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CSU / Psychology / PSY 101 / Who discovered that if you excite the brain with electricity, it can c

Who discovered that if you excite the brain with electricity, it can c

Who discovered that if you excite the brain with electricity, it can c

Description

School: Cleveland State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Professor allard
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: phsychology
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: This is the Study guide/practice quiz for the first Test we have on 9/22 Includes three sections: people, terms, and brain technology
Uploaded: 09/19/2017
6 Pages 47 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


PSYCH 101 Study Guide 1


Who discovered that if you excite the brain with electricity it can cause motor function?



Katie Raddell

Professor Ho

People

1. founder of clinical neuroscience, and was known for his urine flies.

a. Thomas Willis

b. Korbinian Brodmann

c. Johannes Muler

d. Karl Lashley

2. Believed in Cerebral Localization 

a. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig

b. Sir Alan Hodgkin and Sir Andrew Huxley

c. Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen

d. Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim

3. Was a strong opponent of Localization theory, and Thinks the whole brain participates in behavior

a. Pierre Flourens We also discuss several other topics like How many base pairs of dna polymerases have a significant human genome?

b. Johannes Muler


Who mapped the brain by function, and studied epilepsy?



c. Eric Richard Kandel

4. Who discovered that If you excite the brain by electricity if can cause motor function a. Sir Alan Hodgkin and Sir Andrew Huxley

b. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig

c. Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim

5. If mechanical pressure is excited, sensory fibers can be affected

a. Michael Gazzaniga Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of domination of crete?

b. Patricia Goldman-Rakic Don't forget about the age old question of How to describe today’s society?

c. Johannes Muler

d. Wilder Penfield

6. Who discovered that each of the 52 areas of the brain has important function? a. Korbinian Brodmann

b. Cajal

c. Helmholtz

d. Otto Loewi

7. Who came up with the neuron doctrine?

a. Otto Loewi


Who believed that the brain must be mapped, meaning the movement of hands will be localized in one part of the brain?



b. Cajal

c. Karl Lashley

d. Wilder Penfield

8. Who discovered that The speed of neural transmission decreases at Synapses? a. Cajal

b. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington

c. Purkinje

d. Pierre Flourens

9. Who believed that The brain must be mapped, meaning the movement of hands will be localized in one part of the brain?

a. Otto Loewi

b. Johannes Muler

c. John Hughlings Jackson

d. Cajal

10. Discovered Action potential, saw inside a neuron, and figured out the electrical signals were a thing?

a. Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen

b. Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim

c. Cajal If you want to learn more check out Why settlements are created?

d. Sir Alan Hodgkin and Sir Andrew Huxley

11. WHich name is associated with the idea that memory lasts inside neurons, and if you damage 20%of your brain, you will lose 20% of your memory.

a. Karl Lashley

b. Wilder Penfield

c. Michael Gazzaniga

d. Purkinje

12. Who mapped the brain by function, and studied epilepsy?

a. Thomas Willis

b. Wilder Penfield

c. Karl Lashley

d. Patricia Goldman-Rakic

13. WHich names are associated with Nerve Growth Factor which Help neurons to grow back to normal? If you want to learn more check out What is the division of power?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate total manufacturing costs assigned to a job?

a. Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen

b. Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim

c. Cajal

d. Sir Alan Hodgkin and Sir Andrew Huxley

14. Who produced the first detailed map of the structure and function of the Frontal Cortex? a. Pierre Flourens

b. Johannes Muler

c. Eric Richard Kandel

d. Patricia Goldman-Rakic

15. SPLIT BRAIN

a. Thomas Willis

b. Michael Gazzaniga

c. Karl Lashley

d. Patricia Goldman-Rakic

16. Who was it that studied the storage of memory, and discovered that when you use the same memory pathways again and again, then there is a physical change that happens - CPEB

a. Eric Richard Kandel

b. Pierre Flourens

c. Purkinje

d. Johannes Muler

17. Who Brought structuralism to USA?

a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. Edward Titchener

c. Margaret Washburn

d. Rita​ ​Levi-Montalcini

18. Who was the father of Psychology?

a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. Edward Titchener

c. Margaret Washburn

d. Rita​ ​Levi-Montalcini

19. Who was the first woman to earn a Dr. degree thingy?

a. Margaret Washburn

b. Rita​ ​Levi-Montalcini

c. Korbinian​ ​Brodmann

20. Who​ ​said​ ​w​ho we are now is made up of past experiences (known as psychoanalysis) a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. Ivan Pavlov

c. Sigmund Freud

21. Studied reflexes, and trained dogs to salivate

a. Ivan Pavlov

b. Sigmund Freud

c. Wilhelm Wundt

22. Believed that phobias were learned(part of behavioralism)

a. Sigmund Freud

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. John B. Watson

Answers

1. founder of clinical neuroscience, and was known for his urine flies: A. Thomas Willis 2. Believed in Cerebral Localization: D. Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim

3. Was a strong opponent of Localization theory, and Thinks the whole brain participates in behavior : A. Pierre​ ​Flourens

4. Who​ ​discovered​ ​that​ ​If you excite the brain by electricity if can cause motor function: B. Gustav Fritsch​ ​and​ ​Eduard​ ​Hitzig

5. If mechanical pressure is excited, sensory fibers can be affected:C. Johannes​ ​Muler 6. Who​ ​discovered​ ​that each of the 52 areas of the brain has important function? a. Korbinian​ ​Brodmann

7. Who​ ​came​ ​up​ ​with​ ​the​ ​neuron​ ​doctrine?​ ​B. Cajal

8. Who​ ​discovered​ ​that​ ​The speed of neural transmission decreases at Synapses? B. Sir​ ​Charles Scott​ ​Sherrington

9. Who​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​The brain must be mapped, meaning the movement of hands will be localized in one part of the brain? C. John​ ​Hughlings​ ​Jackson

10. Discovered​ ​Action​ ​potential,​ ​saw inside a neuron, and figured out the electrical signals were a thing? D. Sir​ ​Alan​ ​Hodgkin​ ​and​ ​Sir​ ​Andrew​ ​Huxley

11. WHich​ ​name​ ​is​ ​associated​ ​with​ ​the idea that memory lasts inside neurons, and if you damage 20%of your brain, you will lose 20% of your memory. A. Karl​ Lashley

12. Who​ ​mapped​ ​the​ ​brain​ ​by​ ​function,​ ​and​ ​studied​ ​epilepsy?​ ​B.​ Wilder​ ​Penfield 13. WHich​ ​names​ ​are​ ​associated​ ​with​ ​Nerve Growth Factor which Help neurons to grow back to normal? A. Rita​ ​Levi-Montalcini​ ​and​ ​Stanley​ ​Cohen

14. Who​ ​produced​ ​the​ ​first detailed map of the structure and function of the Frontal Cortex?​ ​D. Patricia​ ​Goldman-Rakic

15. SPLIT BRAIN B.​ ​Michael​ ​Gazzaniga

16. Who was it that studied the storage of memory, and discovered that when you use the same memory pathways again and again, then there is a physical change that happens - CPEB A. Eric Richard Kandel

17. Who Brought structuralism to USA? B. Edward Titchener

18. Who was the father of Psychology? A. Wilhelm Wundt

19. Who was the first woman to earn a Dr. degree thingy? A. Margaret Washburn 20. Who​ ​said​ ​w​ho we are now is made up of past experiences (known as psychoanalysis) C. Sigmund Freud

21. Studied reflexes, and trained dogs to salivate A. Ivan Pavlov

22. Believed that phobias were learned(part of behavioralism) C. John B. Watson YAASSS​ ​YOU​ ​MADE​ ​IT​ ​THROUGH​ ​ALL​ ​THE​ ​PEOPLE!!!!​ ​KEEP​ ​GOING​ ​YOU​ ​CAN​ ​DO​ ​IT!!!

Terms

1. Cerebral localization:

a. Being able to find a specific place in one’s brain

b. Analyzing people’s personality by the shape of their heads

2. What is the Neuron Doctrine? Describe its 3 main points

3. Fluid intelligence V. Crystallized intelligence

4. The Theories on increased brain size: Explain them a little bit

a. G Factor -

b. Complexity of thought -

c. Language

d. Social Structure

e. Ecology

f. Tool use

5. Match: ____ controls things that are essential like breathing

____ deals with memory and emotion

____ thinking and planning

a. Reptilian Brain

b. Neocortex

c. Limbic System

6. True or False? Encephalization is the proportion of brain mass to total body mass 7. T or F? Blindsight - People who are blind due to lesions in the VI part of the brain 8. T or F? Structuralism is looking at how people interact with the structures around them. 9. T or F? Max Wertheimer said “The whole is less than the sum of it’s parts” 10. Describe the ways to do research: 

a. Naturalistic​ ​Observation

b. Laboratory​ ​Observation

c. Case​ ​Study

d. Surveys

11. Explain Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) Vs. Central Nervous system (CNS) 12. ____% of your brain is made up of neuron cells, the other ____% are GLial Cells

ANSWERS

1. Cerebral localization:B. Analyzing people’s personality by the shape of their heads 2. Neuron Doctrine:

a. Neurons are discrete and autonomous cells(the brain is made up of many neurons) b. There are gaps in between these neurons

c. Info from these neurons only go in one direction(From dendrites to synaptic knobs) 3. Fluid​ ​v​ ​crystallized

a. Crystallized​ ​intelligence 

i. The facts you know

b. Fluid intelligence 

i. How easily you pick something up - it usually declines around 25

4. Theories on increased brain size:

a. G Factor - humans show high levels of assortative mating for intelligence

b. Complexity of thought - increased neurological interconnections and cortex became specialized

i. As society itself became more complex, there is more of a difference between people who can adapt to it and those who don’t.

c. Language - Those who could gather more people to hunt were more successful d. Social Structure - As groups get larger, they need to have more info to live e. Ecology - Shift in where people live - maybe from a forest to a Savannah

f. Tool use

5. MATch

a. Reptilian​ ​Brain​ - controls things that are essential like breathing

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​c.​ ​ ​ ​Limbic​ ​System​ - deals with memory and emotion

​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​b.​ ​ ​ ​Neocortex​ - thinking and planning

6. True​ ​Encephalization​ is the proportion of brain mass to total body mass

7. True Blindsight - People who are blind due to lesions in the VI part of the brain 8. F.​ ​Structuralism​ - looking at the most basic components like atoms

9. F. He said that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

10. There are a number of ways to do research: 

a. Naturalistic​ ​Observation

i. Watching animals or humans behave

ii. Major advantage: looking at real behaviors of kids in regular environment

iii. Disadvantages: Observer effect: the tendency of people or animals to behave differently when they know they are being watched

b. Laboratory​ ​Observation​(most research done in lab)

i. Watching animals or humans behave in a lab setting

ii. Advantages: Can control environment ( every kid has the same toy etc.), Can use special equipment

iii. Disadvantages: Artificial situation may result in artificial behavior. “Acting” c. Case​ ​Study

i. Study of one or two individuals in great detail

ii. Advantages: Tremendous amount of detail 

iii. Disadvantages: Cannot apply to all others

d. Surveys

i. Researchers as questions about topic GIven to representative​ ​sample ii. Advantage: can get mass amounts of people due to technology

iii. Disadvantages: Dependant on the survey being a Representative Sample, People are not always accurate

11. PNS V. CNS

a. (PNS) - Schwann Cells form growth cones which allow axon growth

b. (CNS) - Oligodendrocytes - they don’t provide these growth cones!!!

i. BASICALLY: It takes really long to clear the junk, so then the axon scars. 12. 50% of your brain is made up of neuron cells, the other 50% are GLial Cells

Electrical Brain Technology

● EEG​ (electroencephalography​) - using electrodes on the scalp, measures electrical activity from neurons, Cheap

● Transcranial​ ​Magnetic​ ​Stimulation(​TMS)

○ Small device with a coil that is a magnetic field generator, placed on the head ○ Stimulates small regions of the brain to treat depression

● Magnetoencephalography​ ​(MEG)

○ Measures populations of neuron’s magnetic field, SQUID sensors ● COmputerized​ ​tomography(CT)​ ​-​ ​Uses x-rays to make pictures

● Magnetic​ ​MRI

○ Uses the fact that we are made up of mostly water(H2O(Hydrogen atoms)) ○ The MRI is basically a huge magnet that allows the hydrogens in our body to align parallel

● Functional​ ​MRI

○ Blood oxygenation level Dependent (BOLD)****

■ Brain activity(neurons)-> is where the blood goes(and is an increase of blood oxygen)->COmputer Image!

● Positron​ ​emission​ ​tomography​ ​(PET)​ ​-​ ​Measures where radiation-safe isotopes go, ● DTI​ - We know that info only travels one way in neurons, We find these holes in the flow of axons by DTI***

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