Chapter 1 Study Guide- Social Psychology, G. Reeder
Chapter 1 Study Guide- Social Psychology, G. Reeder PSY 223
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Monday August 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 744 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/24/15
Study Guide for Chapter 1 OLEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 10 10 Define social psychology Identify the kinds of questions that social psychologists try to answer pp 69 Social psych the scienti c study of how individuals think feel and behave in a social context What affects the way we perceive ourselves and others How do we in uence others What causes us to like love help and hurt others How does social psychology help us understand questions about law business and health 20 Explain how social psychology differs from sociology and other fields of psychology Assess the limitations of the following statement all social psychological findings are simply common sense pp 912 Sociology focuses on the group level whereas social psychologists tend to focus on the individual level Social psychologist are more likely to use experimentation and precise quanti able measures Social psychology ndings might seem like common sense after the fact but this is true regardless of the ndings For many commonsense notions there are equally logical notions that say the opposite ex birds of a feather ock together and opposites attract The feeling that the results of experiments are just common sense is the hindsight bias 30 Describe the early origins of social psychology and the state of the field up until 1950 Identify when the field of social psychology became a distinct field of study the various founders of the field and the historical event that inspired interest in and shaped the field of social psychology Explain the contributions made by Allport Sherif and Lewin pp l3 l4 Hitler s rise to power is what sparked people to wonder about the psychology behind violence prejudice genocide conformity and obedience Gordon Allport and many other social psychologists formed the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues in which they made important practical contributions to society Muzafer Sherif published experimental research on social in uence He had experienced Greek soldiers killing his friends as a Turkish youth and later did research on the powerful social in uences groups can have on the individuals in the group He paved the way for more experimental research on processes such as conformity Kurt Lewin immigrated to the US in order to ee the Nazi s rise to power in Germany and helped establish the theory that behavior is a function of interaction between the person and their environment interactionist perspective thus bridging the gap between psychoanalysis and behaviorism He also advocated for social psychology theories being applied to practical issues He said as a call to action quotNo research without action no action without researchquot 40 Describe the state of social psychology from the 1960s to the mid1970s from the mid 70s to the 1990s and in the present new century Explain the various ways in which contemporary social psychology can be referred to as pluralistic pp 1516 In the 19605 Stanley did his famous experiments showing the destructive results of obedience to authority During this time social psychology was expanding and the topics that scientists studied ranged from how people feel about themselves and others to aggression and stress As the eld grew people became concerned with unethical research methods and the risk that an experimenter39s expectations were in uencing an experiment39s results In the mid19705 ethical standards were instituted and more attention was paid to possible crosscultural differences in behavior Pluralism in social psychology extends beyond its methods to a wider range of research techniques and questions It was during this time that social cognition became a sub eld of social psychology Another source of pluralism in social psych is its development of international and multicultural perspectives Many psychological phenomena was assumed to be universal but might be signi cantly different in other cultures 50 Distinguish between different perspectives social psychologists use to understand human behavior Define social cognition Summarize the increasing effort in social psychology to develop an international and multicultural perspective pp 1617 Social cognition the study of how people perceive remember and interpret information about themselves and others Researchers today look at how motivations that we aren39t consciously aware of can bias how we interact with or interpret information about another person Different perspectives in social psych include social neuroscience the study of the relationship between neural and social processes behavioral genetics the sub eld of psychology that examines how genetics affect behavior and evolutionary psychology uses the priciples of evolution to understand human social behavior Two different perspectives that are now being integrated into one are the quothotquot perspective which focuses on emotion and motivation as determinants of our thoughts and actions and the quotcoldquot perspective which emphasizes the role of cognition but devalued the roles of emotion and motivation 60 Explain how social psychology incorporates biological evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives of human behavior Describe the role of new technologies such as PET and fMRI in the investigation of social behavior pp 1721 Social psychology can incorporate evolutionary psychology to understand our behavior while considering the naturalselection pressures that our ancestors faced Considering how our ancestors needed to behave in order to survive can show some insight into the drives and behavior of humans today We can also use biology in psychology by looking at brain activity while people are feeling certain emotions Social psychologists are also studying genetics and their role in deciding things like our sexual orientation and political beliefs Social psychologists are also revisiting theories that were assumed to be universal and are now looking at similarities and differences in social psychology across different cultures They are even doing multicultural research in which they examine racial and ethic groups within cultures This is causing them to realize that a phenomenon that was assumed to be universal actually varies a lot from culture to culture Positron emission tomography PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI are being used to study the interplay of the brain and discrete thoughts feelings and behaviors With these noninvasive procedures scientists can study questions that would be unethical or impossible without this technology Key Terms to Know behavioral economics p 19 this sub eld focuses on how psychology relates to economic decision making economic models were updated since they previously didn39t account for the seemingly irrational role of psychological factors on people39s economic behavior behavioral genetics p 17 a sub eld of psychology that examines the effects of genes on behavior crosscultural research p 18 examines similarities and differences across a variety of cultures culture p 18 a system of enduring beliefs meanings values assumptions institutions and practices shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next embodied cognition p 19 an interdisciplinary sub eld that examines the close links between our minds and the positioning experiences and actions of our bodies evolutionary psychology p 17 uses the principles of evolution to understand human behavior Says that to understand a social psychology issue we should ask how tendencies and reactions might have evolved from the naturalselection pressures that our ancestor39s faced interactionist perspective p 14 a perspective that says behavior is a function between the person and the environment This perspective emphasizes the dynamic interplay of internal and external factors multicultural research p 18 when psychologists examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures social cognition p 16 the study of how we perceive remember and interpret information about others and ourselves social neuroscience p 17 a sub eld that is the study of the relationship between neural and social processes It39s an intersection of social psychology and neuroscience social psychology p 6 the scienti c study of how individuals think feel and behave in a social context Sample Multiple Choice Questions keyed to each Learning Objective 1Which of the following questions would a social psychologist be most likely to study a Are crime rates different among people of higher versus lower socioeconomic status b What risk factors contribute to the onset of schizophrenia c Is there a link between playing violent video games and engaging in aggressive behavior d Do citizens in countries with democratic governments report greater life satisfaction than citizens in countries with autocratic governments ANS C REF What Is Social Psychology DB 1 KEY Conceptual 2 Social psychology is all of the following except a a science addressing a diverse array of topics b the study of how people think feel and behave c a compilation of anecdotal observations and case studies d an approach applying the scientific method of systematic observation description and measurement ANS C REF What Is Social Psychology DB 1 KEY Factual 3Social psychology is primarily concerned with the ways in which a group factors contribute to the functioning of social institutions b unconscious forces in uence conscious motivations and desires c specific personality characteristics predict behavior across situations d individuals think feel and behave with regard to others ANS D REF What Is Social Psychology DB 1 KEY Factual 4 Sarunas is a social psychologist Of the following studies he is probably most interested in reading about one demonstrating the effects of a attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction b immigration patterns on stock market activity c distraction on attention to a visual display d narcotic substances on neurotransmitter activity in the brain ANS A REF What Is Social Psychology DB 1 KEY Applied 5 The study conducted by Walton and Cohen 2011 on the impact of insecurity on academic performance focuses on a the in uence of information on the temporary nature of belonging uncertainty on academic performance in male versus female students gender differences in academic performance c racial differences in academic performance d the in uence of information on the temporary nature of belonging uncertainty on academic performance in AfricanAmerican versus Caucasian students ANS D REF What Is Social Psychology DB 2 KEY Factual 6Bianca is African American and she is a new university student She is feeling quite nervous about being part of a university Based on research by Walton and Cohen 2011 what can you tell her that will help her succeed a Study hardit pays off b Get involved so you will have social support c Feeling nervous about school is normal and temporary d Be very organized so that you will be able to do everything on time ANS C REF What Is Social Psychology DB 1 KEY Applied 7Marilyn is interested in whether schizophrenic individuals tend to interpret verbal feedback from others as negative even if it is positive It might be said that Marilyn is doing research at the intersection of social psychology and a evolutionary psychology b sociology c personality psychology d clinical psychology ANS D REF What Is Social Psychology DB 2 KEY Applied 8Which of the following branches of psychology is most interested in the power of the situation a Clinical psychology b Cognitive psychology c Personality psychology d Social psychology ANS D REF What Is Social Psychology DB 2 KEY Factual 9 The interaction between individual characteristics and situational constraints on the way people behave best re ects the intersection of a cognitive and personality psychology b personality and social psychology c social and clinical psychology d clinical and developmental psychology ANS B KEY Conceptual REF What Is Social Psychology DB 2 10The field of social psychology emerged as a distinct discipline around the end of the 11 a 17th century b 18th century c 19th century d 20th century ANS C REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 3 KEY Factual Among the following social psychologists who was one of the original founders of social psychology a Norman Triplett b Stanley Milgram c Michael Norton d Philip Zimbardo ANS A DB 3 REF A Brief History of Social Psychology KEY Factual 12 According to your textbook one of the people who had the greatest impact on the developing field of social psychology was not a psychologist Who was this person a Plato b Charles Lindbergh c Adolf Hitler d Jackie Robinson ANS C DB 3 REF A Brief History of Social Psychology KEY Factual 13According to the interactionist perspective behavior is a result of the interaction between a motivation and cognition b introverts and extraverts c personality and situations d theoretical and practical concerns ANS C DB 3 REF A Brief History of Social Psychology KEY Factual 14 Which of the following best illustrates Lewin s interactionist perspective a Sally is a very creative kind of person who likes to build things b Jerry only works because he receives a very large income Rikki is usually shy but at work she appears to be quite outgoing d Maury gives money to charities because he wants other people to think he is very generous ANS C REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 3 KEY Applied 15 Much of the debate in social psychology during the period of confidence and crisis occurred in reaction to a the usefulness of applied research b the use of laboratory experiments c new technological developments in the research lab d Lewin s interactionist perspective ANS B REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 4 KEY Factual 16 Arguably the most famous research in social psychology focused on the situational factors in uencing obedience to authority and was conducted by a F Allport b G Allport c Festinger d None of these ANS D REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 4 KEY Factual 17 When Taka is teaching his social psychology class he emphasizes that the field must encompass a range of research techniques and cultural perspectives if it is to ourish Taka s emphasis re ects an a contextualist orientation b empirical approach c hot approach to studying social behavior d pluralistic orientation ANS D REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 4 KEY Applied 18 Which of the following is an example of a topic a social cognition researcher might study a The impact of negative versus positive information in impression formation b The role of similarity in values in mate selection c The impact of different types of leaders on group performance d The role of peers in conformity ANS A REF A Brief History of Social Psychology DB 5 KEY Conceptual 19 Chauncy is interested in how behavior is in uenced by the way people think about their social world Chauncy subscribes to the perspective in social psychology a cold b hot c interactionist d crosscultural ANS A REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 5 KEY Applied 20 The hot perspective in social psychology emphasizes whereas the cold perspective emphasizes a positive information negative information b feelings behavior c facts motives d emotion cognition ANS D REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 5 KEY Factual 21 A contemporary social psychologist who studies stereotyping is likely to focus on a controlled but not automatic processes b automatic but not controlled processes c both controlled and automatic processes d None of these ANS C REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 5 KEY Factual 22 Social neuroscience is best described as the study of a the evolution of the brain b the interplay between genes and the environment c the social functioning of neurons d the interaction of social and neural processes ANS D REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 6 KEY Factual 23 The role of natural selection processes in the development of social behavior is a concern in a behavioral genetics b social cognition c personality psychology d evolutionary psychology ANS D REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 6 KEY Factual 24 Crosscultural research regarding attitudes about the self indicate that a people from individualistic cultures are more likely than people from collectivist cultures to seek out information that makes them feel good about themselves b people from individualistic cultures are more likely than people from collectivist cultures to seek out information that points to a need for selfimprovement c people from individualistic cultures write more balanced and accurate self descriptions than do people from collectivist cultures d None of these ANS A REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 6 KEY Conceptual 25 Which of the following questions would be of most interest to a social psychologist who studies behavioral genetics a To what extent are attitudes inherited b What brain structures are involved in describing the self c Does high selfesteem help people to resist disease d What role does testosterone play in aggression ANS A REF Social Psychology in a New Century What Is Trending Today DB 6 KEY Applied
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