesiod

o Theogony

∙ Chasm (Chaos) was the first and only thing

o Earth (Gaia)

o Tartarus (Depths of the Earth)

o Erebus (Darkness of the depths)

o Night

o Eros (Cupid)

∙ Night and Erebus make Aether and Day

∙ Earth makes Heaven

o They both make

 Titans

 Cyclopes

∙ Brontes (Thunderer)

∙ Stereopes (Lightner)

∙ Argess (Whitebolt)

 The Hundred-Handers

∙ Kottos

∙ Briareos

∙ Gyges

∙ Titans

o Ocean and Tethys create Oceanids

o Hyperion and Thea make Helius, Selene, and Eos

o Phaethon

 Attempts to prove he is the son of Helius by driving the sun  chariot but dies instead If you want to learn more check out eng 130

 Shows Hubris and Glory as two main themes of mythology

o Eos

 Falls in love with Tithonus and wishes him eternal life

 He doesn’t stay young forever so she locks him in a room to  wither as an old man for eternity We also discuss several other topics like What is the correlation between hours studied and exam score?

∙ Uranus and Kronos

o Uranus is not a good dad so Gaia wants him killed

o Their son Kronos castrates Uranus and throws the stuff away o The blood creates the Furies, Giants, and Maliai

o When the genitals hit the sea, the foam creates Aphrodite

∙ Monsters

o Phorcys and Ceto are the first monsters

o Gorgons and Echidna are pretty much snake women

∙ Kronos and Zeus

o Many of the twelve olympians are born from Kronos and Rhea but  naturally Kronos eats his children as any living father would

o Rhea gets advice from good ol’ mom and dad who crazy enough had  encountered almost the same situation (see 2 sections ago)

o Baby Zeus gets replaced with a rock and then grows up and beats the  hell out of dad so bad that he regurgitates the other babies he ate

Zeus’ Rise to Power 

∙ The Titanomachy

o In this corner it’s the Gods, Cyclopes, Hecatonchires, Themis, and  Prometheus

o And in this corner it’s Kronos and the other Titans

o The gods win and send the Titans to Tartarus

∙ The Battle with Typhoeus

o Imagine the most terrifying thing with 100 of everything and that was  Typhoeus If you want to learn more check out uf ids

o Gets hurled into Tartarus cause he’s terrifying tbh

∙ The Gigantomachy

o Zeus vs Giants

o Again Zeus wins but the giants aren’t sent to Tartarus, their sent under  volcanoes

The Creation of Mortals 

∙ Mortal Creation

o Possibly made by Prometheus

o Athena may have crafted man out of earth and water

o Hesiod says that Zeus was the creator of Man

∙ Hesiod’s Five Ages of Man (Works and Days) If you want to learn more check out What is centromere?

o Age of Gold

 The age under Kronos

 People were carefree and died in their sleep

 Mortals then inhabited earth as holy spirits to ward off evil

o Age of Silver

 People lived as children for 100 years

 They did not worship immortals so Zeus hid then buried under  the earth

o Age of Bronze

 Warlike and spent afterlife in Hades

 Didn’t eat bread

o Age of Heroes

 The course is focused here

 People were valiant in war such as the trojan war

 There were demigods and dwelled on the isle of the blessed

o Age of Iron

 Modern age where good mingles with evil and people dishonor  gods

 This age will eventually be overthrown

∙ Prometheus

o Prometheus is forethought, the protector of man

o Epimethus is afterthought, the idiot brother

o Prometheus attempted to trick Zeus but failed

o Zeus denies fire to man so Prometheus steals it and gives it to them  Prometheus ends up chained to a rock where and eagle eats his  liver everyday

∙ Pandora

o Hephaestus, Athena, Aphrodite, and Hermes craft her

 She is given to Epimethus

o Pandora removes the cover of a jar that releases evils all except hope ∙ Zeus and Io

o Io was Zeus’ mistress so in order to protect her she is turned into a cow o Hera places Argos Panoptes as a guard over Io the cow

o Hermes kills Argos (makes him the eyes of a peacock tail)

o Hera uses a gadfly to chase Io to Egypt where Zeus goes and “has  relations” with Io

 Io gives birth to Epaphsus

The Wickedness of Mortals 

∙ Zeus and Lycaon

o Lycaon is an all around bad person so Zeus wrecks his house and turns  him into a werewolf

∙ The Flood

o Wiped humanity out and the survivors starved

∙ Deucalion and Pyrrha

o Last mortals who were devoted to the gods

o Tossed stones over their shoulders and from the stones humans  sprouted

∙ This parallels with Middle Eastern mythology especially the Epic of Gilgamesh Prometheus Bound 

∙ Tyrants rise in Greece

∙ Conflict with Persia

o Battle of Marathon in 490

∙ Zeus is seen as a tyrant and Prometheus as a trickster

∙ Prometheus is also seen as a savior of mankind

o Saved humans from destruction and gave them hope and fire ∙ Reaction of the gods to Prometheus Bound

o Hephaistos is sympathetic

o Oceanus is angry at Zeus

o Chorus is cautious

o Hermes blames Prometheus

Twelve Olympians 

∙     There are 14 major deities but only 12 live on Olympus

o Zeus

 God of thunder and lightning

 Is shown as frisky and an enforcer

 Never has absolute patriarchy

∙     The Fates and Aphrodite hold some power over him

 Bears the Aegis

∙     The Head of Gorgon on a goat skin shield

∙     Athena uses this to strike fear into opponents

o Hera

o Poseidon

o Hades

o Hestia

o Hephaestus

o Ares

o Apollo

o Artemis

o Demeter

o Aphrodite

o Athena

o Hermes

o Dionysus


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